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attention network, salience network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765316/noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-overview-of-imaging-studies
#1
REVIEW
Andrew C Peterson, Chiang-Shan R Li
Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC) circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755332/neurofeedback-and-the-neural-representation-of-self-lessons-from-awake-state-and-sleep
#2
Andreas A Ioannides
Neurofeedback has been around for half a century, but despite some promising results it is not yet widely appreciated. Recently, some of the concerns about neurofeedback have been addressed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography adding their contributions to the long history of neurofeedback with electroencephalography. Attempts to address other concerns related to methodological issues with new experiments and meta-analysis of earlier studies, have opened up new questions about its efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753108/response-of-the-multiple-demand-network-during-simple-stimulus-discriminations
#3
Tanya Wen, Daniel J Mitchell, John Duncan
The multiple-demand (MD) network is sensitive to many aspects of task difficulty, including such factors as rule complexity, memory load, attentional switching and inhibition. Many accounts link MD activity to top-down task control, raising the question of response when performance is limited by the quality of sensory input, and indeed, some prior results suggest little effect of sensory manipulations. Here we examined judgments of motion direction, manipulating difficulty by either motion coherence or salience of irrelevant dots...
May 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748588/altered-attentional-control-over-the-salience-network-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#4
Jungyoon Kim, Ilhyang Kang, Yong-An Chung, Tae-Suk Kim, Eun Namgung, Suji Lee, Jin Kyoung Oh, Hyeonseok S Jeong, Hanbyul Cho, Myeong Ju Kim, Tammy D Kim, Soo Hyun Choi, Soo Mee Lim, In Kyoon Lyoo, Sujung Yoon
The degree and salience of pain have been known to be constantly monitored and modulated by the brain. In the case of maladaptive neural responses as reported in centralized pain conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the perception of pain is amplified and remains elevated even without sustained peripheral pain inputs. Given that the attentional state of the brain greatly influences the perception and interpretation of pain, we investigated the role of the attention network and its dynamic interactions with other pain-related networks of the brain in CRPS...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733957/disentangling-reward-anticipation-with-simultaneous-pupillometry-fmri
#5
Max Schneider, Laura Leuchs, Michael Czisch, Philipp G Sämann, Victor I Spoormaker
The reward system may provide an interesting intermediate phenotype for anhedonia in affective disorders. Reward anticipation is characterized by an increase in arousal, and previous studies have linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to arousal responses such as dilation of the pupil. Here, we examined pupil dynamics during a reward anticipation task in forty-six healthy human subjects and evaluated its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pupil size showed a strong increase during monetary reward anticipation, a moderate increase during verbal reward anticipation and a decrease during control trials...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733816/creative-conceptual-expansion-a-combined-fmri-replication-and-extension-study-to-examine-individual-differences-in-creativity
#6
Anna Abraham, Barbara Rutter, Trisha Bantin, Christiane Hermann
The aims of this fMRI study were two-fold. The first objective of the study was to verify whether the findings associated with a previous fMRI study could be replicated in which a novel event-related experimental design was developed which rendered it possible to investigate the brain basis of creative conceptual expansion. The ability to widen the boundaries of conceptual structures is integral to creative idea generation, which makes conceptual expansion a core component of creative cognition. Creative conceptual expansion led to the engagement of brain regions that are known to be involved in the access, storage and relational integration of conceptual knowledge in the original study...
May 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702087/out-of-focus-brain-attention-control-deficits-in-adult-adhd
#7
Juha Salmi, Viljami Salmela, Emma Salo, Katri Mikkola, Sami Leppämäki, Pekka Tani, Laura Hokkanen, Marja Laasonen, Jussi Numminen, Kimmo Alho
Modern environments are full of information, and place high demands on the attention control mechanisms that allow the selection of information from one (focused attention) or multiple (divided attention) sources, react to changes in a given situation (stimulus-driven attention), and allocate effort according to demands (task-positive and task-negative activity). We aimed to reveal how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects the brain functions associated with these attention control processes in constantly demanding tasks...
April 24, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692741/impulsive-internet-game-play-is-associated-with-increased-functional-connectivity-between-the-default-mode-and-salience-networks-in-depressed-patients-with-short-allele-of-serotonin-transporter-gene
#8
Ji Sun Hong, Sun Mi Kim, Sujin Bae, Doug Hyun Han
Problematic Internet game play is often accompanied by major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression seems to be closely related to altered functional connectivity (FC) within (and between) the default mode network (DMN) and salience network. In addition, serotonergic neurotransmission may regulate the symptoms of depression, including impulsivity, potentially by modulating the DMN. We hypothesized that altered connectivity between the DMN and salience network could mediate an association between the 5HTTLPR genotype and impulsivity in patients with depression...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691946/the-goal-priority-network-as-a-neural-substrate-of-conscientiousness
#9
Amanda R Rueter, Samantha V Abram, Angus W MacDonald, Aldo Rustichini, Colin G DeYoung
Conscientiousness is a personality trait associated with many important life outcomes, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie it. We investigated its neural correlates using functional connectivity analysis in fMRI, which identifies brain regions that act in synchrony. We tested the hypothesis that a broad network resembling a combination of the salience and ventral attention networks, which we provisionally label the goal priority network (GPN), is a neural correlate of Conscientiousness. Self- and peer-ratings of Conscientiousness were collected in a community sample of adults who underwent a resting-state fMRI scan (N = 218)...
April 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689282/impulsive-aggression-and-response-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-disruptive-behavioral-disorders-findings-from-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Andrei A Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Kerstin Konrad, Bruce Turetsky, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
BACKGROUND: Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. AIMS AND METHODS: Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. RESULTS: In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673322/the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-deviance-and-target-detection-in-the-passive-and-active-auditory-oddball-paradigm-a-sloreta-study
#11
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) ...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672091/resting-state-connectivity-dynamics-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis
#12
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Vijay A Mittal
Clarifying dynamic fluctuations in resting-state connectivity in individuals at risk for psychosis (termed clinical high risk [CHR]) may inform understanding of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, which have been associated with dysconnectivity and aberrant salience processing. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) investigations provide insight into how neural networks exchange information over time. Currently, there are no published DFC studies involving CHR individuals. This is notable, because understanding how networks may come together and disassociate over time could lend insight into the neural communication that underlies psychosis development and symptomatology...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643826/a-neurodynamic-model-of-feature-based-spatial-selection
#13
Mateja Marić, Dražen Domijan
Huang and Pashler (2007) suggested that feature-based attention creates a special form of spatial representation, which is termed a Boolean map. It partitions the visual scene into two distinct and complementary regions: selected and not selected. Here, we developed a model of a recurrent competitive network that is capable of state-dependent computation. It selects multiple winning locations based on a joint top-down cue. We augmented a model of the WTA circuit that is based on linear-threshold units with two computational elements: dendritic non-linearity that acts on the excitatory units and activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission between excitatory and inhibitory units...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587178/functional-network-integration-and-attention-skills-in-young-children
#14
Christiane S Rohr, Anish Arora, Ivy Y K Cho, Prayash Katlariwala, Dennis Dimond, Deborah Dewey, Signe Bray
Children acquire attention skills rapidly during early childhood as their brains undergo vast neural development. Attention is well studied in the adult brain, yet due to the challenges associated with scanning young children, investigations in early childhood are sparse. Here, we examined the relationship between age, attention and functional connectivity (FC) during passive viewing in multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in 60 typically developing girls between 4 and 7 years whose sustained, selective and executive attention skills were assessed...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574197/working-memory-training-mostly-engages-general-purpose-large-scale-networks-for-learning
#15
REVIEW
Juha Salmi, Lars Nyberg, Matti Laine
The present meta-analytic study examined brain activation changes following working memory (WM) training, a form of cognitive training that has attracted considerable interest. Comparisons with perceptual-motor (PM) learning revealed that WM training engages domain-general large-scale networks for learning encompassing the dorsal attention and salience networks, sensory areas, and striatum. Also the dynamics of the training-induced brain activation changes within these networks showed a high overlap between WM and PM training...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569801/anterior-insula-hyperactivation-in-adhd-when-faced-with-distracting-negative-stimuli
#16
Nora C Vetter, Judith Buse, Lea L Backhausen, Katya Rubia, Michael N Smolka, Veit Roessner
Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from poor emotion regulation that might arise from problems in the distribution of attentional resources when confronted with emotional distractors. Previous studies investigating the neurocognitive basis of these problems remain inconclusive. Moreover, most of these studies did not exclude participants with comorbidity, particularly of conduct or oppositional defiant disorder. The aim of this study was to assess alterations in fronto-limbic activation in ADHD adolescents specifically during negative distractors in an emotional attention task...
March 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568685/food-related-salience-processing-in-healthy-subjects-during-word-recognition-fronto-parietal-network-activation-as-revealed-by-independent-component-analysis
#17
Annette Safi, Christoph Nikendei, Valentin Terhoeven, Matthias Weisbrod, Anuradha Sharma
Background: The study aimed to isolate and localize mutually independent cognitive processes evoked during a word recognition task involving food-related and food-neutral words using independent component analysis (ICA) for continuously recorded EEG data. Recognition memory (old/new effect) involves cognitive subcomponents-familiarity and recollection-which may be temporally and spatially dissociated in the brain. Food words may evoke additional attentional salience which may interact with the old/new effect...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535614/large-scale-brain-networks-supporting-divided-attention-across-spatial-locations-and-sensory-modalities
#18
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529410/nicotine-abstinence-influences-the-calculation-of-salience-in-discrete-insular-circuits
#19
John R Fedota, Xiaoyu Ding, Allison L Matous, Betty Jo Salmeron, Michael R McKenna, Hong Gu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Insular subdivisions show distinct patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with specific brain regions, each with different functional significance. Seeds in these subdivisions are employed to characterize the effects of acute nicotine abstinence on rsFC between insula subdivisions and brain networks implicated in addiction and attentional control. METHODS: In a within-subjects design, resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent data were collected from treatment-seeking smokers (N= 20) following smoking satiety and again following 48 hours of nicotine abstinence...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498761/aberrant-functional-network-connectivity-in-psychopathy-from-a-large-n-985-forensic-sample
#20
Flor A Espinoza, Victor M Vergara, Daisy Reyes, Nathaniel E Anderson, Carla L Harenski, Jean Decety, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Barnaly Rashid, Robyn L Miller, Michael Koenigs, David S Kosson, Keith Harenski, Kent A Kiehl, Vince D Calhoun
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and impaired decision making. The disproportionate amount of crime committed by psychopaths has severe emotional and economic impacts on society. Here we examine the neural correlates associated with psychopathy to improve early assessment and perhaps inform treatments for this condition. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychopathy have primarily focused on regions of interest...
June 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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