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attention network, salience network

Benjamin W Mooneyham, Michael D Mrazek, Alissa J Mrazek, Kaita L Mrazek, Dawa T Phillips, Jonathan W Schooler
During tasks that require continuous engagement, the mind alternates between mental states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Existing research has assessed the functional connectivity of intrinsic brain networks underlying the experience and training of these mental states using "static" approaches that assess connectivity across an entire task. To disentangle the functional connectivity between brain regions as the mind fluctuates between discrete brain states, we employed a dynamic functional connectivity approach that characterized brain activity using a sliding window...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nele A J De Witte, Sven C Mueller
Anxiety and depression are associated with altered communication within global brain networks and between these networks and the amygdala. Functional connectivity studies demonstrate an effect of anxiety and depression on four critical brain networks involved in top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal network; FPN), salience detection and error monitoring (cingulo-opercular network; CON), bottom-up stimulus-driven attention (ventral attention network; VAN), and default mode (default mode network; DMN)...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jonathan Posner, Inkyung Song, Seonjoo Lee, Carolyn I Rodriguez, Holly Moore, Rachel Marsh, H Blair Simpson
Deficits in attention have been implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), yet their neurobiological bases are poorly understood. In unmedicated adults with OCD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 32), they used resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) to examine functional connectivity between two neural networks associated with attentional processes: the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN). They then used path analyses to examine putative relationships across three variables of interest: DMN-SN connectivity, attention, and OCD symptoms...
September 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Felicia W Sun, Michael R Stepanovic, Joseph Andreano, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Bradford C Dickerson
UNLABELLED: Decline in cognitive skills, especially in memory, is often viewed as part of "normal" aging. Yet some individuals "age better" than others. Building on prior research showing that cortical thickness in one brain region, the anterior midcingulate cortex, is preserved in older adults with memory performance abilities equal to or better than those of people 20-30 years younger (i.e., "superagers"), we examined the structural integrity of two large-scale intrinsic brain networks in superaging: the default mode network, typically engaged during memory encoding and retrieval tasks, and the salience network, typically engaged during attention, motivation, and executive function tasks...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shi-Qi Yang, Zhi-Peng Xu, Ying Xiong, Ya-Feng Zhan, Lin-Ying Guo, Shun Zhang, Ri-Feng Jiang, Yi-Hao Yao, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Jian-Zhi Wang, Yong Liu, Wen-Zhen Zhu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated whether alterations of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity with T2DM progression exist, by using resting-state functional MRI. MRI data were analysed from 19 T2DM patients with normal cognition (DMCN) and 19 T2DM patients with cognitive impairment (DMCI), 19 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity among 36 previously well-defined brain regions which consisted of 5 resting-state network (RSN) systems [default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL) and sensorimotor network (SMN)] was investigated at 3 levels (integrity, network and connectivity)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kun-Hsien Chou, Fu-Chi Yang, Jong-Ling Fuh, Chen-Yuan Kuo, Yi-Hsin Wang, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Yung-Yang Lin, Shuu-Jiun Wang, Ching-Po Lin
BACKGROUND: Previous imaging studies on the pathogenesis of cluster headache (CH) have implicated the hypothalamus and multiple brain networks. However, very little is known regarding dynamic bout-associated, large-scale resting state functional network changes related to CH. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from CH patients and matched controls. Data were analyzed using independent component analysis for exploratory assessment of the changes in intrinsic brain networks and their relationship between in-bout and out-of-bout periods, as well as correlations with clinical observations...
September 7, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Nelly Padilla, Peter Fransson, Antonio Donaire, Francesc Figueras, Angela Arranz, Magdalena Sanz-Cortés, Violeta Tenorio, Núria Bargallo, Carme Junqué, Hugo Lagercrantz, Ulrika Ådén, Eduard Gratacós
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects brain development in preterm infants, but little is known about its effects on resting-state functional connectivity. We compared 20 preterm infants, born at <34 weeks of gestation with abnormal antenatal Doppler measurements and birth weights <10th percentile, with 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age and 20 term infants. They were scanned without sedation at 12 months of age and screened for autistic traits at 26 months...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Michael G Hart, Stephen J Price, John Suckling
OBJECTIVE Resection of focal brain lesions involves maximizing the resection while preserving brain function. Mapping brain function has entered a new era focusing on distributed connectivity networks at "rest," that is, in the absence of a specific task or stimulus, requiring minimal participant engagement. Central to this frame shift has been the development of methods for the rapid assessment of whole-brain connectivity with functional MRI (fMRI) involving blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging. The authors appraised the feasibility of fMRI-based mapping of a repertoire of functional connectivity networks in neurosurgical patients with focal lesions and the potential benefits of resting-state connectivity mapping for surgical planning...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ernest Mas-Herrero, Josep Marco-Pallarés
Reinforcement learning requires the dynamic interplay of several specialized networks distributed across the brain. A potential mechanism to establish accurate temporal coordination among these paths is through the synchronization of neuronal activity to a common rhythm of neuronal firing. Previous EEG studies have suggested that theta oscillatory activity might be crucial in the integration of information from motivational and attentional paths that converge into the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) during reward-guided learning...
August 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Amy C Janes, Jennifer Betts, J Eric Jensen, Scott E Lukas
BACKGROUND: When exposed to smoking cues, nicotine dependent individuals activate brain regions overlapping with the default mode network (DMN), a network of regions involved in internally-focused cognition. The salience network (SN), which includes the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), is thought to interact with the DMN and aids in directing attention toward salient internal or external stimuli. One possibility is that neurochemical variation in SN regions such as the dACC impact DMN reactivity to personally relevant stimuli such as smoking cues...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Moji Aghajani, Eduard T Klapwijk, Nic J van der Wee, Ilya M Veer, Serge A R B Rombouts, Albert E Boon, Peter van Beelen, Arne Popma, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Olivier F Colins
BACKGROUND: The developmental trajectory of psychopathy seemingly begins early in life and includes the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., deficient emotional reactivity, callousness) in conduct-disordered (CD) youth. Though subregion-specific anomalies in amygdala function have been suggested in CU pathophysiology among antisocial populations, system-level studies of CU traits have typically examined the amygdala as a unitary structure. Hence, nothing is yet known of how amygdala subregional network function may contribute to callous-unemotionality in severely antisocial people...
May 27, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Siyang Yin, Yuelu Liu, Mingzhou Ding
The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, Richard D Lane, William D S Killgore
The neural basis of voluntarily suppressing conscious access to one's own memories (retrieval suppression [RS]) has recently received considerable attention. However, to date there has been limited research examining the effects of RS on subsequent processing of associated retrieval cues. In this study 47 healthy participants completed a Think/No Think task for memories of emotionally unpleasant visual scenes. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants were then presented with cues associated with both suppressed ("no-think-cues") and non-suppressed ("think-cues") memories, and then asked to perform simple arithmetic problems...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Heidi Jiang, Matthew P White, Michael D Greicius, Lynn C Waelde, David Spiegel
Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis...
July 28, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Davide Nardo, Paola Console, Carlo Reverberi, Emiliano Macaluso
In daily life the brain is exposed to a large amount of external signals that compete for processing resources. The attentional system can select relevant information based on many possible combinations of goal-directed and stimulus-driven control signals. Here, we investigate the behavioral and physiological effects of competition between distinctive visual events during free-viewing of naturalistic videos. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing short video-clips of everyday life situations, without any explicit goal-directed task...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kimberly Goodyear, Raja Parasuraman, Sergey Chernyak, Ewart de Visser, Poornima Madhavan, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Frank Krueger
As society becomes more reliant on machines and automation, understanding how people utilize advice is a necessary endeavor. Our objective was to reveal the underlying neural associations during advice utilization from expert human and machine agents with fMRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis. During an X-ray luggage-screening task, participants accepted or rejected good or bad advice from either the human or machine agent framed as experts with manipulated reliability (high miss rate). We showed that the machine-agent group decreased their advice utilization compared to the human-agent group and these differences in behaviors during advice utilization could be accounted for by high expectations of reliable advice and changes in attention allocation due to miss errors...
July 13, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
OBJECTIVE: The salience network, an intrinsic brain network thought to modulate attention to internal versus external stimuli, has been consistently found to be atypical in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about how this altered resting-state connectivity relates to brain activity during information processing, which has important implications for understanding sensory overresponsivity (SOR), a common and impairing condition in ASD related to difficulty downregulating brain responses to sensory stimuli...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Tianwen Chen, Weidong Cai, Srikanth Ryali, Kaustubh Supekar, Vinod Menon
One of the most fundamental features of the human brain is its ability to detect and attend to salient goal-relevant events in a flexible manner. The salience network (SN), anchored in the anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, plays a crucial role in this process through rapid detection of goal-relevant events and facilitation of access to appropriate cognitive resources. Here, we leverage the subsecond resolution of large multisession fMRI datasets from the Human Connectome Project and apply novel graph-theoretical techniques to investigate the dynamic spatiotemporal organization of the SN...
June 2016: PLoS Biology
Maximilian J Geiger, Katharina Domschke, György A Homola, Stefan M Schulz, Johannes Nowak, Atae Akhrif, Paul Pauli, Jürgen Deckert, Susanne Neufang
Facilitated processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive information in the salience network is suggested to promote the development of anxiety and anxiety disorders. Here, it was investigated whether the adenosine 2 A receptor gene (ADORA2A) 1976T/C (rs5751876) variant - previously associated with anxiety disorders and anxiety-related phenotypes as well as general attentional efficiency -was involved in the regulation of this network. In detail, fMRI recordings of 65 healthy participants (female=35) were analyzed regarding ADORA2A genotype effects on brain connectivity related to (1) interoceptive processing in terms of functional connectivity resting-state fMRI, and (2) exteroceptive processing using dynamic causal modeling in task-based fMRI...
August 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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