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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817402/the-importance-of-natural-killer-cell-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-mismatch-in-transplant-outcomes
#1
Kate Stringaris, Austin J Barrett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the rules of engagement between natural killer (NK) cells and their targets have become better defined with the identification of an array of NK surface molecules, notably the killer immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors and their ligands on target cells through which signals of activation or suppression of NK function are mediated. After allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), the opportunity for NK cell activation can occur both in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matched and HLA mismatched pairs...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814164/cpx-351-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-can-a-new-formulation-maximize-the-efficacy-of-old-compounds
#2
Claudia Brunetti, Luisa Anelli, Antonella Zagaria, Giorgina Specchia, Francesco Albano
The management of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) (with the exception of acute promyelocytic leukemia) has remained largely unchanged over the past 40 years. In particular, patients defined as high-risk, according to the 2017 European Leukemia Net recommendations, represent a subgroup with poor response to current therapies that are frequently associated with high-grade toxicity and potentially fatal complications. Areas covered: Preliminary results from an ongoing phase III clinical trial suggest that CPX-351 could represent an interesting treatment option in both induction and "bridge-to-transplant" settings...
August 17, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811744/cytogenetic-profile-and-flt3-gene-mutations-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#3
Nawaf Alkhayat, Yasser Elborai, Omer Al Sharif, Mohammad Al Shahrani, Omar Alsuhaibani, Mohammed Awad, Hatem Elghezal, Inesse Ben-Abdallah Bouhajar, Mona Alfaraj, Eman Al Mussaed, Fahad Alabbas, Ghaleb Elyamany
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by recurrent genetic aberrations. The identification of those abnormalities is clinically important because they are considered significant risk-stratifying markers. AIMS: There are insufficient data of cytogenetic profiles in Saudi Arabian patients with childhood ALL leukemia. We have examined a cohort of 110 cases of ALL to determine the cytogenetic profiles and prevalence of FLT3 mutations and analysis of the more frequently observed abnormalities and its correlations to other biologic factors and patient outcomes and to compare our results with previously published results...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809761/the-t-12-21-p13-q22-in-pediatric-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-an-update
#4
Maximilian Becker, Kristie Liu, Carlos A Tirado
Pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is the most common hematological malignancy in children, and the t(12;21)(p13;q22) occurs in approximately 25% of these cases, making it is the most prevalent chromosomal abnormality. The t(12;21) which disrupts hematopoietic differentiation and proliferation, and can be present as a sole abnormality or within the context of a complex karyotype characterized by three or more chromosomal abnormalities. The prognosis of t(12;21) within a complex karyotype is extensively debated...
2017: Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808212/recent-advances-in-arsenic-trioxide-encapsulated-nanoparticles-as-drug-delivery-agents-to-solid-cancers
#5
Anam Akhtar, Scarlet Xiaoyan Wang, Lucy Ghali, Celia Bell, Xuesong Wen
Since arsenic trioxide was first approved as the front line therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia 25 years ago, its anti-cancer properties for various malignancies have been under intense investigation. However, the clinical successes of arsenic trioxide in treating hematological cancers have not been translated to solid cancers. This is due to arsenic's rapid clearance by the body's immune system before reaching the tumor site. Several attempts have henceforth been made to increase its bioavailability toward solid cancers without increasing its dosage albeit without much success...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807161/phytochemical-modulation-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-strategies-to-overcome-chemoresistance-in-leukemic-stem-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#6
Helen C Owen, Sandra Appiah, Noor Hasan, Lucy Ghali, Ghada Elayat, Celia Bell
Advances in scientific research and targeted treatment regimes have improved survival rates for many cancers over the past few decades. However, for some types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia, mortality rates have continued to rise, with chemoresistance in leukemic stem cells (LSCs) being a major contributing factor. Most cancer drug therapies act by inducing apoptosis in dividing cells but are ineffective in targeting quiescent LSCs. Niches in the bone marrow, known as leukemic niches, behave as "sanctuaries" where LSCs acquire drug resistance...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806282/adenovirus-infection-in-children-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-report-from-the-canadian-infection-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-research-group
#7
Samuele Renzi, Salah Ali, Carol Portwine, David Mitchell, David Dix, Victor Lewis, Victoria Price, Michelle Science, Lillian Sung
BACKGROUND: Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of life-threatening bacterial and fungal infection. However, little is known about the prevalence or severity of adenovirus infection in this population. Objective was to describe the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of adenovirus infection in children with newly diagnosed AML. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review based upon two multi-center cohort studies which focused on identifying risk factors for infection in children with AML...
August 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805986/histiocytic-sarcoma-new-insights-into-fna-cytomorphology-and-molecular-characteristics
#8
Yin P Hung, Scott B Lovitch, Xiaohua Qian
BACKGROUND: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare malignant neoplasm showing morphologic and immunophenotypic features of histiocytes. Molecular characteristics of HS and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) criteria for its diagnosis have not been established. METHODS: A case series of HS in 8 FNA samples from 6 patients was reviewed along with histopathologic and clinical data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cell blocks (3 cases), core biopsies (5 cases), and surgical specimens (4 cases)...
August 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803824/the-clinical-spectrum-of-hepatic-manifestations-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#9
REVIEW
Natalia Kreiniz, Ofrat Beyar Katz, Aaron Polliack, Tamar Tadmor
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western world, characterized by the presence of long-lived circulating leukemic cells in the peripheral blood that may infiltrate all organs, particularly those of the reticulo-endothelial system. Liver enlargement and elevation of liver enzymes related to specific involvement by the underlying disease are well-recognized features in these patients. In CLL, the differential diagnosis of liver disorders is broad and includes liver infiltration by leukemic cells, immunologic manifestations associated with CLL, primary and secondary hepatic malignancies, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, infections, and Richter transformation...
July 23, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802907/the-who-how-and-why-allogeneic-transplant-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-patients-older-than-60years
#10
REVIEW
Sarah A Wall, Steven Devine, Sumithira Vasu
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is primarily a disease of the elderly, and as such, our approach to treatment needs to be tailored to address an aging population. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains the only potentially curative treatment for intermediate and high risk AML, and until recently, its use had been limited to a younger population and dependent on availability of a donor. Advances in conditioning regimens, supportive care, and the use of alternative donor sources have greatly expanded access to this therapy...
July 15, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802906/pathways-towards-indolent-b-cell-lymphoma-etiology-and-therapeutic-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Michiel van den Brand, Blanca Scheijen, Corine J Hess, J Han Jm van Krieken, Patricia J T A Groenen
Although patients with indolent B-cell lymphomas have a relatively good survival rate, conventional chemotherapy is not curative. Disease courses are typically characterized by multiple relapses and progressively shorter response duration with subsequent lines of therapy. There has been an explosion of innovative targeted agents in the past years. This review discusses current knowledge on the etiology of indolent B-cell lymphomas with respect to the role of micro-organisms, auto-immune diseases, and deregulated pathways caused by mutations...
August 5, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799432/targeted-therapies-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-focus-on-flt-3-inhibitors-and-abt199
#12
Kiran Naqvi, Marina Konopleva, Farhad Ravandi
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a therapeutic challenge. Despite ongoing research, the standard therapy for AML has not changed significantly in the past four decades. With the identification of cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities, several promising therapeutic agents are currently being investigated. FLT3 mutation is a well-recognized target seen in 30% of the cytogenetically normal AML. More recently, the BCL2 family of anti-apoptotic proteins have also generated great interest as a therapeutic target...
August 11, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797620/extended-follow-up-of-patients-treated-with-bendamustine-for-lymphoid-malignancies
#13
Mara Penne, Maryam Sarraf Yazdy, Kruti Sheth Nair, Bruce D Cheson
INTRODUCTION: Bendamustine, typically in combination with rituximab, is an effective treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite its acceptable short-term toxicity profile, long-term toxicities are less well established. This study investigated the long-term adverse effects of bendamustine and responses to subsequent treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts of 194 patients were retrospectively reviewed; 54% had received prior treatment (76% attained complete response [CR] or partial response [PR])...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796964/can-minimal-residual-disease-determination-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-be-used-in-clinical-practice
#14
Marlise R Luskin, Richard M Stone
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is in complete remission, minimal residual disease (MRD) is presumed to be present, though not morphologically evident. Advances in diagnostics now permit the detection and quantification of MRD in AML by several techniques. The level of MRD after induction and consolidation therapy correlates with disease sensitivity to chemotherapy and has greater power to predict long-term survival than patient and disease characteristics that are available at diagnosis, including genetic information...
August 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796569/cost-effectiveness-of-kinase-inhibitors-for-hematologic-malignancies-a-systematic-and-critical-review
#15
Monia Marchetti
Several genetic disruptions lead to constitutive activation of those kinases leukemic cells depend on for survival and proliferation. Kinase inhibitors (KI) are major therapeutic innovations for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) and myelofibrosis (MF) providing a relevant improvement of quality-adjusted survival in patients with high-risk or refractory disease. CML patients are being treated with first-generation KI imatinib since many years, achieving expected survivals longer than 10 years...
August 10, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795860/access-to-palliative-care-consultation-and-advance-care-planning-for-adults-with-high-risk-leukemia
#16
Ashley T Freeman, William A Wood, Alexandra Fox, Laura C Hanson
BACKGROUND: Although strong evidence supports early palliative care (PC) and consistent advance care planning (ACP) for patients with poor-prognosis Stage IV solid tumors, best practice standards have not been established for hematologic malignancies. Our primary objective was to describe current access to specialty PC consultation and ACP for inpatients with high-risk leukemia. Secondary objectives were to describe components of ACP and PC practices. METHODS: We enrolled all patients with high-risk leukemia (acute leukemia ≥65 years or relapsed leukemia >18 years) admitted to the University of North Carolina Cancer Hospital from October 1, 2015, to August 1, 2016...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794969/an-unusual-type-of-myeloid-sarcoma-localization-following-myelofibrosis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Nicola Orofino, Daniele Cattaneo, Cristina Bucelli, Loredana Pettine, Sonia Fabris, Umberto Gianelli, Nicola Stefano Fracchiolla, Agostino Cortelezzi, Alessandra Iurlo
Myeloid Sarcoma (MS) is a rare malignancy that can present as an isolated disease or more frequently in association with or following acute myeloid leukemia or other myeloid neoplasms and rarely following myelofibrosis. Since molecular pathogenesis and prognostic factors of MS are not well understood, its prognosis remains poor even in the era of novel agents and target therapies. We report the case of a patient with MS following myelofibrosis with multiple subcutaneous, cutaneous and muscle localizations; the latter has been reported in the literature as anecdotal...
2017: Leukemia Research Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794644/the-rank-rankl-opg-system-in-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis-of-cancer-stem-cell-potential-targets-for-anticancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu, Dumessa Edessa
The molecular triad involving receptor activator of nuclear factor kβ (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin cytokine system has been well implicated in several physiological and pathological processes including bone metabolism, mammary gland development, regulation of the immune function, tumorigenesis and metastasis of cancer stem cell, thermoregulation, and vascular calcification. However, this review aimed to summarize several original and up-to-date articles focusing on the role of this signaling system in cancer cell development and metastasis as well as potential therapeutic agents targeting any of the three tumor necrotic factor super family proteins and/or their downstream signaling pathways...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793956/hypersensitivity-reaction-to-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-in-patients-with-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-treated-with-mogamulizumab%C3%A2
#19
Takeo Yasu, Yoichi Imai, Nobuhiro Ohno, Kaoru Uchimaru, Yosuke Kurokawa, Arinobu Tojo
Mogamulizumab (MOG) is a humanized anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody that is highly cytotoxic for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cells. Most non-hematological adverse events are cutaneous adverse reactions in ATL patients. We reviewed the medical records of 24 patients with CCR4-positive aggressive ATL who had received MOG treatment. The incidence of MOG-induced cutaneous adverse reactions (MCARs) was 25% (6 patients). Four patients with MCAR had an interesting clinical course, compared with MCARs reported in previous reports...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793875/an-analysis-of-97-previously-diagnosed-de-novo-adult-acute-erythroid-leukemia-patients-following-the-2016-revision-to-world-health-organization-classification
#20
Shaowei Qiu, Erlie Jiang, Hui Wei, Dong Lin, Guangji Zhang, Shuning Wei, Chunlin Zhou, Kaiqi Liu, Ying Wang, Bingcheng Liu, Yuntao Liu, Benfa Gong, Xiaoyuan Gong, Sizhou Feng, Yingchang Mi, Mingzhe Han, Jianxiang Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute erythroid leukemia subtype (AEL) is rare, accounting for 5% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and the outcome is dismal. However, in 2016 revision to the WHO classification, the subcategory of AEL has been removed. Myeloblasts are redefined as the percentage of total marrow cells, not non-erythroid cells. Therefore, the previously diagnosed AEL cases are currently diagnosed as AML or myelodyspalstic syndrome (MDS) according to new criteria. METHODS: We respectively reviewed cases of 97 de novo previously diagnosed AEL and all the patients were diagnosed as AML or MDS according to the new classification scheme, and then the clinical characteristics of these two subtypes were compared...
August 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
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