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oesophagus cancer

Úna C Mc Menamin, Andrew T Kunzmann, Michael B Cook, Brian T Johnston, Liam J Murray, Andrew D Spence, Marie M Cantwell, Chris R Cardwell
Incidence of upper gastrointestinal cancers of the oesophagus and stomach show a strong unexplained male predominance. Hormonal and reproductive factors have been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers in women but there is little available data on men. To investigate this, we included 219,425 men enrolled in the UK Biobank in 2006-2010. Baseline assessments provided information on hormonal and reproductive factors (specifically hair baldness, number of children fathered, relative age at first facial hair and relative age voice broke) and incident oesophageal or gastric cancers were identified through linkage to UK cancer registries...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Constantin Ciuce, Răzvan Scurtu, Cătălin Ciuce, Raluca Apostu, Horea Bocşe, George Dindelegan
Introduction: Neoplastic invasion of the structures of the cervical region originating from a malignant tumour developed in one of the viscera of the throat may benefit from cervical exenteration. Defined as resection of the hypopharynx, cervical oesophagus, larynx and cervical trachea, exenteration has limited indications and is mandatorily accompanied by digestive tube reconstruction. The aim of this article is to highlight the indication, surgical strategy and important surgical stages illustrated by images from personal professional experience...
January 2018: Chirurgia
Sujata Biswas, Michael Quante, Simon Leedham, Marnix Jansen
Barrett's oesophagus surveillance biopsies represent a significant share of the daily workload for a busy histopathology department. Given the emphasis on endoscopic detection and dysplasia grading, it is easy to forget that the benefits of these screening programs remain unproven. The majority of patients are at low risk of progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and periodic surveillance of these patients is burdensome and costly. Here, we investigate the parallels in the development of Barrett's oesophagus and other scenarios of wound healing in the intestine...
March 3, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Sarmed S Sami, Hasan N Haboubi, Yeng Ang, Philip Boger, Pradeep Bhandari, John de Caestecker, Helen Griffiths, Rehan Haidry, Hans-Ulrich Laasch, Praful Patel, Stuart Paterson, Krish Ragunath, Peter Watson, Peter D Siersema, Stephen E Attwood
These are updated guidelines which supersede the original version published in 2004. This work has been endorsed by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the oesophageal section of the BSG. The original guidelines have undergone extensive revision by the 16 members of the Guideline Development Group with representation from individuals across all relevant disciplines, including the Heartburn Cancer UK charity, a nursing representative and a patient representative...
February 24, 2018: Gut
E Upchurch, M Isabelle, Gavin Rhys Lloyd, C Kendall, H Barr
Introduction Cancer is responsible for an extraordinary burden of disease, affecting 90.5 million people worldwide in 2015. Outcomes for these patients are improved when the disease is diagnosed at an early, or even precancerous, stage. Raman spectroscopy is demonstrating results that show its ability to detect the molecular changes that are diagnostic of precancerous and cancerous tissue. This review highlights the new advances occurring in this domain. Areas Covered PubMed searches were undertaken to identify new research in the utilisation of Raman spectroscopy in cancer diagnostics...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Shachi J Sharma, Jens J Linke, Tobias Kroll, Nora Wuerdemann, Jens P Klussmann, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Claus Wittekindt
BACKGROUND: Correct pre-therapeutic staging of the first primary carcinoma (FPC) and detection of simultaneous second primary carcinomas (SSPCs) decisively influence therapy and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The aim of this study was to determine the benefit of pre-therapeutic triple endoscopy for detection of SSPC and pre-therapeutic T category. METHODS: A cohort of 234 HNSCC patients with completed triple endoscopy was reviewed, focusing on pre-therapeutic T category and SSPC...
2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
Claudia Allemani, Tomohiro Matsuda, Veronica Di Carlo, Rhea Harewood, Melissa Matz, Maja Nikšić, Audrey Bonaventure, Mikhail Valkov, Christopher J Johnson, Jacques Estève, Olufemi J Ogunbiyi, Gulnar Azevedo E Silva, Wan-Qing Chen, Sultan Eser, Gerda Engholm, Charles A Stiller, Alain Monnereau, Ryan R Woods, Otto Visser, Gek Hsiang Lim, Joanne Aitken, Hannah K Weir, Michel P Coleman
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the second cycle of the CONCORD programme established global surveillance of cancer survival as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems and to inform global policy on cancer control. CONCORD-3 updates the worldwide surveillance of cancer survival to 2014. METHODS: CONCORD-3 includes individual records for 37·5 million patients diagnosed with cancer during the 15-year period 2000-14. Data were provided by 322 population-based cancer registries in 71 countries and territories, 47 of which provided data with 100% population coverage...
January 30, 2018: Lancet
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
M R Aberle, R A Burkhart, H Tiriac, S W M Olde Damink, C H C Dejong, D A Tuveson, R M van Dam
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with different gastrointestinal cancers varies widely. Despite advances in treatment strategies, such as extensive resections and the addition of new drugs to chemotherapy regimens, conventional treatment strategies have failed to improve survival for many tumours. Although promising, the clinical application of molecularly guided personalized treatment has proven to be challenging. This narrative review focuses on the personalization of cancer therapy using patient-derived three-dimensional 'organoid' models...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Louise E Daly, Éadaoin B Ní Bhuachalla, Derek G Power, Samantha J Cushen, Karl James, Aoife M Ryan
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition, weight loss, and muscle wasting are common in patients with foregut cancers (oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and bile ducts) and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the changes in body composition that occur in these patients during chemotherapy and its impacts clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of adult foregut cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy between 2012 and 2016 was conducted...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
E K Choi, H B Park, K H Lee, J H Park, M Eisenhut, H J van der Vliet, G Kim, J I Shin
Background: Objectives were to provide an overview and understand the strength of evidence and extent of potential biases and validity of claimed associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and risk of developing cancer. Methods: We performed an umbrella review and comprehensively re-analysed the data of dose-response meta-analyses on associations between BMI and risk of 20-specific cancers (bladder, brain, breast, colonic, rectal, endometrial, gallbladder, gastric, leukemia, liver, lung, melanoma, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, oesophagus, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, renal, thyroid) by adding big data or missed individual studies...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Keisuke Yamamoto, Kenichi Takano, Atsushi Kondo, Makoto Kurose, Kazufumi Obata, Tetsuo Himi
BACKGROUND/AIM: To analyze the clinical features and prevalence of synchronous and metachronous second primary malignancies (SPMs) in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC), their associated risk factors, and cause-specific mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 136 patients treated with curative intent at our hospital. Statistical analyses were performed to determine factors predictive of SPM and cause-specific mortality...
January 2018: In Vivo
Belinda Lee, Ryan Hutchinson, Hui-Li Wong, Jeanne Tie, Tracy Putoczki, Ben Tran, Peter Gibbs, Michael Christie
Carcinomas of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and liver are common and account for a disproportionately high number of cancer deaths. There is a need for new treatment options for patients with advanced disease. Immunomodulatory treatments including immune checkpoint blockade offer a promising new approach, with efficacy shown in other solid tumour types. However, only a small proportion of patients with carcinomas of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and liver have responded to single agent checkpoint inhibitors, and there is a need for markers that are predictive of response to guide treatment of individual patients...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Deborah Pencharz, Malavika Nathan, Thomas L Wagner
Focal incidental uptake, with or without CT abnormalities, is a common finding on FDG PET/CT and evidence based management for this type of uptake is lacking. This article reviews the evidence on focal incidental uptake including the incidence of malignancy, differential diagnosis and imaging criteria which can be used to further characterise it. The article focusses on PET rather than CT criteria. The strength of the evidence base is highly variable ranging from systematic reviews and meta-analyses to a virtual absence of evidence...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
A McWilliam, L Lee, M Harris, H Sheikh, L Pemberton, C Faivre-Finn, M van Herk
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In lung cancer patients, accuracy in contouring is hampered by image artefacts introduced by respiratory motion. With the widespread introduction of 4DCT there is additional uncertainty caused by the use of different reconstruction techniques which will influence contour definition. This work aims to assess both inter- and intra-observer contour variation on average and motion compensated (mid-position) reconstructions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients that received 4DCT were selected and these scans were reconstructed as average and motion compensated datasets...
February 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Christopher William Bleaney, Mickhaiel Barrow, Stephen Hayes, Yeng Ang
AIM: To review the current understanding of signet-ring type oesophageal adenocarcinoma including evidence for prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a literature search of nine healthcare literature databases for articles detailing the biology and clinical outcomes of signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. The impact of signet-ring cell morphology was analysed and detailed in written text and tabular format. Current understanding of the biology of signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus was summarised...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Laura Amato, Danilo Fusco, Anna Acampora, Katia Bontempi, Alessandro Cesare Rosa, Paola Colais, Fabio Cruciani, Mariangela D'Ovidio, Francesca Mataloni, Silvia Minozzi, Zuzana Mitrova, Luigi Pinnarelli, Rosella Saulle, Salvatore Soldati, Chiara Sorge, Simona Vecchi, Martina Ventura, Marina Davoli
BACKGROUND Improving quality and effectiveness of healthcare is one of the priorities of health policies. Hospital or physician volume represents a measurable variable with an impact on effectiveness of healthcare. An Italian law calls for the definition of «qualitative, structural, technological, and quantitative standards of hospital care». There is a need for an evaluation of the available scientific evidence in order to identify qualitative, structural, technological, and quantitative standards of hospital care, including the volume of care above or below which the public and private hospitals may be accredited (or not) to provide specific healthcare interventions...
September 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Mpho Kgomo, Taole R Mokoena, James A Ker
Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus is a common cancer among South Africans. Due to the absence of effective screening and surveillance programme for early detection and late presentation, squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage or when metastasis has already occurred. The 5-year survival is often quoted at 5%-10%, which is poor. Objectives: To determine the association between oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux disease...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Juntaro Matsuzaki, Hidekazu Suzuki
Objective: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for the early detection of cancers. This study aimed to address potential circulating miRNAs to monitor the progression from Barrett's oesophagus (BO) to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Design: We comprehensively analysed tissue and serum miRNA expression profiles of BO mice model (L2-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mice) using microarray analysis. To validate the data from mice, a published dataset of human plasma miRNAs, consisting of eight patients with OAC, eight with BO and six healthy controls, was used (GSE51410)...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Charlotta Hedner, David Borg, Björn Nodin, Emelie Karnevi, Karin Jirström, Jakob Eberhard
AIMS: Neoadjuvant treatment has now become the standard of care for oesophageal and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of neoadjuvant therapy on the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER1/EGFR), HER2 and HER3, in oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 was examined and compared in pretreatment biopsies, post-treatment surgical resection specimens and metastases in a retrospective cohort of 166 patients with adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or stomach...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
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