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Nonconvulsive status epilepticus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214108/cyclic-seizures-in-critically-ill-patients-clinical-correlates-dc-recordings-and-outcomes
#1
Lecio F Pinto, Emily J Gilmore, Ognen A Petroff, Adithya Sivaraju, Nishi Rampal, Lawrence J Hirsch, Nicolas Gaspard
OBJECTIVE: To describe EEG and clinical correlates, DC recordings and prognostic significance of cyclic seizures (CS). METHODS: We reviewed our prospective continuous EEG database to identify patients with CS, controls with non-cyclic status epilepticus (SE) and controls without seizure matched for age and etiology. EEG was reviewed with DC settings. RESULTS: 39/260 (15%) patients with electrographic seizures presented with CS. These patients were older (62 vs...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203468/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-resembling-clinical-absence-with-atypical-eeg-pattern
#2
Channaiah Srikanth Mysore, Najib Murr, Rana Zabad, John Bertoni
Objective. We are reporting two cases: a patient with steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) and another patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), both presenting with altered mental status (AMS) and later diagnosed with nonconvulsive atypical absence status epilepticus (AS), with atypical EEG changes. Methods. A report of two cases. Results. A patient with history of SREAT and the other with SPMS had multiple admissions due to AMS. For both, EEG revealed the presence of a high voltage generalized sharply contoured theta activity...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195839/carbamazepine-toxicity-induced-spindle-coma-a-novel-case-report
#3
Bhumir Chauhan, Amitkumar Patanvadiya, Gopal Krishna Dash
A 9-year-old girl presented with alleged history of deliberate ingestion of 4 g of carbamazepine, following which she became comatose. A bedside electroencephalogram (EEG) was performed to rule out nonconvulsive status epilepticus, which showed presence of spindle coma (SC), not reactive to noxious stimuli. Following hemodialysis, a second EEG showed absence of SC and complete clinical recovery. We present this unique case of carbamazepine-induced SC, thereby highlighting the extent of the etiologic spectrum of SC and discussing the literature related to this association...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#4
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190433/seizures-in-the-critically-ill
#5
J Ch'ang, J Claassen
Critically ill patients with seizures are either admitted to the intensive care unit because of uncontrolled seizures requiring aggressive treatment or are admitted for other reasons and develop seizures secondarily. These patients may have multiorgan failure and severe metabolic and electrolyte disarrangements, and may require complex medication regimens and interventions. Seizures can be seen as a result of an acute systemic illness, a primary neurologic pathology, or a medication side-effect and can present in a wide array of symptoms from convulsive activity, subtle twitching, to lethargy...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147416/treatment-of-seizures-and-postanoxic-status-epilepticus
#6
Alexandra S Reynolds, Jan Claassen
Seizures are a common occurrence following cardiac arrest and may occur both during targeted temperature management and after rewarming. Postanoxic seizures may be nonconvulsive and very difficult to diagnose without electroencephalography (EEG) or associated with prominent myoclonus. Importantly, to date no randomized controlled trials are available to guide the management of seizures in patients with cardiac arrest. Seizure prophylaxis is not recommended, and when seizures are diagnosed they are typically treated the same as seizures in other patients with acute brain injury...
February 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101482/cefepime-induced-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-a-patient-with-normal-renal-function
#7
Hyeon-Mi Park, Young Noh, Ji Won Yang, Dong Hoon Shin, Yeong-Bae Lee
Cefepime-induced encephalopathy including nonconvulsive status epilepticus has been known to develop in the patients with renal impairment. However, we report a 74-year-old woman with normal renal function who developed stuporous mental status during cefepime administration. Electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed 2 Hz rhythmic sharp-and-waves continuously, which suggested nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). After cefepime discontinuation, clinical symptoms recovered gradually and EEG findings showed only background slowing without epileptiform discharges...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092848/the-initial-use-of-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-and-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-diagnosis-of-nonconvulsive-partial-status-epileptics
#8
Takafumi Shimogawa, Takato Morioka, Tetsuro Sayama, Sei Haga, Yuka Kanazawa, Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Ayumi Sakata, Koji Iihara
BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), capture of ongoing ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings is the gold standard; however, this is practically difficult without continuous EEG monitoring facilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL), have been applied mainly in emergency situations. Recent reports have described that ictal MRI findings, including ictal hyperperfusion on ASL and cortical hyperintensity of cytotoxic edema on DWI, can be obtained from epileptically activated cortex...
December 21, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907959/status-epilepticus-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#9
Adriana Bermeo-Ovalle, Thomas Bleck
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurologic emergency and a frequent reason for admission to the intensive care unit. During the last decade, the advent and availability of diagnostic tools for the recognition of nonconvulsive SE has highlighted an even higher incidence of this condition among the critically ill. New alternatives in treatment have also become available within recent years. The recommendation of early escalation toward the use of general anesthetics in the treatment of convulsive SE follows the theory that the duration of the event defines the aggressiveness of the condition and the potential for long-term neuronal injury...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851441/1806-transition-from-intravenous-to-enteral-ketamine-for-treatment-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#10
Michael Pizzi, William Tatum, Jerry Shih, Daniel Jackson, William Freeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844464/the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-intravenous-lacosamide-for-refractory-status-epilepticus-in-the-critically-ill
#11
C R Newey, N M Le, C Ahrens, P Sahota, S Hantus
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) often does not respond to initial treatment. A second-line agent with a less established safety and efficacy profile is then required. This study examined the safety of intravenous (IV) lacosamide (LCM) in a critically ill population and obtained an estimate of effectiveness in patients with refractory SE on continuous video EEG monitoring (cEEG). METHODS: Retrospective review of critically ill patients in SE on cEEG treated with IV LCM from June 2009 to April 2011...
November 14, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772779/latency-to-treatment-of-status-epilepticus-is-associated-with-mortality-and-functional-status
#12
Jocelyn Y Cheng
INTRODUCTION: Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurologic emergency. Despite advances in management, in-hospital mortality remains unchanged. This is partly due to the pharmacoresistance which develops the longer that seizures persist. Therefore, rapid antiseizure medication (ASM) administration may represent a beneficial treatment option. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) whether in-hospital mortality is reduced with shorter latencies to initial treatment of SE with an ASM (LTSE); and 2) the critical time frame during which LTSE is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749460/utility-of-continuous-eeg-monitoring-in-noncritically-lll-hospitalized-patients
#13
Santoshi Billakota, Saurabh R Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring is used in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting to detect seizures, especially nonconvulsive seizures and status epilepticus. The utility and impact of such monitoring in non-ICU patients are largely unknown. METHODS: Hospitalized patients who were not in an ICU and underwent cEEG monitoring in the first half of 2011 and 2014 were identified. Reason for admission, admitting service (neurologic and nonneurologic), indication for cEEG, comorbid conditions, duration of recording, EEG findings, whether an event/seizure was recorded, and impact of EEG findings on management were reviewed...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748723/seizures-and-epileptiform-discharges-in-patients-with-acute-subdural-hematoma
#14
Sebastian Pollandt, Bichun Ouyang, Thomas P Bleck, Katharina M Busl
PURPOSE: Subdural hematomas (SDH) are associated with seizures and epileptiform discharges, but little is known about the prevalence and impact of seizures, status epilepticus (SE), and epileptiform discharges on outcomes in patients with isolated acute SDH (aSDH). METHODS: Continuous EEG reports from 76 adult patients admitted to Rush University Medical Center with aSDH between January 2009 and March 2012 were reviewed. Clinical and radiographic findings, comorbidities, treatment, and outcome parameters, such as mortality, discharge destination, need for tracheostomy/percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement, and length of stay (LOS), were assessed...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744244/distinct-behavioral-and-epileptic-phenotype-differences-in-129-p-mice-compared-to-c57bl-6-mice-subject-to-intraamygdala-kainic-acid-induced-status-epilepticus
#15
Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Tobias Engel, Cristina R Reschke, Ronan M Conroy, Elena Langa, David C Henshall
Animal models of status epilepticus are important tools to understand the pathogenesis of epileptic brain injury and evaluate potential seizure-suppressive, neuroprotective, and antiepileptogenic treatments. Focal elicitation of status epilepticus by intraamygdala kainic acid in mice produces unilateral hippocampal damage and the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after a short latent period. The model has been characterized in C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SJL mice where strain-specific differences were found in the extent of hippocampal damage...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736659/status-epilepticus-in-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-frequency-precipitating-factors-and-outcome
#16
Emel Oğuz-Akarsu, Zeynep Aydin-Özemir, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Betül Baykan
Status epilepticus (SE) is rarely described in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and little is known about its frequency, subtypes, and predictors and the prognosis of these patients. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyze the incidence of SE in patients with JME and emphasize the risk factors and long-term outcome of SE in an epilepsy outpatient-based cohort. We included patients with JME with a history of predominant myoclonic seizures and at least one diagnostic EEG with normal background activity and bursts of typical ≥3-Hz generalized spike-polyspike and waves...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709609/how-valuable-is-inpatient-electroencephalogram-for-medical-decision-making
#17
Jacques Theitler, Daniella Dassa, Revital Gandelman-Marton
BACKGROUND: The electroencephalogram (EEG) can support the diagnosis of epilepsy, diagnose nonconvulsive status epilepticus and aid in the classification of epileptic seizures. Its contribution to the diagnosis of other medical conditions or to decision-making in other clinical situations was not established. Practically, EEG laboratories frequently encounter EEG referrals that are not based on current recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of inpatient EEG in medical decision-making...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611987/dengue-encephalitis-presenting-with-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-a-case-report
#18
F Assenza, M Tombini, G Assenza, C Campana, A Benvenga, N Brunelli, M Ulivi, A Cascio Rizzo, A Corpolongo, M L Giancola, E Nicastri, V Di Lazzaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580931/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-in-the-neurosurgical-setting
#19
Yuichi Kubota, Hidetoshi Nakamoto, Takakazu Kawamata
Herein, we review the current state of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). NCSE has recently been recognized as one of the causes of unexplained impaired consciousness in the neurosurgical or neurocritical setting. The causes of NCSE include not only central nervous system disorders such as craniotomy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and central nervous system inflammation, but also severe critical conditions such as sepsis and uremia, among others. NCSE shows no overt clinical manifestations; therefore, prompt and correct diagnosis is difficult...
October 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544472/should-we-treat-electroencephalographic-discharges-in-the-clinic-or-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-if-so-when-and-how
#20
REVIEW
James J Riviello
The important question that often emerges in the clinic is how aggressive the therapy for nonconvulsive status epilepticus and electrical status epilepticus in sleep ought to be and how continuous the discharges in each of these 2 entities should be before therapy is aimed at them. Additionally, as the use of electroencephalographic monitoring continues to expand to include the clinic and intensive care unit populations, it is important to identify epileptiform patterns that warrant identification and treatment...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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