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attention network, salience network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#1
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622027/communicating-with-sensation-seekers-an-fmri-study-of-neural-responses-to-antidrug-public-service-announcements
#2
Lewis Donohew, Michelle DiBartolo, Xun Zhu, Chelsie Benca, Elizabeth Lorch, Seth M Noar, Thomas H Kelly, Jane E Joseph
This study examined the neural basis of processing high- and low-message sensation value (MSV) antidrug public service announcements (PSAs) in high (HSS) and low sensation seekers (LSS) using fMRI. HSS more strongly engaged the salience network when processing PSAs (versus LSS), suggesting that high-MSV PSAs attracted their attention. HSS and LSS participants who engaged higher level cognitive processing regions reported that the PSAs were more convincing and believable and recalled the PSAs better immediately after testing...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602945/the-energy-landscape-underpinning-module-dynamics-in-the-human-brain-connectome
#3
Arian Ashourvan, Shi Gu, Marcelo G Mattar, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human brain dynamics can be viewed through the lens of statistical mechanics, where neurophysiological activity evolves around and between local attractors representing mental states. Many physically-inspired models of these dynamics define brain states based on instantaneous measurements of regional activity. Yet, recent work in network neuroscience has provided evidence that the brain might also be well-characterized by time-varying states composed of locally coherent activity or functional modules. We study this network-based notion of brain state to understand how functional modules dynamically interact with one another to perform cognitive functions...
June 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596187/functional-connectivity-in-virally-suppressed-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-a-resting-state-analysis
#4
J R Chaganti, A Heinecke, T M Gates, K J Moffat, B J Brew
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder still occurs despite virally suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. In the pre-combination antiretroviral era and in patients without HIV suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder was caused by synaptodendritic injury resulting in impairment of neural networks, characterized by decreased attention, psychomotor slowing, and working memory deficits. Whether similar pathogenesis is true for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in the context of viral suppression is not clear...
June 8, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594841/probabilistic-entity-relationship-diagram-a-correlation-between-functional-connectivity-and-spontaneous-brain-activity-during-resting-state-in-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Lu Zhang, Lin Shi, Bin Zhang, Lei Zhao, Yuhao Dong, Jing Liu, Zhouyang Lian, Long Liang, Wenbo Chen, Xiaoning Luo, Shufang Pei, Xiaokai Mo, Wenhui Huang, Fusheng Ouyang, Baoliang Guo, Changhong Liang, Shuixing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Alterations of functional connectivity (FC) and spontaneous brain activity (SBA) during the resting state has been observed in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although there are many studies separately describing on the alterations of FC and SBA in major depressive disorder, their correlation are still have not been performed. METHODS: A literature search based on Pubmed and Embase was conducted until 20 April 2016 to identify studies evaluating the correlation for the alterations between functional connectivity and spontaneous brain activity during resting-state in MDD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592457/functional-network-integrity-presages-cognitive-decline-in-preclinical-alzheimer-disease
#6
Rachel F Buckley, Aaron P Schultz, Trey Hedden, Kathryn V Papp, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Gad Marshall, Jorge Sepulcre, Emily E Smith, Dorene M Rentz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Jasmeer P Chhatwal
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) measurements of network integrity as a predictor of future cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 237 clinically normal older adults (aged 63-90 years, Clinical Dementia Rating 0) underwent baseline β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging with Pittsburgh compound B PET and structural and rs-fcMRI. We identified 7 networks for analysis, including 4 cognitive networks (default, salience, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control) and 3 noncognitive networks (primary visual, extrastriate visual, motor)...
June 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583880/slow-5-dynamic-functional-connectivity-reflects-the-capacity-to-sustain-cognitive-performance-during-pain
#7
J C Cheng, R L Bosma, K S Hemington, A Kucyi, M A Lindquist, K D Davis
Some individuals are more distracted by pain during a cognitive task than others, representing poor pain coping. We have characterized individuals as A-type (attention dominates) or P-type (pain dominates) based on how pain interferes with task speed. The ability to optimize behavior during pain may relate to the flexibility in communication at rest between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of the executive control network, and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC) of the salience network (SN) - regions involved in cognitive-interference...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560245/assistive-lesion-emphasis-system-an-assistive-system-for-fundus-image-readers
#8
Samrudhdhi B Rangrej, Jayanthi Sivaswamy
Computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tools are of interest as they enable efficient decision-making in clinics and the screening of diseases. The traditional approach to CAD algorithm design focuses on the automated detection of abnormalities independent of the end-user, who can be an image reader or an expert. We propose a reader-centric system design wherein a reader's attention is drawn to abnormal regions in a least-obtrusive yet effective manner, using saliency-based emphasis of abnormalities and without altering the appearance of the background tissues...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539951/disrupted-control-network-connectivity-in-abstinent-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#9
Siekyeong Kim, Sungjin Im, Jeonghwan Lee, Sang-Gu Lee
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol causes damage to the brain and is associated with various functional impairments. However, much of the brain damage can be reversed by abstaining for enough time. This study aims to investigate the patterns and degrees of brain function in abstinent patients with alcohol dependence by using resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: 26 male patients with alcohol dependence (alcohol group) and 28 age-matched male healthy volunteers (control group) were recruited from a mental hospital and the community, respectively...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529874/shared-and-disorder-specific-task-positive-and-default-mode-network-dysfunctions-during-sustained-attention-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Ana Cubillo, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#11
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513104/novelty-seeking-and-reward-dependence-related-large-scale-brain-networks-functional-connectivity-variation-during-salience-expectancy
#12
Shijia Li, Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Anna Linda Krause, Coraline D Metzger, Martin Walter
A salience network (SN) anchored in the anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a key role in switching between brain networks during salience detection and attention regulation. Previous fMRI studies have associated expectancy behaviors and SN activation with novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) personality traits. To address the question of how functional connectivity (FC) in the SN is modulated by internal (expectancy-related) salience assignment and different personality traits, 68 healthy participants performed a salience expectancy task using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI) was conducted to determine salience-related connectivity changes during these anticipation periods...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487224/changes-in-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-and-group-relevant-salience-the-case-of-sport-rivalry
#13
Zargol Moradi, Dante Mantini, Alla Yankouskaya, Miles Hewstone, Glyn W Humphreys
Studies have shown that attending to salient group relevant information could increase the BOLD activity across distributed neural networks. However, it is unclear how attending to group relevant information changes the functional connectivity across these networks. We investigated this issue combining resting states and task-based fMRI experiment. The task involved football fans learning associations between arbitrary geometric shapes and the badges of in-group, the rival and the neutral football teams. Upon learning, participants viewed different badge/shape pairs and their task was to judge whether the viewed pair was a match or a mismatch...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484381/impaired-activation-of-visual-attention-network-for-motion-salience-is-accompanied-by-reduced-functional-connectivity-between-frontal-eye-fields-and-visual-cortex-in-strabismic-amblyopia
#14
Hao Wang, Sheila G Crewther, Minglong Liang, Robin Laycock, Tao Yu, Bonnie Alexander, David P Crewther, Jian Wang, Zhengqin Yin
Strabismic amblyopia is now acknowledged to be more than a simple loss of acuity and to involve alterations in visually driven attention, though whether this applies to both stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention has not been explored. Hence we investigated monocular threshold performance during a motion salience-driven attention task involving detection of a coherent dot motion target in one of four quadrants in adult controls and those with strabismic amblyopia. Psychophysical motion thresholds were impaired for the strabismic amblyopic eye, requiring longer inspection time and consequently slower target speed for detection compared to the fellow eye or control eyes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465538/how-doctors-diagnose-diseases-and-prescribe-treatments-an-fmri-study-of-diagnostic-salience
#15
Marcio Melo, Gustavo D F Gusso, Marcelo Levites, Edson Amaro, Eduardo Massad, Paulo A Lotufo, Peter Zeidman, Cathy J Price, Karl J Friston
Understanding the brain mechanisms involved in diagnostic reasoning may contribute to the development of methods that reduce errors in medical practice. In this study we identified similar brain systems for diagnosing diseases, prescribing treatments, and naming animals and objects using written information as stimuli. Employing time resolved modeling of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses enabled time resolved (400 milliseconds epochs) analyses. With this approach it was possible to study neural processes during successive stages of decision making...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457745/sensory-hypersensitivity-predicts-enhanced-attention-capture-by-faces-in-the-early-development-of-asd
#16
E J H Jones, G Dawson, S J Webb
Sensory sensitivity is prevalent among young children with ASD, but its relation to social communication impairment is unclear. Recently, increased sensory hypersensitivity has been linked to greater activity of the neural salience network (Green et al., 2016). Increased neural sensitivity to stimuli, especially social stimuli, could provide greater opportunity for social learning and improved outcomes. Consistent with this framework, in Experiment 1 we found that parent report of greater sensory hypersensitivity at 2 years in toddlers with ASD (N=27) was predictive of increased neural responsiveness to social stimuli (larger amplitude event-related potential/ERP responses to faces at P1, P400 and Nc) at 4 years, and this in turn was related to parent report of increased social approach at 4 years...
April 12, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426553/greater-fear-of-visceral-pain-contributes-to-differences-between-visceral-and-somatic-pain-in-healthy-women
#17
Laura Ricarda Koenen, Adriane Icenhour, Katarina Forkmann, Annika Pasler, Nina Theysohn, Michael Forsting, Ulrike Bingel, Sigrid Elsenbruch
This functional magnetic resonance imaging study addressed similarities and differences in behavioral and neural responses to experimental visceral compared with somatic pain stimuli and explored the contribution of fear of pain to differences between pain modalities. In N = 22 healthy women, we assessed blood oxygen level-dependent responses to rectal distensions and cutaneous heat stimuli matched for perceived pain intensity. Fear of pain and pain unpleasantness were assessed before and after scanning. Visceral pain was more fear evoking and more unpleasant, and trial-by-trial intensity ratings failed to habituate across trials (all interactions modality × time: P < 0...
April 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424430/exploring-non-stationarity-patterns-in-schizophrenia-neural-reorganization-abnormalities-in-the-alpha-band
#18
Pablo Núñez, Jesus Poza, Alejandro Bachiller, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Alba Lubeiro, Vicente Molina, Roberto Hornero
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize brain non-stationarity during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). The level of non-stationarity was measured in the baseline and response windows of relevant tones in SCH patients and healthy controls. APPROACH: Event-related potentials were recorded from 28 SCH patients and 51 controls. Non-stationarity was estimated in the conventional electroencephalography frequency bands by means of Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#19
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349620/connectivity-patterns-during-music-listening-evidence-for-action-based-processing-in-musicians
#20
Vinoo Alluri, Petri Toiviainen, Iballa Burunat, Marina Kliuchko, Peter Vuust, Elvira Brattico
Musical expertise is visible both in the morphology and functionality of the brain. Recent research indicates that functional integration between multi-sensory, somato-motor, default-mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks of the brain differentiates musicians from non-musicians during resting state. Here, we aimed at determining whether brain networks differentially exchange information in musicians as opposed to non-musicians during naturalistic music listening. Whole-brain graph-theory analyses were performed on participants' fMRI responses...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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