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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930163/zebrafish-in-translational-cancer-research-insight-into-leukemia-melanoma-glioma-and-endocrine-tumor-biology
#1
REVIEW
Aurora Irene Idilli, Francesca Precazzini, Maria Caterina Mione, Viviana Anelli
Over the past 15 years, zebrafish have emerged as a powerful tool for studying human cancers. Transgenic techniques have been employed to model different types of tumors, including leukemia, melanoma, glioblastoma and endocrine tumors. These models present histopathological and molecular conservation with their human cancer counterparts and have been fundamental for understanding mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression. Moreover, xenotransplantation of human cancer cells in embryos or adult zebrafish offers the advantage of studying the behavior of human cancer cells in a live organism...
September 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927823/t-cell-therapies-for-human-polyomavirus-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Sarah I Davies, Pawel Muranski
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings...
September 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927163/frequency-and-clinicopathologic-features-of-runx1-mutations-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-not-otherwise-specified
#3
Eunkyoung You, Young-Uk Cho, Seongsoo Jang, Eul-Ju Seo, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee, Kyung-Nam Koh, Ho Joon Im, Jong Jin Seo, Young-Mi Park, Jong-Keuk Lee, Chan-Jeoung Park
Objectives: To evaluate the frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of RUNX1 mutations, focusing on patients with acute myeloid leukemia not otherwise specified (AML NOS). Methods: Diagnostic samples from 219 patients with AML NOS were analyzed for RUNX1 mutations using standard polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Results: Thirty-one RUNX1 mutations were detected in 33 (15.1%) patients. Mutations clustered in the Runt homology (61...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927162/myelodysplastic-syndrome-unclassifiable-mds-u-with-1-blasts-is-a-distinct-subgroup-of-mds-u-with-a-poor-prognosis
#4
Elizabeth Margolskee, Robert P Hasserjian, Duane Hassane, Wayne Tam, Susan Mathew, Chi Young Ok, Sa A Wang, Jean Oak, Daniel A Arber, Attilio Orazi
Objectives: Three situations qualify as myelodysplastic syndrome, unclassifiable (MDS-U): (1) refractory cytopenia with dysplasia and 1% blasts in peripheral blood (BL), (2) pancytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (Pan), and (3) persistent cytopenia, less than 5% bone marrow blasts, and less than 10% dysplastic cells and presence of MDS-defining cytogenetic abnormalities (CG). We compared the clinicopathologic features and mutational profiles for these three groups. Methods: MDS-U cases were reviewed at four major academic institutions...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926429/targeting-histone-acetylation-readers-and-writers-in-leukemia-and-cancer
#5
Christopher B Benton, Warren Fiskus, Kapil N Bhalla
Chromatin packaging of DNA provides a framework for transcriptional regulation. Modifications to DNA and histone proteins in nucleosomes lead to conformational changes, alterations in the recruitment of transcriptional complexes, and ultimately modulation of gene expression. We provide a focused review of control mechanisms that help modulate the activation and deactivation of gene transcription specifically through histone acetylation writers and readers in cancer. The chemistry of these modifications is subject to clinically actionable targeting, including state-of-the-art strategies to inhibit basic oncogenic mechanisms related to histone acetylation...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925935/technical-advances-in-the-measurement-of-residual-disease-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#6
REVIEW
Gregory W Roloff, Catherine Lai, Christopher S Hourigan, Laura W Dillon
Outcomes for those diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poor. It has been widely established that persistent residual leukemic burden, often referred to as measurable or minimal residual disease (MRD), after induction therapy or at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is highly predictive for adverse clinical outcomes and can be used to identify patients likely to experience clinically evident relapse. As a result of inherent genetic and molecular heterogeneity in AML, there is no uniform method or protocol for MRD measurement to encompass all cases...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925880/antileukemic-properties-of-sesquiterpene-lactones-a-systematic-review
#7
Elaine da Silva Castro, Lívia Azeredo Alves Antunes, Jonathas Felipe Revoredo Lobo, Norman Arthur Ratcliffe, Ricardo Moreira Borges, Leandro Rocha, Patrícia Federal Burth, Lidia Maria Fonte Amorim
This review summarizes the reported molecular mechanisms underlying the antileukemic property of Sesquiterpene Lactones (SLs). This systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database and conducted following the PRISMA Statements. The MeSH terms, Sesquiterpenes, Lactones and Leukemia were used in four databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and Bireme). There were 281 studies selected, but after exclusions, due to replication (n = 172) or not following PECOS criteria (n = 24), 148 studies remained. Of the 148 articles, only 22 were submitted to quality assessment and were scored in high level if more than two techniques, to elucidate antileukemic proprieties, were described, and then data were extracted...
September 18, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925330/preoperative-positron-emission-tomography-for-node-positive-head-and-neck-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Nir Hirshoren, Elizabeth Olayos, Alan Herschtal, Aravind S Ravi Kumar, David E Gyorki
Objectives Surgery is the primary treatment modality for node-positive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with no distant disease (HNcSCC-M0). The role of preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan for these patients is unclear. We compared preoperative PET/CT with final histopathology among patients undergoing lymphadenectomy and/or parotidectomy for HNcSCC-M0. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Single Australian center. Subjects and Methods Investigation included disease parameters and preoperative CT and PET/CT findings of 64 patients with node-positive HNcSCC without distant metastatic disease...
September 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925101/personal-use-of-hair-dyes-and-risk-of-leukemia-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Kevin M Towle, Matthew E Grespin, Andrew D Monnot
The objective of this study was to examine the association between personal use of hair dyes and the risk of leukemia. We conducted a systematic literature review of epidemiology studies reporting leukemia-specific cancer risks among hair dye users, and estimated the meta-relative risk (meta-RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of leukemia, comparing hair dye users to nonusers. When data from all 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria were combined, ever use of hair dye was associated with a nonstatistically significant increased risk of leukemia, meta-RR = 1...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923207/eviction-from-the-sanctuary-development-of-targeted-therapy-against-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
Sonali P Barwe, Anthony Quagliano, Anilkumar Gopalakrishnapillai
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant hematological disease afflicting hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. While 80%-90% of patients diagnosed with ALL will achieve complete remission at some point during treatment, ALL is associated with high relapse rate, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 68%. The initial remission failure and the high rate of relapse can be attributed to intrinsic chemoprotective mechanisms that allow persistence of ALL cells despite therapy. These mechanisms are mediated, at least in part, through the engagement of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) within the bone marrow microenvironment...
April 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918879/axitinib-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#11
Vinod Patel, Chris Sproat, Jerry Kwok, Nikki Tanna
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are oral chemotherapy drugs used primarily to treat leukemias, renal cell carcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors. Within this group, a number of drugs have already been implicated in jaw necrosis. Axitinib (Inlyta) is a novel TKI currently licensed for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of jaw necrosis solely related to this medication and review the literature surrounding TKIs and their implication in osteonecrosis of the jaw...
August 18, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916148/chemokine-receptor-directed-imaging-and-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Andreas K Buck, Antje Stolzenburg, Heribert Hänscheid, Andreas Schirbel, Katharina Lückerath, Margret Schottelius, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Constantin Lapa
The C - X - C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its natural ligand CXCL12 are key factors in the process of cell migration, homing of hematopoietic stem cells to the bone marrow, and represent important mediators of angiogenesis and cell proliferation. The CXCR4/CXCL12 interplay can be disrupted by CXCR4 antagonists such as Plerixafor which are already in daily clinical use, i.e. for mobilization and subsequent harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells and stem cell transplantation. In a pathological condition, involvement in the process of metastasis and homing of cancer cells to a protective niche has been described, making CXCR4 an attractive target for imaging and treatment of malignant diseases...
September 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912173/secondary-malignant-neoplasms-progression-free-survival-and-overall-survival-in-patients-treated-for-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#13
Dennis A Eichenauer, Ingrid Becker, Ina Monsef, Nicholas Chadwick, Vitaliana de Sanctis, Massimo Federico, Catherine Fortpied, Alessandro M Gianni, Michel Henry-Amar, Peter Hoskin, Peter Johnson, Stefano Luminari, Monica Bellei, Alessandro Pulsoni, Matthew R Sydes, Pinuccia Valagussa, Simonetta Viviani, Andreas Engert, Jeremy Franklin
Treatment intensification to maximize disease control and reduced-intensity approaches to minimize the risk of late sequelae have been evaluated in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma. The influence of these interventions on the risk of secondary malignant neoplasms, progression-free survival and overall survival is reported in the present meta-analysis based on individual patient data from 9498 patients treated within 16 randomized controlled trials for newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma between 1984 and 2007. Secondary malignant neoplasms were meta-analyzed using Peto's method as time-to-event outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906324/pediatric-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
Marie Jeong-Min Kim, Ahmed Nasr, Bilaal Kabir, Joseph de Nanassy, Ken Tang, Danielle Menzies-Toman, Donna Johnston, Dina El Demellawy
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive hematologic malignancy characterized by frequent skin involvement that most commonly affects older patients. BPDCN is known to have a poor prognosis. Our objective was to assess if outcome and disease prognosis were independently influenced by age when evaluated with clinical presentation, sex, and treatment regimens. We conducted a systematic review to identify BPDCN cases, to compare pediatric BPDCN cases with adult cases. A total of 125 publications were identified detailing 356 cases...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906159/advances-in-nano-delivery-systems-for-doxorubicin-an-updated-insight
#15
Ummarah Kanwal, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Muhammad Ovais, Nasir Abass, Khalid Hussain, Abida Raza
Doxorubicin (DOX) is the most effective chemotherapeutic drug developed against broad range of cancers such as solid tumors, transplantable leukemias and lymphomas. Conventional DOX induced cardiotoxicity has limited its use. FDA approved drugs i.e. non-pegylated liposomal (Myocet®) and pegylated liposomal (Doxil®) formulations have no doubt shown comparatively reduced cardiotoxicity, but has raised new toxicity issues. The entrapment of doxorubicin in biocompatible, biodegradable and safe nano delivery systems can prevent its degradation in circulation minimizing its toxicity with increased half life, enhanced pharmacokinetic profile leading to improved patient compliance...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905228/genetic-susceptibility-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#16
REVIEW
Angela Gutierrez-Camino, Idoia Martin-Guerrero, Africa García-Orad
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy and a leading cause of death due to disease in children. The genetic basis of ALL susceptibility has been supported by its association with certain congenital disorders and, more recently, by several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These GWAS identified common variants in ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, CDKN2A, PIP4K2A, LHPP and ELK3 influencing ALL risk. However, the risk variants of these SNPs were not validated in all populations, suggesting that some of the loci could be population specific...
September 13, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904273/a-review-of-7-cases-of-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-for-pediatric-cholecystolithiasis
#17
Nobutaka Matayoshi, Norihiro Sato, Takashi Okimoto, Takehide Tajima, Koichi Arase, Nagahiro Sato, Toshihisa Tamura, Kazunori Shibao, Aiichiro Higure, Keiji Hirata
Pediatric cholecystolithiasis is a relatively rare disease, but it is recently increasing in Japan. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a standard procedure for cholecystolithiasis not only in adults but also in children, and we are aggressively introducing single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) at our hospital. We reviewed the patient characteristics, operation procedures and outcomes of 7 children (15 years old and under) with cholecystolithiasis who underwent LC in our hospital between August 1995 and December 2015...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903568/circulating-plasma-cells-in-monoclonal-gammopathies
#18
R Bezdekova, M Penka, R Hájek, L Rihova
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal gammopathies are characterized by presence of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, although peripheral blood circulating plasma cells can be found in a significant proportion of patients. The number of circulating plasma cells is an independent prognostic marker associated with shorter survival, but it can also help to predict early relapse. The reason and mechanism of plasma cell expansion from the bone marrow to enter peripheral blood is still not entirely clear, but possible changes in the expression of adhesion molecules are probably involved...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902018/mechanism-of-proliferation-of-cultured-human-corneal-endothelial-cells
#19
Takeshi Joko, Atsushi Shiraishi, Takeshi Kobayashi, Yuichi Ohashi, Shigeki Higashiyama
Because human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) do not proliferate once the endothelial monolayer has formed, corneal wound healing is believed to be mediated by cell enlargement or migration, rather than by proliferation. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in wound healing by HCECs have not been fully determined. In this review, we focus on the effects of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), a DNA-binding transcription factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 on the proliferation and migration of cultured HCECs...
September 7, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901789/cardiac-side-effects-of-bruton-tyrosine-kinase-btk-inhibitors
#20
Chloe Pek Sang Tang, Julie McMullen, Constantine Tam
The development of bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi) has been a significant advancement in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related B-cell malignancies. As experience in using ibrutinib increased, the first drug to be licensed in its class, atrial fibrillation (AF) emerged as an important side effect. The intersection between BTKi therapy for B-cell malignancies and AF represents a complex area of management with scant evidence for guidance. Consideration needs to be taken regarding the interplay of increased bleeding risk versus thromboembolic complications of AF, drug interactions between ibrutinib and anticoagulants and antiarrhythmic agents, and the potential for other, as yet seldom reported cardiac side effects...
September 13, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
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