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leukemia review

Elise G Elliott, Pauline Trinh, Xiaomei Ma, Brian P Leaderer, Mary H Ward, Nicole C Deziel
The widespread distribution of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) wells and other facilities in the United States potentially exposes millions of people to air and water pollutants, including known or suspected carcinogens. Childhood leukemia is a particular concern because of the disease severity, vulnerable population, and short disease latency. A comprehensive review of carcinogens and leukemogens associated with UO&G development is not available and could inform future exposure monitoring studies and human health assessments...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jing Chen, Craig A Mullen
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer is rare and its symptoms are often ambiguous. The aims of this study were to investigate the time needed to make a diagnosis, assess the frequency of misdiagnosis, and to determine whether these factors affected survival. METHODS: A review of records of 364 pediatric patients diagnosed with cancer at the University of Rochester Golisano Children's Hospital between 2004 and 2012 was conducted. Data were extracted on patient and health care system-related factors and clinical outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Yoko Miyoshi, Kie Yasuda, Makiko Tachibana, Hisao Yoshida, Emiko Miyashita, Takako Miyamura, Yoshiko Hashii, Kae Hashimoto, Tadashi Kimura, Keiichi Ozono
Gonadal dysfunction and infertility are major endocrinological late effects among childhood cancer survivors. Chemotherapy and radiation have gonadotoxic effects and diminish the ovarian reserve. The serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a useful marker of ovarian reserve in survivors. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the variations of AMH in evaluating the acute and chronic effects of cancer therapy on the ovary. Three young female patients with different hematological diseases were registered, and their medical records were reviewed...
October 2016: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Seema Patel
Cardiac glycosides, the cardiotonic steroids such as digitalis have been in use as heart ailment remedy since ages. They manipulate the renin-angiotensin axis to improve cardiac output. However; their safety and efficacy have come under scrutiny in recent times, as poisoning and accidental mortalities have been observed. In order to better understand and exploit them as cardiac ionotropes, studies are being pursued using different cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin, digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin etc. Several cardiac glycosides as peruvoside have shown promise in cancer control, especially ovary cancer and leukemia...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jingjing Wu, Mingzhi Zhang, Delong Liu
The Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Acquired resistance to ibrutinib due to BTK C481S mutation has been reported. Mutations in PLCγ2 can also mediate resistance to ibrutinib. Untoward effects due to off-target effects are also disadvantages of ibrutinib. More selective and potent BTK inhibitors (ACP-196, ONO/GS-4059, BGB-3111, CC-292) are being investigated. This review summarized the preclinical research and clinical data of ONO/GS-4059...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
David P Steensma
The term "refractory anemia" was used in 1937 by Cornelius Parker Rhoads to describe patients whose anemia did not improve after treatment with liver extract or iron salts, and this term has been used to denote patients with certain subtypes of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) since the 1976 and 1982 French-American-British (FAB) classifications of acute leukemias and MDS. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed elimination of "refractory anemia" in a more general proposal for reclassification of myeloid neoplasia...
October 17, 2016: Leukemia Research
Y-M Feng, X-H Chen, X Zhang
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) belongs to immunoglobulin superfamily, which is key factor for adhesion and accumulation of platelets. It is proved that PECAM-1 is closely correlative with cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and cellular immunity. Meanwhile, PECAM-1 involves in multiple clinical diseases, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and leukemia. This paper reviewed the structure and function of PECAM-1, and its roles in cell function and disease generation and progression...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
I C Haznedaroglu, U Y Malkan
The existence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) specific to the hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment had been proposed two decades ago. Most of the RAS molecules including ACE, ACE2, AGT, AGTR1, AGTR2, AKR1C4, AKR1D1, ANPEP, ATP6AP2, CMA1, CPA3, CTSA, CTSD, CTSG, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, DPP3, EGFR, ENPEP, GPER, HSD11B1, HSD11B2, IGF2R, KLK1, LNPEP, MAS1, MME, NR3C1, NR3C2, PREP, REN, RNPEP, and THOP1 are locally present in the BM microenvironment. Local BM RAS peptides control the hematopoietic niche, myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis and the development of other cellular lineages...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Pedro Alves Bezerra Morais, Renata Dalmaschio Daltoé, Heberth de Paula
The discovery of the importance of kinase activity and its relationship to the emergence and proliferation of cancer cells, due to changes in normal physiology, opened a remarkable pathway for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia through intense search of drug candidates. Six Abl kinase inhibitors have received the US FDA approval as chronic myelogenous leukemia treatment, and continuous efforts in obtaining new, more effective and selective molecules are being carried out. Herein we discuss the mechanisms of Abl inhibition, structural features and ligand/protein interactions that are important for the design of new Abl kinase inhibitors...
October 24, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
A Tefferi, H K Al-Ali, G Barosi, T Devos, H Gisslinger, Q Jiang, J-J Kiladjian, R Mesa, F Passamonti, V Ribrag, G Schiller, A M Vannucchi, D Zhou, D Reiser, J Zhong, R P Gale
: RBC-transfusion-dependence is common in persons with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN)-associated myelofibrosis. Determine rates of RBC-transfusion-independence after therapy with pomalidomide vs. placebo in persons with MPN-associated myelofibrosis and RBC-transfusion-dependence. 252 subjects (intent-to-treat population) including 229 subjects confirmed by central review (modified intent-to-treat population) were randomly-assigned (2:1) to pomalidomide or placebo. Trialists and subjects were blinded to treatment allocation...
October 24, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Maliha Khan, Armaghan-E-Rehman Mansoor, Tapan M Kadia
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a markedly heterogeneous hematological malignancy that is most commonly seen in elderly adults. The response to current therapies to AML is quite variable, and very few new drugs have been recently approved for use in AML. This review aims to discuss the issues with current trial design for AML therapies, including trial end points, patient enrollment, cost of drug discovery and patient heterogeneity. We also discuss the future directions in AML therapeutics, including intensification of conventional therapy and new drug delivery mechanisms; targeted agents, including epigenetic therapies, cell cycle regulators, hypomethylating agents and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy; and detail of the possible agents that may be incorporated into the treatment of AML in the future...
October 24, 2016: Future Oncology
Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenneth A Mundt, Bruce C Allen, P Robinan Gentry
Reproducibility and transparency in scientific reporting is paramount to advancing science and providing the foundation required for sound regulation. Recent examples demonstrate that pivotal scientific findings cannot be replicated, due to poor documentation or methodological bias, sparking debate across scientific and regulatory communities. However, there is general agreement that improvements in communicating and documenting research and risk assessment methods are needed. In the case of formaldehyde, the peer-review conducted by a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee questioned the approaches used by the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) in developing draft unit risk values...
October 19, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Samah Nassereddine, Taiga Nishihori, Eric Padron, Rami Mahfouz, Ali Bazarbachi, Rami S Komrokji, Mohamed A Kharfan-Dabaja
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic neoplastic disorders most commonly occurring in the elderly population; MDS has a tendency to progress to acute leukemia. Although epigenetic therapies have improved the outcomes of MDS patients, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation remains the only curative option. Molecular characterization of MDS using next-generation sequencing has expanded not only the knowledge on MDS but also the depth of understanding of evolution and contribution of recurrent somatic mutations in precursor conditions...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Weiguo Cao, Changhong Liang, Yungan Gen, Chen Wang, Cailei Zhao, Longwei Sun
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement can detect skull bone marrow infiltration in newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children before therapy and normalization in complete remission after treatment. METHODS: Fifty-one newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and 30 healthy age-matched subjects were included. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were reviewed, and skull marrow ADC values were compared before treatment and in complete remission after therapy...
October 20, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Marco Ruella, Marcela V Maus
Immunotherapy is the revolution in cancer treatment of this last decade. Among multiple approaches able to harness the power of the immune system against cancer, T cell based immunotherapies represent one of the most successful examples. In particular, biotechnological engineering of protein structures, like the T cell receptor or the immunoglobulins, allowed the generation of synthetic peptides like chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies that are able to redirect non-tumor specific T cells to recognize and kill leukemic cells...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Xavier Thomas, Caroline Le Jeune
Advances in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) therapy has led to long-term survival rates in children. However, only 30%-40% of adults achieve long-term disease-free survival. After relapse, the outcome of salvage chemotherapy is very disappointing with less than 10% of long survival. Novel agents are therefore desperately required to improve response rates and survival, but also the quality of life of patients. Areas covered. The following review is a comprehensive summary of various novel options reported over the past few years in the therapeutic area of adult ALL...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sarah Tessier, Natalia Martin-Martin, Hugues de Thé, Arkaitz Carracedo, Valerie Lallemand-Breitenbach
SIGNIFICANCE: Cellular metabolic activity impacts on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both positively through mitochondrial oxidative processes and negatively by promoting the production of reducing agents (including NADPH and reduced glutathione). A defined metabolic state in cancer cells is critical for cell growth and long-term self-renewal, and such state is intrinsically associated to redox balance. Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) regulates several biological processes, at least in part through its ability to control the assembly of PML Nuclear Bodies (PML NBs)...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Kyle Crassini, Yandong Shen, Stephen Mulligan, O Giles Best
Microenvironments within the lymph node and bone marrow promote proliferation and drug resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Successful treatment of CLL must therefore target the leukemic cells within these compartments. A better understanding of the interaction between CLL cells and the tumor microenvironment has led to the development of in vitro models that mimic the mechanisms that support leukemic cell survival and proliferation in vivo. Employing these models as part of the pre-clinical evaluation of novel therapeutic agents enables a better approximation of their potential clinical efficacy...
October 18, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Nicola Maurea, Paolo Spallarossa, Christian Cadeddu, Rosalinda Madonna, Donato Mele, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Pasquale Pagliaro, Alessia Pepe, Carlo G Tocchetti, Concetta Zito, Giuseppe Mercuro
The US National Cancer Institute estimates that cardiotoxicity (CTX) from target therapy refers mostly to four groups of drugs: epidermal growth factor receptor 2 inhibitors, angiogenic inhibitors, directed Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and proteasome inhibitors. The main cardiotoxic side-effects related to antiepidermal growth factor receptor 2 therapy are left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure. Angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, myocardial ischemia, QT prolongation, and thrombosis...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Nicola Maurea, Carmela Coppola, Giovanna Piscopo, Francesca Galletta, Gennaro Riccio, Emanuela Esposito, Claudia De Lorenzo, Michelino De Laurentiis, Paolo Spallarossa, Giuseppe Mercuro
The progress in cancer therapy and the increase in number of long-term survivors reveal the issue of cardiovascular side-effects of anticancer drugs. Cardiotoxicity has become a significant problem, and the risks of adverse cardiac events induced by systemic drugs need to be seriously considered. Potential cardiovascular toxicities linked to anticancer agents include arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension, thromboembolism, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. It has been shown that several anticancer drugs seriously affect the cardiovascular system, such as ErbB2 inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, multitargeted kinase inhibitors, Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and others...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
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