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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924621/an-altered-scaffold-for-information-processing-cognitive-control-development-in-adolescents-with-autism
#1
Marjorie Solomon, Jeremy Hogeveen, Lauren Libero, Christine Nordahl
We investigated how cognitive neuroscientific studies during the last decade have advanced understanding of cognitive control from adolescence to young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To do so, we conducted a selective review of the larger structural, resting state, and diffusion imaging studies of brain regions and networks related to cognitive control that have been conducted since 2007 in individuals with ASD and typical development (TYP) ages 10 to 30 years that examined how these regions and networks support behavioral and task-based fMRI performance on tasks assessing cognitive control during this period...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923408/altered-functional-connectivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Hana Burianová, Nahla L Faizo, Marcus Gray, Julia Hocking, Graham Galloway, David Reutens
Growing evidence of altered functional connectivity suggests that mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) alters not only hippocampal networks, but also a number of resting state networks. These highly coherent, yet functionally distinct brain circuits interact dynamically with each other in order to mediate consciousness, memory, and attention. However, little is currently known about the modulation of these networks by epileptiform activity, such as interictal spikes and seizures. The objective of the study was to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate functional connectivity in three resting state networks: default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and dorsal attentional network (DAN) in patients with mTLE compared to a healthy cohort, and in relation to the onset of interictal spikes and the period immediately prior to the spikes...
September 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917697/trajectories-of-brain-system-maturation-from-childhood-to-older-adulthood-implications-for-lifespan-cognitive-functioning
#3
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892073/progress-and-roadblocks-in-the-search-for-brain-based-biomarkers-of-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
REVIEW
L Q Uddin, D R Dajani, W Voorhies, H Bednarz, R K Kana
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders benefit most from early interventions and treatments. The development and validation of brain-based biomarkers to aid in objective diagnosis can facilitate this important clinical aim. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of current progress in the use of neuroimaging to identify brain-based biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. We summarize empirical work that has laid the foundation for using neuroimaging to objectively quantify brain structure and function in ways that are beginning to be used in biomarker development, noting limitations of the data currently available...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836577/oxytocin-modulates-attention-switching-between-interoceptive-signals-and-external-social-cues
#5
Shuxia Yao, Benjamin Becker, Weihua Zhao, Zhiying Zhao, Juan Kou, Xiaole Ma, Yayuan Geng, Peng Ren, Keith M Kendrick
Emotional experience involves an integrated interplay between processing of external emotional cues and interoceptive feedback, and this is impaired in a number of emotional disorders. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) enhances the salience of external social cues but its influence on interoception is unknown. The present pharmaco-fMRI study therefore investigated whether OT enhances interoceptive awareness and if it influences the interplay between interoceptive and salience processing. In a randomized, double-blind, between-subject, design study 83 subjects received either intranasal OT or placebo...
August 24, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831125/exploration-of-the-brain-in-rest-resting-state-functional-mri-abnormalities-in-patients-with-classic-galactosemia
#6
Britt van Erven, Bernadette M Jansma, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Inge Timmers
Patients with classic galactosemia, a genetic metabolic disorder, encounter cognitive impairments, including motor (speech), language, and memory deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate spontaneous functional connectivity during rest to investigate potential abnormalities in neural networks. We characterized networks using seed-based correlation analysis in 13 adolescent patients and 13 matched controls. Results point towards alterations in several networks, including well-known resting-state networks (e...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#7
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769748/mechanism-of-cerebralcare-granule%C3%A2-for-improving-cognitive-function-in-resting-state-brain-functional-networks-of-sub-healthy-subjects
#8
Jing Li, Hao Guo, Ling Ge, Long Cheng, Junjie Wang, Hong Li, Kerang Zhang, Jie Xiang, Junjie Chen, Hui Zhang, Yong Xu
Cerebralcare Granule® (CG), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ischemia or mental disorders. The ability of CG to improve health status and cognitive function has drawn researchers' attention, but the relevant brain circuits that underlie the ameliorative effects of CG remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of CG in ameliorating cognitive function in sub-healthy subjects using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762756/intranasal-oxytocin-selectively-modulates-large-scale-brain-networks-in-humans
#9
Katja Brodmann, Oliver Gruber, Roberto Goya-Maldonado
A growing body of evidence indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) alters the neural correlates of socioemotional and salience processing. Yet the effects of OT over important large-scale networks involved in these processes, such as the default mode (DM), ventral attention (VA), and cingulo-opercular (CO) networks, remain unknown. Therefore, we conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study with intranasal 24 IU OT in 38 healthy male subjects using a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to investigate its impact over these three networks candidates...
September 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756109/altered-coupling-of-default-mode-executive-control-and-salience-networks-in-internet-gaming-disorder
#10
J T Zhang, S-S Ma, C-G Yan, S Zhang, L Liu, L-J Wang, B Liu, Y-W Yao, Y-H Yang, X-Y Fang
BACKGROUND: Recently, a triple-network model suggested the abnormal interactions between the executive-control network (ECN), default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) are important characteristics of addiction, in which the SN plays a critical role in allocating attentional resources toward the ECN and DMN. Although increasing studies have reported dysfunctions in these brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD), interactions between these networks, particularly in the context of the triple-network model, have not been investigated in IGD...
July 12, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734059/localized-reductions-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#11
Jia Fan, Paul A Taylor, Sandra W Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Suril Gohel, Bharat B Biswal, Joseph L Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by impairment in cognitive function that may or may not be accompanied by craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and/or growth retardation. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), which examines the low-frequency component of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of an explicit task, provides an efficient and powerful mechanism for studying functional brain networks even in low-functioning and young subjects. Studies using independent component analysis (ICA) have identified a set of resting-state networks (RSNs) that have been linked to distinct domains of cognitive and perceptual function, which are believed to reflect the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain...
October 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730183/aberrant-cerebellar-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-with-psychosis
#12
Ann K Shinn, Youkyung S Roh, Caitlin T Ravichandran, Justin T Baker, Dost Öngür, Bruce M Cohen
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum, which modulates affect and cognition in addition to motor functions, may contribute substantially to the pathophysiology of mood and psychotic disorders, such as bipolar disorder. A growing literature points to cerebellar abnormalities in bipolar disorder. However, no studies have investigated the topographic representations of resting state cerebellar networks in bipolar disorder, specifically their functional connectivity to cerebral cortical networks. METHODS: Using a well-defined cerebral cortical parcellation scheme as functional connectivity seeds, we compared ten cerebellar resting state networks in 49 patients with bipolar disorder and a lifetime history of psychotic features and 55 healthy control participants matched for age, sex, and image signal-to-noise ratio...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#13
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Because both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N = 359, 22-36 years, 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#14
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700819/posterior-dopamine-d2-3-receptors-and-brain-network-functional-connectivity
#15
Atsuko Nagano-Saito, Jennifer I Lissemore, Paul Gravel, Marco Leyton, Felix Carbonell, Chawki Benkelfat
Recent studies suggest that dopaminergic tone influences resting state activity in multiple brain networks. Although dopamine receptors and transporters have been identified in the posteromedial and parietal cortices, which are linked to functional networks such as the default mode network (DMN), the relationship between dopamine receptor distribution in these posterior regions and resting-state connectivity has yet to be explored. Here, we used a multi-modal neuroimaging strategy, combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and [18 F]-fallypride high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET), to examine the association between within-network functional connectivity and the dopamine D2/3 receptor distribution in the posterior portion of the brain in 13 healthy adults...
July 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692956/deepfix-a-fully-convolutional-neural-network-for-predicting-human-eye-fixations
#16
Srinivas S S Kruthiventi, Kumar Ayush, R Venkatesh Babu
Understanding and predicting the human visual attention mechanism is an active area of research in the fields of neuroscience and computer vision. In this paper, we propose DeepFix, a fully convolutional neural network, which models the bottom-up mechanism of visual attention via saliency prediction. Unlike classical works, which characterize the saliency map using various hand-crafted features, our model automatically learns features in a hierarchical fashion and predicts the saliency map in an end-to-end manner...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688263/white-matter-correlates-of-impaired-attention-control-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-healthy-volunteers
#17
Mina M Rizk, Harry Rubin-Falcone, John Keilp, Jeffrey M Miller, M Elizabeth Sublette, Ainsley Burke, Maria A Oquendo, Ahmed M Kamal, Mohamed A Abdelhameed, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired attention control and alterations in frontal-subcortical connectivity. We hypothesized that attention control as assessed by Stroop task interference depends on white matter integrity in fronto-cingulate regions and assessed this relationship using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MDD and healthy volunteers (HV). METHODS: DTI images and Stroop task were acquired in 29 unmedicated MDD patients and 16 HVs, aged 18-65 years...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673598/the-network-model-of-delirium
#18
James W S Young
The coordinated function of brain networks underlies consciousness, attention and reality testing, all of which are impaired in delirium. The default-mode network, salience network, frontoparietal control network and dorsal attention network are brain networks with integral roles in the maintenance and modulation of the aforementioned functions. Multiple lines of evidence point to their dysfunction in delirium. The convergence of neurotransmitter changes, neuroendocrine and inflammatory stressors on brain networks disrupts bottom-up and top-down attentional control...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650974/resting-state-electrical-brain-activity-and-connectivity-in-fibromyalgia
#19
Sven Vanneste, Jan Ost, Tony Van Havenbergh, Dirk De Ridder
The exact mechanism underlying fibromyalgia is unknown, but increased facilitatory modulation and/or dysfunctional descending inhibitory pathway activity are posited as possible mechanisms contributing to sensitization of the central nervous system. The primary goal of this study is to identify a fibromyalgia neural circuit that can account for these abnormalities in central pain. The second goal is to gain a better understanding of the functional connectivity between the default and the executive attention network (salience network plus dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex) in fibromyalgia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#20
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
July 2017: EBioMedicine
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