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John L Gillick, Jared B Cooper, Sateesh Babu, Kaushik Das, Raj Murali
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), formerly referred to as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is a pain syndrome characterized by severe pain, altered autonomic and motor function, and trophic changes. CRPS is usually associated with soft tissue injury or trauma. It has also been described as a rare complication of arterial access for angiography secondary to pseudoaneurysm formation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 73-year-old woman underwent catheterization of the left brachial artery for angiography of the celiac artery...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
Leah R Strickland, Sherry S Collawn
Subcutaneous atrophy is a known complication of steroid injections. Excellent results with fat grafting for the treatment of steroid atrophy have been documented. However, the benefit of treating steroid-induced subcutaneous atrophy in an extremity diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has not been described. CRPS, known formerly as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or RSD, causalgia, or reflex neurovascular dystrophy, is a severe, progressive musculoskeletal pain syndrome characterized by pain which is disproportionate to the severity of the inciting event, edema, or skin changes...
June 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
M Bussa, D Guttilla, M Lucia, A Mascaro, S Rinaldi
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I), formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), is a chronic painful disorder that usually develops after a minor injury to a limb. This topical review gives a synopsis of CRPS I and discusses the current concepts of our understanding of CRPS I in adults, the diagnosis, and treatment options based on the limited evidence found in medical literature. CRPS I is a multifactorial disorder. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms of CRPS I are classic and neurogenic inflammation, and maladaptive neuroplasticity...
July 2015: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Kush Kumar
OBJECTIVES: A new method of interpretation of Three Phase Bone Scan (TPBS) scan based upon the normal physiological vascular endothelial related response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty cases of TPBS were evaluated. Thirteen were normal. In remaining 37 positive studies, 20 showed localized hyperemic response. All localized hyperemic responses except one with vascular endothelial dysfunction were without infection (95.0%). Infection could be ruled out in absence of generalized massive flow and pool response...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Porin Perić
In 1994, a consensus group of experts gathered by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) agreed on new diagnostic criteria for the reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and causalgia, and renamed them complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II, respectively. CRPS is a complex pathophysiological entity characterised by pain, trophic and vasomotoric changes, limited function of affected body part and relatively fast development of osteoporosis of affected region. We described possible pathophysiological mechanisms which caused the pain, clinical presentation of the disease and treatment which includes all available pharmacological modalities as well as interventional procedures...
2013: Reumatizam
Mario A Inchiosa
There is a relatively long history of the use of the α -adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). One form of this syndrome, CRPS I, was originally termed reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) because of an apparent dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system in the region of an extremity that had been subjected to an injury or surgical procedure. The syndrome develops in the absence of any apparent continuation of the inciting trauma. Hallmarks of the condition are allodynia (pain perceived from a nonpainful stimulus) and hyperalgesia (exaggerated pain response to a painful stimulus)...
2013: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
F Del Piñal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2013: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Brian C Crick, John C Crick
Litigation involving Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), because of its complexities, is often difficult to prove or defend. In our review of 56 verdicts and settlements in the state of Florida, in cases involving a diagnosis or misdiagnosis of RSD or CRPS, over half resulted in a substantial verdict or settlement for the plaintiff.
2011: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
D S Bennett, K M Aló, J Oakley, C A Feler
Objective. To evaluate effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) applied to complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS I). To analyze trends to focus the design of a multicenter prospective study. Design. Retrospective multicenter series, 3 years. Outcome measures. We collected visual analog scales for pain and patient satisfaction data on n= 101 patients. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I had single-lead quadrapolar systems, Group II had dual-lead octapolar systems. Results. Mean pain scores decreased in both groups with a significantly greater decrease in Group II (p < 0...
July 1999: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Sarah Lipton, Pascale Schwab
IgG4-RSD should be suspected in any patient presenting with lacrimal or salivary gland enlargement, particularly if male and manifesting mild glandular dysfunction. A serum IgG4 level, if increased, may be helpful, although a gland biopsy staining for IgG4-positive plasma cells is the definitive test. Primary low-grade B cell lymphomas of the glandular tissue, specifically MALT lymphoma and other glandular malignancy, should be considered, particularly in patients with asymmetric glandular enlargement. Patients with idiopathic uveitis should have a thorough evaluation to exclude malignancy, in particular PIOL and melanoma in adults, and diffuse retinoblastoma and ALL in children...
November 2011: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Anne Louise Oaklander, Howard L Fields
Neurologist S. Weir Mitchell first described "causalgia" following wartime nerve injury, with its persistent distal limb burning pain, swelling, and abnormal skin color, temperature, and sweating. Similar post-traumatic symptoms were later identified in patients without overt nerve injuries after trauma. This was labeled reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD; now complex regional pain syndrome type I [CRPS-I]). The pathophysiology of symptoms is unknown and treatment options are limited. We propose that persistent RSD/CRPS-I is a post-traumatic neuralgia associated with distal degeneration of small-diameter peripheral axons...
June 2009: Annals of Neurology
A Lee Dellon, Eugenia Andonian, Gedge D Rosson
The hypothesis is explored that CRPS I (the "new" RSD) persists due to undiagnosed injured joint afferents, and/or cutaneous neuromas, and/or nerve compressions, and is, therefore, a misdiagnosed form of CRPS II (the "new" causalgia). An IRB-approved, retrospective chart review on a series of 100 consecutive patients with "RSD" identified 40 upper and 30 lower extremity patients for surgery based upon their history, physical examination, neurosensory testing, and nerve blocks. Based upon decreased pain medication usage and recovery of function, outcome in the upper extremity, at a mean of 27...
February 20, 2009: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Anne Louise Oaklander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2008: Pain
Jennifer Yanow, Marco Pappagallo, Letha Pillai
Neuropathic pain is a sequela of dysfunction, injuries, or diseases of the peripheral and/or central nervous system pain pathways, which has historically been extremely difficult to treat. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types 1 and 2 are neuropathic pain conditions that have a long history in the medical literature but whose pathophysiology remains elusive and whose available treatment options remain few. While an exact animal model for CRPS doesn't yet exist, there are several animal models of neuropathic pain that develop behaviors of hypersensitivity, one of the hallmark signs of neuropathic pain in humans...
February 25, 2008: TheScientificWorldJournal
T Higashimoto, E E Baldwin, J I Gold, R G Boles
OBJECTIVE: Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I), previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), is an idiopathic condition characterised by localised, abnormally intense and prolonged pain, allodynia and autonomic nervous system changes (ie, swelling, skin colour and temperature changes and altered perspiration) that usually appear following a "noxious" trigger such as trauma or surgery. The objective of this report is to demonstrate that children with CRPS-I can have additional dysautonomic conditions secondary to an underlying maternally inherited mitochondrial disease, an association not previously published...
May 2008: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Sota Omoigui
Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission...
2007: Medical Hypotheses
Ankur Bant, Bertram Hurowitz, Nadeem Hassan, Van Thiel Du, Abdul Nadir
Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (EMC) is a common extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS) or Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) has never been reported in association with HCV. This is the first case report of RSD in a patient with HCV related cirrhosis and EMC.
February 2007: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Kulbir S Walia, Daniel E Muser, Shariq S Raza, Tricia Griech, Yasin N Khan
We present a case of a 13-year-old boy who developed signs and symptoms of neuropathic pain/early Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Type I, formerly known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), after spraining his ankle while wrestling. Aggressive pain control, using medications and sympatholytic blocks, with physical therapy and rehabilitation, led to the resolution of his painful condition. This prevented the disease from possibly progressing to a full-blown case of CRPS I (RSD) that is very challenging to treat...
December 2004: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Allen W Burton, Samuel J Hassenbusch, Carla Warneke, Gabor Racz, Michael Stanton-Hicks
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are numerous treatments for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). These treatments are varied in scope and include pain management therapies, psychological therapies, and physiotherapy. Treatment guidelines have been published in the past, but little information exists as to how clinicians utilize these guidelines. Moreover, there has been a paradigm shift from the older "reflex sympathetic dystrophy" (RSD) nomenclature, with largely sympathetic block driven diagnosis and therapy to more recent trends towards more inclusive "CRPS" diagnostic criteria and multidisciplinary treatment...
June 2004: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
B Wilsey, D Teicheira, O A Caneris, S M Fishman
Accepted wisdom contends that sympathetically maintained pain is rare in cancer pain syndromes. But this may be more of an artifact of how we diagnose this condition than a reflection of its true prevalence. One area in which one might suspect this to be true is in postsurgical states. While there are case reports of sympathetically maintained pain occurring after radical neck dissection, orbital and maxillary exenteration, it has not been reported in the more common areas of postsurgical pain. For instance, although one should suspect that the nerve damage that accompanies post-thoracotomy and postmastectomy pain syndromes would bring into being a certain incidence of sympathetically maintained pain, it is difficult to find collaborative reports...
December 2001: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
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