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ATHEROSCLEROSIS PREVENTION

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913212/pharmacological-inhibition-of-malt1-protease-activity-suppresses-endothelial-activation-via-enhancing-mcpip1-expression
#1
Yong Li, Shengping Huang, Xuan Huang, Xiuzhen Li, Adrian Falcon, Adele Soutar, Frederic Bornancin, Zhisheng Jiang, Hong-Bo Xin, Mingui Fu
Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) is not only an intracellular signaling scaffold protein but also a paracaspase that plays a key role in the signal transduction and cellular activation of lymphocytes and macrophages. However, its role in endothelial cells remains unknown. Here we report that pharmacological inhibition of MALT1 protease activity strongly suppresses endothelial activation via enhancing MCPIP1 expression. Treatment with MALT1 protease inhibitors selectively inhibited TNFα-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs and LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression in mice...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909377/effect-of-aspirin-on-cancer-chemoprevention-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-10-year-observational-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Sadanori Okada, Takeshi Morimoto, Hisao Ogawa, Mio Sakuma, Chisa Matsumoto, Hirofumi Soejima, Masafumi Nakayama, Naofumi Doi, Hideaki Jinnouchi, Masako Waki, Izuru Masuda, Yoshihiko Saito
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in cancer chemoprevention in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a posttrial follow-up of the Japanese Primary Prevention of Atherosclerosis with Aspirin for Diabetes (JPAD) trial. Participants in the JPAD trial (2,536 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and without preexisting cardiovascular disease) were randomly allocated to receive aspirin (81 or 100 mg daily) or no aspirin...
June 16, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907363/critical-roles-of-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Junji Moriya
There is accumulating evidence that vascular inflammation plays critical roles in pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. It is widely accepted that both innate and adaptive immune responses are important for initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, which mainly consist of monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes. Moreover, inflammatory biomarkers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 are known to predict future cardiovascular events, as well as conventional low-density or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906534/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-low-molecular-weight-fucoidan-from-saccharina-japonica-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#4
Yingjie Xu, Jie Xu, Keli Ge, Qingwu Tian, Peng Zhao, Yunliang Guo
Atherosclerosis (AS) is the key cause of many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The inflammatory response and lipid metabolism disorders contribute to the development and progression of AS. This work aims to study the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) obtained from Saccharina japonica on atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice. The experimental results showed that LMWF statistically decreased the levels of triglyceride (TRIG) and oxidative low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) and stabilized established atherosclerotic lesions...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905812/defective-cholesterol-metabolism-in-haematopoietic-stem-cells-promotes-monocyte-driven-atherosclerosis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Dragana Dragoljevic, Michael J Kraakman, Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Devi Ngo, Waled Shihata, Helene L Kammoun, Alexandra Whillas, Man Kit Sam Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Gerard Pernes, Michelle C Flynn, Graeme I Lancaster, Mark A Febbraio, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Beatriz Y Hanaoka, Ian P Wicks, Andrew J Murphy
Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an approximately two-fold elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV)-related mortality. Patients with RA present with systemic inflammation including raised circulating myeloid cells, but fail to display traditional CV risk-factors, particularly dyslipidaemia. We aimed to explore if increased circulating myeloid cells is associated with impaired atherosclerotic lesion regression or altered progression in RA. Methods and results: Using flow cytometry, we noted prominent monocytosis, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis in two mouse models of RA...
June 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903736/limited-macrophage-positional-dynamics-in-progressing-or-regressing-murine-atherosclerotic-plaques
#6
Jesse W Williams, Catherine Martel, Stephane Potteaux, Ekaterina Esaulova, Molly A Ingersoll, Andrew Elvington, Brian T Saunders, Li-Hao Huang, Andreas J Habenicht, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Gwendalyn J Randolph
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but their dynamics within plaques remain obscure. We aimed to quantify macrophage positional dynamics within progressing and regressing atherosclerotic plaques. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a stable intravital preparation, large asymmetrical foamy macrophages in the intima of carotid artery plaques were sessile, but smaller rounded cells nearer plaque margins, possibly newly recruited monocytes, mobilized laterally along plaque borders...
June 14, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899755/combination-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Carolina Guerrero-García, Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra
Hypertension is a major preventable risk factor for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Although modern and effective antihypertensive drugs are available, most patients remain with a suboptimal blood pressure control. Most hypertensive patients will need a combination of antihypertensive agents to achieve the therapeutic goals - recent guidelines recommend initiating treatment with two drugs in those patients with a systolic blood pressure >20 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure >10 mmHg above the goals, and in those patients with high cardiovascular risk...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899250/molecular-pathways-underlying-cholesterol-homeostasis
#8
REVIEW
Milessa Silva Afonso, Roberta Marcondes Machado, Maria Silvia Ferrari Lavrador, Eder Carlos Rocha Quintao, Kathryn J Moore, Ana Maria Lottenberg
Cholesterol is an essential molecule that exerts pleiotropic actions. Although its presence is vital to the cell, its excess can be harmful and, therefore, sustaining cholesterol homeostasis is crucial to maintaining proper cellular functioning. It is well documented that high plasma cholesterol concentration increases the risk of atherosclerotic heart disease. In the last decades, several studies have investigated the association of plasma cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as the signaling pathways involved in cholesterol homeostasis...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899017/statin-eligibility-coronary-artery-calcium-and-subsequent-cardiovascular-events-according-to-the-2016-united-states-preventive-services-task-force-uspstf-statin-guidelines-mesa-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#9
Michael D Miedema, Zeina A Dardari, Sina Kianoush, Salim S Virani, Joseph Yeboah, Thomas Knickelbine, Veit Sandfort, Carlos J Rodriguez, Khurram Nasir, Michael J Blaha
BACKGROUND: The potential impact of the 2016 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines on statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) warrants further analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied participants from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) aged 40 to 75 years and not on statins. We compared statin eligibility at baseline (2000-2002) and over follow-up between USPSTF and the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines...
June 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896258/resveratrol-provides-benefits-in-mice-with-type-ii-diabetes-induced-chronic-renal-failure-through-ampk-signaling-pathway
#10
Haiyan Guo, Linyun Zhang
Type II diabetes-induced ischemic injuries are known to lead to the rapid degeneration of the kidneys as a result of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a condition, which typically manifests with symptoms including cardiovascular system and left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerosis as well as arterial and aortic stiffness. Resveratrol is a multifunctional compound that has been reported to produce beneficial outcomes for patients with type-II diabetes due to prevention of oxidative stress and apoptosis...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895966/a-dual-modality-hybrid-imaging-system-harnesses-radioluminescence-and-sound-to-reveal-molecular-pathology-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#11
Raiyan T Zaman, Siavash Yousefi, Steven R Long, Toshinobu Saito, Michael Mandella, Zhen Qiu, Ruimin Chen, Christopher H Contag, Sanjiv S Gambhir, Frederick T Chin, Butras T Khuri-Yakub, Michael V McConnell, K Kirk Shung, Lei Xing
Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory condition caused by an unstable lesion, called thin-cap fibro atheromata (TCFA) that underlies coronary artery disease (CAD)-one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, early clinical diagnosis and effective risk stratification is important for CAD management as well as preventing progression to catastrophic events. However, early detection could be difficult due to their small size, motion, obscuring 18 F-FDG uptake by adjacent myocardium, and complex morphological/biological features...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895623/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-hemophilia-population
#12
Suman L Sood, Dunlei Cheng, Margaret Ragni, Craig M Kessler, Doris Quon, Amy D Shapiro, Nigel S Key, Marilyn J Manco-Johnson, Adam Cuker, Christine Kempton, Tzu-Fei Wang, M Elaine Eyster, Philip Kuriakose, Annette von Drygalski, Joan Cox Gill, Allison Wheeler, Peter Kouides, Miguel A Escobar, Cindy Leissinger, Sarah Galdzicka, Marshall Corson, Crystal Watson, Barbara A Konkle
Men with hemophilia were initially thought to be protected from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is now clear that atherothrombotic events occur. The primary objective of the CVD in Hemophilia study was to determine the prevalence of CVD and CVD risk factors in US older men with moderate and severe hemophilia and to compare findings with those reported in age-comparable men in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. We hypothesized if lower factor levels are protective from CVD, we would see a difference in CVD rates between more severely affected and unaffected men...
June 12, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891806/anti-atherogenic-effects-of-vaspin-on-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cell-macrophage-responses-and-hyperlipidemic-mouse-plaque-phenotype
#13
Kengo Sato, Remina Shirai, Maho Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Koichiro Shibata, Taisuke Okano, Yusaku Mori, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor) was recently identified as a novel adipocytokine with insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum vaspin levels are reported either increased or decreased in patients with coronary artery disease. Our translational research was performed to evaluate the expression of vaspin in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions, and its effects on atherogenic responses in human macrophages and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), as well as aortic atherosclerotic lesion development in spontaneously hyperlipidemic Apoe −/− mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891593/human-aldose-reductase-expression-prevents-atherosclerosis-regression-in-diabetic-mice
#14
Chujun Yuan, Jiyuan Hu, Saj Parathath, Lisa Grauer, Courtney Blachford Cassella, Svetlana Bagdasarov, Ira J Goldberg, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Edward A Fisher
Guidelines to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes include aggressive LDL lowering, but benefits are attenuated compared to those in patients without diabetes. Consistent with this, we have reported in mice that hyperglycemia impaired atherosclerosis regression. Aldose reductase (AR) is thought to contribute to clinical complications of diabetes by directing glucose into pathways producing inflammatory metabolites. Mice have low levels of AR, thus, raising them to human levels would be a more clinically relevant model to study changes in diabetes under atherosclerosis regression conditions...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891514/neutrophil-and-macrophage-cell-surface-csf-1-shed-by-adam17-drives-mouse-macrophage-proliferation-in-acute-and-chronic-inflammation
#15
Jingjing Tang, Jeremy M Frey, Carole L Wilson, Angela Moncada-Pazos, Clémence Levet, Matthew Freeman, Michael E Rosenfeld, E Richard Stanley, Elaine W Raines, Karin E Bornfeldt
Macrophages are prominent cells in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent studies highlight a role for macrophage proliferation post monocyte recruitment in inflammatory conditions. Using an acute peritonitis model, we identify a significant defect in macrophage proliferation in mice lacking leukocyte transmembrane protease ADAM17. The defect is associated with decreased levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) in the peritoneum, and is rescued by intraperitoneal injection of CSF-1...
June 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886715/recent-advances-in-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-atherosclerotic-stroke
#16
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Apostolos Safouris, Dong-Eog Kim, Andrei V Alexandrov
Atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke that can be effectively prevented with appropriate lifestyle modifications and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Medical advances in recent years along with aggressive cardiovascular risk factor modifications have resulted in decreased recurrence rates of atherosclerotic stroke. Non-statin lipid-lowering molecules have recently shown clinical benefit and are recommended for very high-risk patients to reduce their risk of stroke. Aggressive hypertension treatment is crucial to reduce atherosclerotic stroke risk...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885819/patterns-of-clustering-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-components-and-its-association-with-coronary-heart-disease-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa-a-latent-class-analysis
#17
Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Soraya Moamer, Mahshid Namdari, Yaser Mokhayeri, Mohammad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Seyed Saeed Hashemi-Nazari
BACKGROUND: The Metabolic syndrome (MetS), refers to one of the most challenging public health issues across the world. The aim of this study was to explore the clusters of participants on the basis of MetS components and determine its effect on coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: This study used the information from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). MESA was performed at 6 US sites and was a population-based cohort study of 6776 adults (3576 females; 3200 males), aged 45 to 84 years...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884547/the-incretin-hormone-gip-is-upregulated-in-patients-with-atherosclerosis-and-stabilizes-plaques-in-apoe-mice-by-blocking-monocyte-macrophage-activation
#18
Florian Kahles, Ana Liberman, Constantin Halim, Matthias Rau, Julia Möllmann, Robert Werner Mertens, Marcia Rückbeil, Irmgard Diepolder, Benedikt Walla, Sebastian Diebold, Mathias Burgmaier, Corinna Lebherz, Nikolaus Marx, Michael Lehrke
OBJECTIVE: The incretin hormones GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) and GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) are secreted by the gut after food intake leading to pancreatic insulin secretion and glucose lowering. Beyond its role in glucose control, GLP-1 was found in mice and men to beneficially modulate the process of atherosclerosis, which has been linked to improved cardiovascular outcome of patients with diabetes at high cardiovascular risk treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883748/inflammation-induced-mtorc2-akt-mtorc1-signaling-promotes-macrophage-foam-cell-formation
#19
Dipanjan Banerjee, Archana Sinha, Sudeshna Saikia, Bhaskarjyoti Gogoi, Arvind K Rathore, Anindhya Sundar Das, Durba Pal, Alak K Buragohain, Suman Dasgupta
The transformation of macrophages into lipid loaded foam cells is a critical and early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Several recent reports highlighted that induction of TLR4 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we found that the TLR4 mediated inflammatory signaling communicated with mTORC2-Akt-mTORC1 metabolic cascade in macrophage and thereby promoting lipid uptake and foam cell formation. Mechanistically, LPS treatment markedly upregulates TLR4 mediated inflammatory pathway which by activating mTORC2 induces Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and that aggravate mTORC1 dependent scavenger receptors expression and consequent lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages...
June 5, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881711/protective-effect-of-urtica-dioica-leaf-hydro-alcoholic-extract-against-experimentally-induced-atherosclerosis-in-rats
#20
Fatemeh Namazi, Tahoora Shomali, Pouya Taghikhani, Saied Nazifi
Objective: Finding compounds that could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis (AS) is highly desired. The present study evaluated the protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD, commonly known as stinging nettle) leaf ethanolic extract against high-fat diet-induced AS in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 male adult Sprauge-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups and treated as follows for 9 consecutive weeks: (1) Normal control (NC; normal rats that were fed with a basic diet); (2) Atherosclerotic rats (AT; which received no particular treatment); (3) Atherosclerotic rats that received 100 mg/kg/day ethanolic extract of UD orally and (4) Atherosclerotic rats that received simvastatin 4 mg/kg/day orally...
May 2018: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
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