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attention network, salience network

Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
John R Fedota, Xiaoyu Ding, Allison L Matous, Betty Jo Salmeron, Michael R McKenna, Hong Gu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Insular subdivisions show distinct patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with specific brain regions, each with different functional significance. Seeds in these subdivisions are employed to characterize the effects of acute nicotine abstinence on rsFC between insula subdivisions and brain networks implicated in addiction and attentional control. METHODS: In a within-subjects design, resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent data were collected from treatment-seeking smokers (N= 20) following smoking satiety and again following 48 hours of nicotine abstinence...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Flor A Espinoza, Victor M Vergara, Daisy Reyes, Nathaniel E Anderson, Carla L Harenski, Jean Decety, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Barnaly Rashid, Robyn L Miller, Michael Koenigs, David S Kosson, Keith Harenski, Kent A Kiehl, Vince D Calhoun
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and impaired decision making. The disproportionate amount of crime committed by psychopaths has severe emotional and economic impacts on society. Here we examine the neural correlates associated with psychopathy to improve early assessment and perhaps inform treatments for this condition. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychopathy have primarily focused on regions of interest...
March 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Shijie Zhao, Junwei Han, Xi Jiang, Heng Huang, Huan Liu, Jinglei Lv, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
In recent years, natural stimuli such as audio excerpts or video streams have received increasing attention in neuroimaging studies. Compared with conventional simple, idealized and repeated artificial stimuli, natural stimuli contain more unrepeated, dynamic and complex information that are more close to real-life. However, there is no direct correspondence between the stimuli and any sensory or cognitive functions of the brain, which makes it difficult to apply traditional hypothesis-driven analysis methods (e...
February 27, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Weidong Cai, Tianwen Chen, Luca Szegletes, Kaustubh Supekar, Vinod Menon
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to stem from aberrancies in large-scale cognitive control networks. However, the exact nature of aberrant brain circuit dynamics involving these control networks is poorly understood. Using a saliency-based triple-network model of cognitive control, we tested the hypothesis that dynamic cross-network interactions among the salience, central executive, and default mode networks are dysregulated in children with ADHD, and we investigated how these dysregulations contribute to inattention...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Antoine Bernas, Evelien M Barendse, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Frans M J Willems, Peter H N de With, Svitlana Zinger, Jacobus F A Jansen
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) of the ventro-lateral thalamus, a common target for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), resting-state data were analyzed before and 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T), and compared against healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 17 consecutive patients and 10 HC were enrolled. Tremor network was investigated using ventro-lateral ventral (VLV) nucleus as region-of-interest (ROI), extracted using automated segmentation from pretherapeutic diffusion MRI...
February 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sharna D Jamadar, Francesco Sforazzini, Parnesh Raniga, Nicholas J Ferris, Bryan Paton, Michael J Bailey, Amy Brodtmann, Paul A Yates, Geoffrey A Donnan, Stephanie A Ward, Robyn L Woods, Elsdon Storey, John J McNeil, Gary F Egan
Objectives: The onset of many illnesses is confounded with age and sex. Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of many illnesses, and sexual dimorphism influences brain anatomy, function, and cognition. Here, we examine frequency-specific connectivity in resting-state networks in a large sample (n = 406) of healthy aged adults. Method: We quantify frequency-specific connectivity in three resting-state networks known to be implicated in age-related decline: the default mode, dorsal attention, and salience networks, using multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Christophe Habas
Background: Previous ROI-based functional connectivity studies found functional coherence between cerebellum and cerebral amygdale, at rest. Moreover, some neurospychiatric symptoms were accompanied by abnormal activations of these two brain areas. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify a putative, resting-state intrinsically connected cerebello-amygdaloid network. Methods: ICA-based analysis was performed on brain resting-state functional images of 15 volunteers...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Fu-Chi Yang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Ai-Ling Hsu, Jong-Ling Fuh, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Hung-Wen Kao, Ching-Po Lin, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Background: Migraine is frequently comorbid with restless legs syndrome (RLS), both displaying functional connectivity (FC) alterations in multiple brain networks, although the neurological basis of this association is unknown. Methods: We performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and network-wise analysis of FC in migraine patients with and without RLS and healthy controls (CRL). Network-based statistics (NBS) and composite FC matrix analyses were performed to identify the patterns of FC changes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley
Research in experimental psychopathology and cognitive theories of anxiety highlight threat-related attention biases (ABs) and underpin the development of a computer-delivered treatment for anxiety disorders: attention-bias modification (ABM) training. Variable effects of ABM training on anxiety and ABs generate conflicting research recommendations, novel ABM training procedures, and theoretical controversy. This article summarises an updated cognitive-motivational framework, integrating proposals from cognitive models of anxiety and attention, as well as evidence of ABs...
February 2, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Jae Joon Han, Ji Hye Jang, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste, Ja-Won Koo, Jae-Jin Song
Recent studies have suggested that hyperacusis, an abnormal hypersensitivity to ordinary environmental sounds, may be characterized by certain resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns, even with no sound stimulus. However, previous studies are limited in that most studied subjects with other comorbidities that may have affected cortical activity. In this regard, to assess ongoing cortical oscillatory activity in idiopathic hyperacusis patients with no comorbidities, we compared differences in resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns between five idiopathic hyperacusis subjects and five normal controls...
2018: PloS One
Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Timothy B Weng, Caitlin Kienzler, Kirk I Erickson, Michelle W Voss, Eric S Drollette, Lauren B Raine, Shih-Chun Kao, Charles H Hillman, Arthur F Kramer
One of the keys to understanding scholastic success is to determine the neural processes involved in school performance. The present study is the first to use a whole-brain connectivity approach to explore whether functional connectivity of resting state brain networks is associated with scholastic performance in seventy-four 7- to 9-year-old children. We demonstrate that children with higher scholastic performance across reading, math and language have more integrated and interconnected resting state networks, specifically the default mode network, salience network, and frontoparietal network...
2018: PloS One
Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Yu Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim, Joon-Kyung Seong
BACKGROUND: Coordinated and pattern-wise changes in large scale gray matter structural networks reflect neural circuitry dysfunction in late life depression (LLD), which in turn is associated with emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments. However, due to methodological limitations, there have been few attempts made to identify individual-level structural network properties or sub-networks that are involved in important brain functions in LLD. METHODS: In this study, we sought to construct individual-level gray matter structural networks using average cortical thicknesses of several brain areas to investigate the characteristics of the gray matter structural networks in normal controls and LLD patients...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T...
January 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Paul Rinne, Mursyida Hassan, Cristina Fernandes, Erika Han, Emma Hennessy, Adam Waldman, Pankaj Sharma, David Soto, Robert Leech, Paresh A Malhotra, Paul Bentley
Attention control (or executive control) is a higher cognitive function involved in response selection and inhibition, through close interactions with the motor system. Here, we tested whether influences of attention control are also seen on lower level motor functions of dexterity and strength-by examining relationships between attention control and motor performance in healthy-aged and hemiparetic-stroke subjects (n = 93 and 167, respectively). Subjects undertook simple-tracking, precision-hold, and maximum force-generation tasks, with each hand...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nico Bast, Luise Poustka, Christine M Freitag
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit diminished visual engagement to environmental stimuli. Aberrant attentional function provides an explanation by reduced phasic alerting and orienting to exogenous stimuli. We review aberrant attentional function (alerting, orienting, and attentional control) in children with ASD as studied by neurocognitive and neurophysiological tasks as well as magnetic resonance imaging studies. The locus coeruleus - norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is outlined as a pacemaker of attentional function...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
James H Bishop, Marina Shpaner, Antoni Kubicki, Sarah Clements, Richard Watts, Magdalena R Naylor
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a condition that influences central nervous system structure. In this study, we combined novel structural neuroimaging techniques, using well-validated software packages including FSL, Mrtrix3, and DSI Studio, to characterize brain grey (GM) and white matter (WM) differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain participants (n = 74), compared to age-matched pain-free controls (n = 31). In participants with chronic pain, we identified significantly higher volume in subcortical GM structures using voxel-based morphometry (FSLVBM)...
December 11, 2017: NeuroImage
Elizabeth J Woytowicz, Chandler Sours, Rao P Gullapalli, Joseph Rosenberg, Kelly P Westlake
OBJECTIVES: Balance and gait deficits can persist after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet an understanding of the underlying neural mechanism remains limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in attention network modulation in patients with and without balance impairments 2-8 weeks following mild TBI. METHODS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared activity and functional connectivity of cognitive brain regions of the default mode, central-executive and salience networks during a 2-back working memory task in participants with mild TBI and balance impairments (n = 7, age 47 ± 15 years) or no balance impairments (n = 7, age 47 ± 15 years)...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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