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Nonconvulsive status epilepticus

Santoshi Billakota, Saurabh R Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring is used in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting to detect seizures, especially nonconvulsive seizures and status epilepticus. The utility and impact of such monitoring in non-ICU patients are largely unknown. METHODS: Hospitalized patients who were not in an ICU and underwent cEEG monitoring in the first half of 2011 and 2014 were identified. Reason for admission, admitting service (neurologic and nonneurologic), indication for cEEG, comorbid conditions, duration of recording, EEG findings, whether an event/seizure was recorded, and impact of EEG findings on management were reviewed...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Sebastian Pollandt, Bichun Ouyang, Thomas P Bleck, Katharina M Busl
PURPOSE: Subdural hematomas (SDH) are associated with seizures and epileptiform discharges, but little is known about the prevalence and impact of seizures, status epilepticus and epileptiform discharges on outcomes in patients with isolated acute SDH (aSDH). METHODS: Continuous EEG reports from 76 adult patients admitted to Rush University Medical Center with aSDH between 01/2009 and 03/2012 were reviewed. Clinical and radiographic findings, comorbidities, treatment, and outcome parameters mortality, discharge destination, need for tracheostomy/percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement and length of stay (LOS) were assessed...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Tobias Engel, Cristina R Reschke, Ronan M Conroy, Elena Langa, David C Henshall
Animal models of status epilepticus are important tools to understand the pathogenesis of epileptic brain injury and evaluate potential seizure-suppressive, neuroprotective, and antiepileptogenic treatments. Focal elicitation of status epilepticus by intraamygdala kainic acid in mice produces unilateral hippocampal damage and the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after a short latent period. The model has been characterized in C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SJL mice where strain-specific differences were found in the extent of hippocampal damage...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Emel Oğuz-Akarsu, Zeynep Aydin-Özemir, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Betül Baykan
Status epilepticus (SE) is rarely described in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and little is known about its frequency, subtypes, and predictors and the prognosis of these patients. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyze the incidence of SE in patients with JME and emphasize the risk factors and long-term outcome of SE in an epilepsy outpatient-based cohort. We included patients with JME with a history of predominant myoclonic seizures and at least one diagnostic EEG with normal background activity and bursts of typical ≥3-Hz generalized spike-polyspike and waves...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jacques Theitler, Daniella Dassa, Revital Gandelman-Marton
BACKGROUND: The electroencephalogram (EEG) can support the diagnosis of epilepsy, diagnose nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and aid in the classification of epileptic seizures. Its contribution to the diagnosis of other medical conditions or to decision making in other clinical situations was not established. Practically, EEG labs frequently encounter EEG referrals that are not based on current recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of inpatient EEG in medical decision making...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
F Assenza, M Tombini, G Assenza, C Campana, A Benvenga, N Brunelli, M Ulivi, A Cascio Rizzo, A Corpolongo, M L Giancola, E Nicastri, V Di Lazzaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Yuichi Kubota, Hidetoshi Nakamoto, Takakazu Kawamata
Herein, we review the current state of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). NCSE has recently been recognized as one of the causes of unexplained impaired consciousness in the neurosurgical or neurocritical setting. The causes of NCSE include not only central nervous system disorders such as craniotomy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and central nervous system inflammation, but also severe critical conditions such as sepsis and uremia, among others. NCSE shows no overt clinical manifestations; therefore, prompt and correct diagnosis is difficult...
October 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
James J Riviello
The important question that often emerges in the clinic is how aggressive the therapy for nonconvulsive status epilepticus and electrical status epilepticus in sleep ought to be and how continuous the discharges in each of these 2 entities should be before therapy is aimed at them. Additionally, as the use of electroencephalographic monitoring continues to expand to include the clinic and intensive care unit populations, it is important to identify epileptiform patterns that warrant identification and treatment...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Qian-Quan Sun, Chen Zhou, Weiguo Yang, Daniel Petrus
OBJECTIVE: To examine if mice with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) develop spontaneous epileptic seizures and, if so, determine the key electroencephalography (EEG) features. METHODS: Unilateral single freeze lesions to the S1 region (SFLS1R) were made in postnatal day 0-1 pups to induce a neocortical microgyrus in the right cortical hemisphere. Continuous 24-h recordings with intracranial EEG electrodes and behavioral tests were performed in adult SFLS1R and sham-control mice to assess neurologic status...
October 2016: Epilepsia
Rajeev Kumar Verma, Eugenio Abela, Kaspar Schindler, Heinz Krestel, Elisabeth Springer, Adrian Huber, Christian Weisstanner, Martinus Hauf, Jan Gralla, Roland Wiest
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate variant patterns of cortical venous oxygenation during status epilepticus (SE) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). METHODS: We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with clinically witnessed prolonged seizures and/or EEG-confirmed SE. All MRI exams encompassed SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (MRI-DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We aimed to identify distinct patterns of SWI signal alterations that revealed regional or global increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and DWI restrictions...
2016: PloS One
D A Aver'yanov, A A Lukash, M Yu Prokudin, Ia B Skiba, B Shchegolev
In some cases after elective neurosurgical procedures we use technique of delayed awakening of patients. Prolonged sedation however can hide the development of epileptic seizures and lead to the status epilepticus formation. This article is a demonstration and discussion of a clinical case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus during delayed awakening of the patient due to prolonged sedation after elective neurosurgical interventionsforsupratentorial brain tumor Presented case suggests the presence of significant risk of nonconvulsive status epilepticus during prolonged sedation...
March 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
J U Máñez Miró, F J Díaz de Terán, P Alonso Singer, M J Aguilar-Amat Prior
INTRODUCTION: We aim to describe the use of emergency electroencephalogram (EmEEG) by the on-call neurologist when nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is suspected, and in other indications, in a tertiary hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Observational retrospective cohort study of emergency EEG (EmEEG) recordings with 8-channel systems performed and analysed by the on-call neurologist in the emergency department and in-hospital wards between July 2013 and May 2015...
July 19, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Yen-Ping Chen, Hsiu-Fen Lee, Tai-Tong Wong
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe epileptic seizures in patients with primary intracranial sarcomas. METHODS: We report a 17-year-old girl diagnosed with primary high-grade intracranial sarcoma with initial clinical manifestation of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Literature reports between 2000 and 2014, relevant to primary intracranial sarcomas in children, were reviewed. The clinical presentations and neurological outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Eleven of 29cases (38 %), 8 males and 3 females, who exhibited epileptic seizures as one of the initial symptoms and diagnosed with primary intracranial sarcomas were collected...
September 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Ibrahim Bora, Aylin Bican Demir, Pinar Uzun
Cephalosporins, particularly cefepime, exert neurotoxic side effects that can lead to status epilepticus. These neurotoxic side effects include myoclonus, dystonic movements, tremor, asterixis, seizure, status epilepticus, encephalopathy, and sometimes coma. Status epilepticus, particularly nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), is a well-known but unusual complication in patients with altered renal function who were receiving treatment with intravenous cephalosporins, especially cefepime. We reviewed the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of 7 patients with renal failure who developed consciousness alterations with changes in EEG activity while being treated with cephalosporins...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Benjamin Tolchin, Tadeau Fantaneanu, Michael Miller, Jeffrey Helgager, Jong Woo Lee
This report discusses a case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Brain biopsy demonstrated cerebral amyloid angiopathy, with clinical and radiographic features indicative of a fluctuating inflammatory process. Immunomodulatory treatment with pulse steroids resulted in rapid and dramatic clinical and radiographic improvement. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of new-onset seizures after the age of 40, when associated with fluctuating multifocal T2 hyperintensities and petechial hemorrhages on gradient echo (GRE) or susceptibility-weighted (SWI) MRI sequences...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Tae-Kyoung Kim, Eui Sung Jung, Jong-Moo Park, Kyusik Kang, Woong-Woo Lee, Jung-Ju Lee
Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholism syndrome is a rare clinical manifestation in patients with chronic alcohol abuse. We report the case of a patient with chronic alcoholism who presented with partial nonconvulsive status epilepticus associated with a thalamic lesion.
June 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Philipp Eisele, Achim Gass, Angelika Alonso, Marc E Wolf, Martin Griebe, Kristina Szabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2016: Neurology
Daniela Pogliani, Annalisa Pozzi, Claudio Laudi, Laura Rimoldi, Elisabetta Sogni, Piera Farfaglia, Carmela Figliola, Carlo Jovane, Davide Zarcone, Enrico Caretta
The management of the pain therapy (ischemic pain, neoplastic pain) in hemodialysis patients has become a frequent challenge in the last years. These patients often require the prescription of major analgesic drugs such as Opioids like Fentanyl, in order to control the pain. It is necessary to pay attention to the correct dosage and to the half life of these drugs, that results prolonged in the chronic renal insufficiency. The main side effect of opioids is respiratory depression which is well known, however, up to date, there is a lack of reports about other less frequent side effects, such as epilepsy or status epilepticus, in the literature...
May 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Pieternel Vanherpe, Maarten Schrooten
For the diagnosis of electrographic seizures or status epilepticus, we reduced the number of EEG-electrodes to make urgent EEG monitoring more feasible. Unlike the current existing research, with mixed results, we studied a specific population with postanoxic brain damage, expecting a higher yield of detection of ictal EEG patterns. In a population treated with therapeutic hypothermia post-cardiac arrest, the initial EEGs were reformatted in a longitudinal, a hairline and an 8-lead montage, and independently reviewed by two investigators...
July 1, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Andrea O Rossetti, Eugen Trinka, Christine Stähli, Jan Novy
OBJECTIVES: In 2015, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) issued a new status epilepticus (SE) classification, including a detailed semiologic axis. This study assesses frequencies of SE forms in a cohort of adult patients, and explores differences and practical implications as compared to a seizure-type-bound classification. METHODS: The prospective adult SE registry of the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) was considered over 5 years (2011-2015); each SE episode was retrospectively reclassified for its semiology according to the new ILAE scheme...
July 2016: Epilepsia
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