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attention network, salience network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#1
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513104/novelty-seeking-and-reward-dependence-related-large-scale-brain-networks-functional-connectivity-variation-during-salience-expectancy
#2
Shijia Li, Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Anna Linda Krause, Coraline D Metzger, Martin Walter
A salience network (SN) anchored in the anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a key role in switching between brain networks during salience detection and attention regulation. Previous fMRI studies have associated expectancy behaviors and SN activation with novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) personality traits. To address the question of how functional connectivity (FC) in the SN is modulated by internal (expectancy-related) salience assignment and different personality traits, 68 healthy participants performed a salience expectancy task using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI) was conducted to determine salience-related connectivity changes during these anticipation periods...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487224/changes-in-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-and-group-relevant-salience-the-case-of-sport-rivalry
#3
Zargol Moradi, Dante Mantini, Alla Yankovskaya, Miles Hewstone, Glyn W Humphreys
Studies have shown that attending to salient group relevant information could increase the BOLD activity across distributed neural networks. However, it is unclear how attending to group relevant information changes the functional connectivity across these networks. We investigated this issue combining resting states and task-based fMRI experiment. The task involved football fans learning associations between arbitrary geometric shapes and the badges of in-group, the rival and the neutral football teams. Upon learning, participants viewed different badge/shape pairs and their task was to judge whether the viewed pair was a match or a mismatch...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484381/impaired-activation-of-visual-attention-network-for-motion-salience-is-accompanied-by-reduced-functional-connectivity-between-frontal-eye-fields-and-visual-cortex-in-strabismic-amblyopia
#4
Hao Wang, Sheila G Crewther, Minglong Liang, Robin Laycock, Tao Yu, Bonnie Alexander, David P Crewther, Jian Wang, Zhengqin Yin
Strabismic amblyopia is now acknowledged to be more than a simple loss of acuity and to involve alterations in visually driven attention, though whether this applies to both stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention has not been explored. Hence we investigated monocular threshold performance during a motion salience-driven attention task involving detection of a coherent dot motion target in one of four quadrants in adult controls and those with strabismic amblyopia. Psychophysical motion thresholds were impaired for the strabismic amblyopic eye, requiring longer inspection time and consequently slower target speed for detection compared to the fellow eye or control eyes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465538/how-doctors-diagnose-diseases-and-prescribe-treatments-an-fmri-study-of-diagnostic-salience
#5
Marcio Melo, Gustavo D F Gusso, Marcelo Levites, Edson Amaro, Eduardo Massad, Paulo A Lotufo, Peter Zeidman, Cathy J Price, Karl J Friston
Understanding the brain mechanisms involved in diagnostic reasoning may contribute to the development of methods that reduce errors in medical practice. In this study we identified similar brain systems for diagnosing diseases, prescribing treatments, and naming animals and objects using written information as stimuli. Employing time resolved modeling of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses enabled time resolved (400 milliseconds epochs) analyses. With this approach it was possible to study neural processes during successive stages of decision making...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457745/sensory-hypersensitivity-predicts-enhanced-attention-capture-by-faces-in-the-early-development-of-asd
#6
E J H Jones, G Dawson, S J Webb
Sensory sensitivity is prevalent among young children with ASD, but its relation to social communication impairment is unclear. Recently, increased sensory hypersensitivity has been linked to greater activity of the neural salience network (Green et al., 2016). Increased neural sensitivity to stimuli, especially social stimuli, could provide greater opportunity for social learning and improved outcomes. Consistent with this framework, in Experiment 1 we found that parent report of greater sensory hypersensitivity at 2 years in toddlers with ASD (N=27) was predictive of increased neural responsiveness to social stimuli (larger amplitude event-related potential/ERP responses to faces at P1, P400 and Nc) at 4 years, and this in turn was related to parent report of increased social approach at 4 years...
April 12, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426553/greater-fear-of-visceral-pain-contributes-to-differences-between-visceral-and-somatic-pain-in-healthy-women
#7
Laura Ricarda Koenen, Adriane Icenhour, Katarina Forkmann, Annika Pasler, Nina Theysohn, Michael Forsting, Ulrike Bingel, Sigrid Elsenbruch
This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study addressed similarities and differences in behavioral and neural responses to experimental visceral compared to somatic pain stimuli and explored the contribution of fear of pain to differences between pain modalities. In N=22 healthy women, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to rectal distensions and cutaneous heat stimuli matched for perceived pain intensity. Fear of pain and pain unpleasantness were assessed before and after scanning. Visceral pain was more fear-evoking, more unpleasant, and trial-by-trial intensity ratings failed to habituate across trials (all interactions modality X time/trial: p<...
April 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424430/exploring-non-stationarity-patterns-in-schizophrenia-neural-reorganization-abnormalities-in-the-alpha-band
#8
Pablo Núñez, Jesus Poza, Alejandro Bachiller, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Alba Lubeiro, Vicente Molina, Roberto Hornero
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize brain non-stationarity during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). The level of non-stationarity was measured in the baseline and response windows of relevant tones in SCH patients and healthy controls. APPROACH: Event-related potentials were recorded from 28 SCH patients and 51 controls. Non-stationarity was estimated in the conventional electroencephalography frequency bands by means of Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#9
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349620/connectivity-patterns-during-music-listening-evidence-for-action-based-processing-in-musicians
#10
Vinoo Alluri, Petri Toiviainen, Iballa Burunat, Marina Kliuchko, Peter Vuust, Elvira Brattico
Musical expertise is visible both in the morphology and functionality of the brain. Recent research indicates that functional integration between multi-sensory, somato-motor, default-mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks of the brain differentiates musicians from non-musicians during resting state. Here, we aimed at determining whether brain networks differentially exchange information in musicians as opposed to non-musicians during naturalistic music listening. Whole-brain graph-theory analyses were performed on participants' fMRI responses...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347858/higher-interference-susceptibility-in-reaction-time-task-is-accompanied-by-weakened-functional-dissociation-between-salience-and-default-mode-network
#11
Florian N Götting, Viola Borchardt, Liliana R Demenescu, Vanessa Teckentrup, Katharina Dinica, Anton R Lord, Tim Rohe, Dorothea I Hausdörfer, Meng Li, Coraline D Metzger, Martin Walter
BACKGROUND: The relationship between task-positive and task-negative components of brain networks has repeatedly been shown to be characterized by dissociated fluctuations of spontaneous brain activity. We tested whether the interaction between task-positive and task-negative brain areas during resting-state predicts higher interference susceptibility, i.e. increased reaction times (RTs), during an Attention Modulation by Salience Task (AMST). METHODS: 29 males underwent 3T resting-state Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanning...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338944/salience-network-engagement-with-the-detection-of-morally-laden-information
#12
Gunes Sevinc, I Hakan Gurvit, R Nathan Spreng
Moral cognition is associated with activation of the default network, regions implicated in mentalizing about one's own actions or the intentions of others. Yet little is known about the initial detection of moral information. We examined the neural correlates of moral processing during a narrative completion task, which included an implicit moral salience manipulation. During fMRI scanning, participants read a brief vignette and selected the most semantically congruent sentence from two options to complete the narrative...
March 9, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#13
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325028/tracking-intrinsic-connectivity-brain-network-features-during-successive-pseudo-resting-states-and-interoceptive-task-fmri
#14
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Advanced multivariate analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contras have revealed that the human brain organizes its activities into multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Several fMRI studies have evaluated the modulations of these networks during different cognitive or emotional tasks using blind source separation techniques particularly the independent component analysis (ICA). In this exploratory study, we applied ICA methodology to examine ICN modulations under different interoceptive conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325027/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#15
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314821/phases-of-hyperconnectivity-and-hypoconnectivity-in-the-default-mode-and-salience-networks-track-with-amyloid-and-tau-in-clinically-normal-individuals
#16
Aaron P Schultz, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Trey Hedden, Elizabeth C Mormino, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Jorge Sepulcre, Willem Huijbers, Molly LaPoint, Rachel F Buckley, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by two hallmark molecular pathologies: amyloid aβ1-42 and Tau neurofibrillary tangles. To date, studies of functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in individuals with preclinical AD have relied on associations with in vivo measures of amyloid pathology. With the recent advent of in vivo Tau-PET tracers it is now possible to extend investigations on fcMRI in a sample of cognitively normal elderly humans to regional measures of Tau. We modeled fcMRI measures across four major cortical association networks [default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SAL), dorsal attention network, and frontoparietal control network] as a function of global cortical amyloid [Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET] and regional Tau (AV1451-PET) in entorhinal, inferior temporal (IT), and inferior parietal cortex...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272117/altered-functional-connectivity-in-sickle-cell-disease-exists-at-rest-and-during-acute-pain-challenge
#17
William T Zempsky, Michael C Stevens, James P Santanelli, Alexandra M Gaynor, Sabin Khadka
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic pain disorder in which abnormally shaped red blood cells obstruct microcirculation causing ischemia and pain. The lack of SCD responsiveness to analgesics has led many to propose that nociceptive neural systems engaged when detecting pain become sensitized, resulting in an enhancement of pain response. METHODS: SCD patients and healthy controls were exposed to a painful stimuli of varying intensity using a pressure algometer and underwent several neuroimaging tasks...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243094/abnormal-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia
#18
Chao Li, Mengshi Dong, Yi Yin, Kelei Hua, Shishun Fu, Guihua Jiang
The investigation of the mechanism of insomnia could provide the basis for improved understanding and treatment of insomnia. The aim of this study is to investigate the abnormal functional connectivity throughout the entire brain of insomnia patients, and analyze the global distribution of these abnormalities. Whole brains of 50 patients with insomnia and 40 healthy controls were divided into 116 regions and abnormal connectivities were identified by comparing the Pearson's correlation coefficients of each pair using general linear model analyses with covariates of age, sex, and duration of education...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227771/tracking-intrinsic-connectivity-brain-network-features-during-successive-pseudo-resting-states-and-interoceptive-task-fmri
#19
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Advanced multivariate analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contras have revealed that the human brain organizes its activities into multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Several fMRI studies have evaluated the modulations of these networks during different cognitive or emotional tasks using blind source separation techniques particularly the independent component analysis (ICA). In this exploratory study, we applied ICA methodology to examine ICN modulations under different interoceptive conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227769/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#20
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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