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Immunodominant T cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724769/stlv-1-infection-of-papio-anubis-tax-sequence-heterogeneity-and-t-cell-recognition
#1
James M Termini, Diogo M Magnani, Helen S Maxwell, William Lauer, Iris Castro, Jerilyn Pecotte, Glen N Barber, David I Watkins, Ronald C Desrosiers
Natural infection of baboons with simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV) is a potentially useful model system for study of vaccination against the human virus HTLV. Here we expand the number of available full-length STLV-1 baboon sequences from one to three and relate T cell responses that recognize the immunodominant Tax protein to the tax sequences present in two individual baboons. Continuously growing T cell lines were established from two baboons, 12141 and 12752. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of complete STLV genome sequences from these lines revealed them to be closely related but distinct from each other and from the STLV-1 baboon sequence in the NCBI sequence database...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721397/hivis-dna-or-hivisopt-dna-priming-followed-by-cmdr-vaccinia-based-boosts-induce-both-humoral-and-cellular-murine-immune-responses-to-hiv
#2
J Hinkula, S Petkov, K Ljungberg, D Hallengärd, A Bråve, M Isaguliants, T Falkeborn, S Sharma, V Liakina, M Robb, M Eller, B Moss, G Biberfeld, E Sandström, C Nilsson, K Markland, P Blomberg, B Wahren
BACKGROUND: In order to develop a more effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine it is important optimize the components, improve Envelope glycoprotein immunogenicity as well as to explore prime-boost immunization schedules. It is also valuable to include several HIV-1 subtype antigens representing the world-wide epidemic. METHODS: HIVIS-DNA plasmids which include Env genes of subtypes A, B and C together with Gag subtypes A and B and RTmut/Rev of subtype B were modified as follows: the Envelope sequences were shortened, codon optimized, provided with an FT4 sequence and an immunodominant region mutated...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714529/immunologic-responses-to-a-novel-dna-vaccine-targeting-human-papillomavirus-11-e6e7
#3
Julie Ahn, Shiwen Peng, Chien-Fu Hung, Richard B S Roden, Tzyy-Choou Wu, Simon R Best
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. Although a prophylactic vaccine against RRP is available, a therapeutic vaccine is needed to treat those already infected. The objective of our study was to design and test a DNA vaccine targeting HPV11 proteins. STUDY DESIGN: Preclinical scientific investigation. METHODS: A DNA vaccine encoding the HPV11 E6 and E7 genes linked to calreticulin (CRT) was generated...
July 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701761/antigen-specific-immunotherapies-in-rheumatic-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Judit Pozsgay, Zoltán Szekanecz, Gabriella Sármay
The main goal of antigen-specific immunotherapy (ASI) in autoimmune and rheumatic diseases is to reprogramme or remove autoreactive cells and/or induce immune tolerance to self-antigens. Current therapies in these diseases either treat symptoms or slow down disease progression but are not yet curative or preventative - disease-specific treatments are urgently needed. In contrast to the nonspecific treatments in current use that induce generalized immune suppression, which is associated with several adverse effects including increased risk of infections, ASIs target a restricted subset of B cells or T cells, and thus do not compromise systemic immunity and host defence...
July 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678607/hiv-env-conserved-element-dna-vaccine-alters-immunodominance-in-macaques
#5
Xintao Hu, Antonio Valentin, Margherita Rosati, Siriphan Manocheewa, Candido Alicea, Bhabadeb Chowdhury, Jenifer Bear, Kate E Broderick, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Sylvie Le Gall, James I Mullins, George N Pavlakis, Barbara K Felber
Sequence diversity and immunodominance are major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV. HIV Env is a highly-glycosylated protein composed of 'conserved' and 'variable' regions. The latter contains immunodominant epitopes that are frequently targeted by the immune system resulting in the generation of immune escape variants. This work describes 12 regions in HIV Env that are highly conserved throughout the known HIV M Group sequences (Env CE), and are poorly immunogenic in macaques vaccinated with full-length Env expressing DNA vaccines...
July 5, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662714/recall-t-cell-responses-to-bluetongue-virus-produce-a-narrowing-of-the-t-cell-repertoire
#6
José-Manuel Rojas, Teresa Rodríguez-Calvo, Noemí Sevilla
In most viral infections, recall T cell responses are critical for protection. The magnitude of these secondary responses can also affect the CD8 and CD4 epitope repertoire diversity. Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in sheep elicits a T cell response that contributes to viremia control and could be relevant for cross-protection between BTV serotypes. Here, we characterized CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses during primary and recall responses. During primary immune responses, both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations expanded by 14 days post-infection (dpi)...
June 29, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651002/the-n-terminal-domain-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ppe17-rv1168c-protein-plays-a-dominant-role-in-inducing-antibody-responses-in-active-tb-patients
#7
Philip Raj Abraham, Niteen Pathak, Gourango Pradhan, Gaddam Sumanlatha, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
The PPE (proline-proline-glutamic acid) proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are characterized by a conserved N-terminal domain of approximately 180 amino acids and variable C-terminal domain. Since last decade, these proteins have gained much importance in the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) as they act as a source of antigenic variation. We have demonstrated earlier that one of the PPE proteins PPE17 (Rv1168c) induces strong B-cell and T-cell responses in active TB disease and also displays a higher antibody titer compared to immunodominant antigens such as ESAT-6, Hsp60 and PPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641561/induction-of-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-in-mice-by-multiepitope-vaccines-composing-of-both-t-and-b-lymphocyte-epitopes-of-mage-a3which-are-recombined-into-hbcag
#8
Qingxin Chen, Wenshu Li, Pengfei Wang, Huanyi Shao, Yujie Ding, Wenhuan Wang, Danwei Cen, Yiqi Cai, Xiangyang Xue, Lifang Zhang, Guanbao Zhu
MAGE-A3 is highly expressed in many kinds of malignant diseases, and considered to be an ideal candidate for anti-tumor vaccine. To improve the immunogenicity of epitopes of MAGE-A3, hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) was used as an immune-carrier by insertion epitopes at HBcAg major immunodominant region (HBcAg(MIR)). In present study, we designed three kinds of MAGE-A3 multiepitopes containing T and B-cell dominant epitope-rich peptides, and constructed three recombinant chimeras of HBcAg(MIR)/MAGE-A3(EPI-1), HBcAg(MIR)/MAGE-A3(EPI-2), and HBcAg(MIR)/MAGE-A3(EPI-3) with prokaryotic codon optimization...
June 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618262/the-helper-t-cell-s-dilemma-in-tuberculosis
#9
Daniel L Barber
Vaccination approaches eliciting strong CD4 T cell responses provide only weak protection from tuberculosis. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Moguche et al. (2017) show that T cells specific for different immunodominant vaccine antigens can fail to protect for opposite reasons, highlighting a major challenge in tuberculosis vaccine design.
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600217/limited-genetic-diversity-in-the-global-plasmodium-vivax-cell-traversal-protein-of-ookinetes-and-sporozoites-celtos-sequences-implications-for-pvceltos-based-vaccine-development
#10
Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Fatemeh Torabi, Sedigheh Zakeri, Navid Dinparast Djadid
Cell traversal protein of Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS) is a new malaria vaccine candidate antigen. Since one of the main challenges in malaria vaccine development is the extensive antigenic diversity of this parasite, local and global gene diversity analysis is of particular importance. Therefore, in this study, the genetic diversity of pvceltos gene was investigated among Iranian P. vivax isolates (n=46) and compared with available worldwide pvceltos sequences. One synonymous (C109A) and three amino acid replacements (V118L, K178T, and G179R) were observed in Iranian pvceltos sequences in compare with Sal-1 sequence leading to five haplotypes including PvCelt-A (GSVKGL, 13%), PvCelt-B (GSLKGL, 50%), PvCelt-C (GSLTGL, 17...
June 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597552/branched-chain-%C3%AE-ketoacid-dehydrogenase-kinase-111-130-a-t-cell-epitope-that-induces-both-autoimmune-myocarditis-and-hepatitis-in-a-j-mice
#11
Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Francisco A Uzal, Jennifer L Strande, Gustavo A Delhon, Jean-Jack Riethoven, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
INTRODUCTION: Organ-specific autoimmune diseases are believed to result from immune responses generated against self-antigens specific to each organ. However, when such responses target antigens expressed promiscuously in multiple tissues, then the immune-mediated damage may be wide spread. METHODS: In this report, we describe a mitochondrial protein, branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDk ) that can act as a target autoantigen in the development of autoimmune inflammatory reactions in both heart and liver...
June 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594344/design-and-synthesis-of-non-peptide-mimetics-mapping-the-immunodominant-myelin-basic-protein-mbp83-96-epitope-to-function-as-t-cell-receptor-antagonists
#12
Mary-Patricia Yannakakis, Carmen Simal, Haralambos Tzoupis, Maria Rodi, Narges Dargahi, Monica Prakash, Athanasia Mouzaki, James A Platts, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Theodore V Tselios
Encephalitogenic T cells are heavily implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Their stimulation is triggered by the formation of a trimolecular complex between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), an immunodominant myelin basic protein (MBP) epitope, and the T cell receptor (TCR). We detail herein our studies directed towards the rational design and synthesis of non-peptide mimetic molecules, based on the immunodominant MBP83-96 epitope that is recognized by the TCR in complex with HLA...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592428/ebv-infection-empowers-human-b-cells-for-autoimmunity-role-of-autophagy-and-relevance-to-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Elena Morandi, S Anwar Jagessar, Bert A 't Hart, Bruno Gran
The efficacy of B cell depletion therapy in multiple sclerosis indicates their central pathogenic role in disease pathogenesis. The B lymphotropic EBV is a major risk factor in multiple sclerosis, via as yet unclear mechanisms. We reported in a nonhuman primate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model that an EBV-related lymphocryptovirus enables B cells to protect a proteolysis-sensitive immunodominant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) epitope (residues 40-48) against destructive processing...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588287/identification-and-evaluation-of-the-novel-immunodominant-antigen-rv2351c-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
Xuezhi Wang, Shuangshuang Chen, Yongjuan Xu, Huajun Zheng, Tongyang Xiao, Yuqing Li, Xing Chen, Mingxiang Huang, Haifeng Zhang, Xijing Fang, Yi Jiang, Machao Li, Haican Liu, Kanglin Wan
There is an urgent need for new immunodominant antigens to improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the efficacy of the TB vaccine to control the disease worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic potential of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific antigen, Rv2351c, from region of difference (RD) 7 of the MTB genome, and investigated the potency of the vaccine by identifying its immunological function in human and animal immunological experiments. Twenty T-cell epitopes were identified using TEpredict and prediction tools from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource...
June 7, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588103/mycobacteriumtuberculosis-rv3615c-is-a-highly-immunodominant-antigen-and-specifically-inducespotent-th1-type-immune-responses-in-tuberculosis-pleurisy
#15
Jiangping Li, Juan Shen, Suihua Lao, Xiaomin Li, Jie Liu, Changyou Wu
T-cell responses have been demonstrated essential for preventing M.tb infection. The Th1-cytokines produced by T cells, such as INF-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α, not only limit the invasion of M.tb but also eliminate the pathogen at site of infection. BCG is known to induce Th1-type responses but the protection is inadequate. Identification of immunogenic components in addition to those expressed in BCG and induction of a broad spectrum of Th1-type responses provide options for generating sufficient adaptive immunity...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584988/methodology-for-anti-cryptococcal-vaccine-development
#16
Ashok K Chaturvedi, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the predominant etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are fungal pathogens that cause disease ranging from a mild pneumonia to life-threatening infections of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is widely considered an opportunistic fungal pathogen which targets individuals with impaired immune systems, while C. gattii is predominantly associated with fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. However, C. neoformans and C. gattii have certainly been identified as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in both immune compromised and immune competent individuals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583308/an-epitope-specific-derg-pg70-leaps-vaccine-modulates-t-cell-responses-and-suppresses-arthritis-progression-in-two-related-murine-models-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Katalin Mikecz, Tibor T Glant, Adrienn Markovics, Kenneth S Rosenthal, Julia Kurko, Roy E Carambula, Steve Cress, Harold L Steiner, Daniel H Zimmerman
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune joint disease maintained by aberrant immune responses involving CD4+ T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells. In this study, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of Ligand Epitope Antigen Presentation System (LEAPS™) vaccines in two Th1 cell-driven mouse models of RA, cartilage proteoglycan (PG)-induced arthritis (PGIA) and PG G1-domain-induced arthritis (GIA). The immunodominant PG peptide PG70 was attached to a DerG or J immune cell binding peptide, and the DerG-PG70 and J-PG70 LEAPS vaccines were administered to the mice after the onset of PGIA or GIA symptoms...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566371/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-expanded-clones-of-islet-antigen-reactive-cd4-t-cells-in-peripheral-blood-of-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Karen Cerosaletti, Fariba Barahmand-Pour-Whitman, Junbao Yang, Hannah A DeBerg, Matthew J Dufort, Sara A Murray, Elisabeth Israelsson, Cate Speake, Vivian H Gersuk, James A Eddy, Helena Reijonen, Carla J Greenbaum, William W Kwok, Erik Wambre, Martin Prlic, Raphael Gottardo, Gerald T Nepom, Peter S Linsley
The significance of islet Ag-reactive T cells found in peripheral blood of type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects is unclear, partly because similar cells are also found in healthy control (HC) subjects. We hypothesized that key disease-associated cells would show evidence of prior Ag exposure, inferred from expanded TCR clonotypes, and essential phenotypic properties in their transcriptomes. To test this, we developed single-cell RNA sequencing procedures for identifying TCR clonotypes and transcript phenotypes in individual T cells...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562659/na%C3%A3-ve-helper-t-cells-with-high-cd5-expression-have-increased-calcium-signaling
#19
Claudia M Tellez Freitas, Garrett J Hamblin, Carlee M Raymond, K Scott Weber
The adaptive immune response is orchestrated by T helper cells and their function is dependent upon interactions between the T cell receptor (TCR), peptide MHC (pMHC) and co-receptors. TCR-pMHC interactions initiate calcium signaling cascades which determine T cell activation, survival, proliferation and differentiation. CD5 is a co-receptor that plays an important role in regulating T cell signaling and fate during thymocyte education. CD5 surface expression on mature single positive thymocytes correlates with the TCR signal strength for positive selecting self-ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540499/cell-based-therapies-with-t-regulatory-cells
#20
REVIEW
Mateusz Gliwiński, Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Piotr Trzonkowski
CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) are immunodominant suppressors in the immune system. Tregs use various mechanisms to control immune responses. Preclinical data from animal models have confirmed the huge therapeutic potential of Tregs in many immune-mediated diseases. Hence, these cells are now on the road to translation to cell therapy in the clinic as the first clinical trials are accomplished. To date, clinical research has involved mainly hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, solid organ transplantations, and autoimmunity...
May 24, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
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