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ATHEROSCLEROSIS PREVENTION

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665863/effect-of-combined-treatment-with-bisphosphonate-and-vitamin-d-on-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-propensity-score-based-analysis
#1
Kazumasa Ohmura, Masaru Kato, Toshiyuki Watanabe, Kenji Oku, Toshiyuki Bohgaki, Tetsuya Horita, Shinsuke Yasuda, Yoichi M Ito, Norihiro Sato, Tatsuya Atsumi
BACKGROUND: Premature atherosclerosis is one of the major complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently, the biological linkage between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis has garnered much attention. The aim of this study is to explore correlation between the development of atherosclerosis and anti-osteoporotic treatment. METHODS: Consecutive patients with SLE (n = 117) who underwent carotid ultrasonography were retrospectively analyzed using propensity scoring...
April 17, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663892/complement-components-c3-and-c4-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Melanie Copenhaver, Chack-Yung Yu, Robert P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Increased systemic inflammation is engaged likely plays a significant role in the development of adult cardiometabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The complement system is part of the innate immune system and plays a key role in in regulation inflammation. Of particular importance is the activation of complement components C3 and C4. C3 is produced primarily by the liver but is also produced in adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, all of which are present in adipose tissue...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659684/%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-impaired-fetal-growth-and-cardiovascular-risk-nutrition-as-precision-medicine
#3
Michael R Skilton
Precision medicine refers to treatment or prevention strategies in a group of individuals identified by their phenotype or genotype. Dietary components or patterns may play an important role in precision medicine. There is emerging evidence to support a role for n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids in lowering blood pressure and reducing the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in people born with impaired fetal growth, a group at increased risk of coronary artery disease partly due to an increased risk of hypertensive disorders...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659105/lyso-dgts-lipid-isolated-from-microalgae-enhances-pon1-activities-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-increases-pon1-penetration-into-macrophages-and-decreases-cellular-lipid-accumulation
#4
Loureen Dahli, Dana Atrahimovich, Jacob Vaya, Soliman Khatib
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an important role in preventing atherosclerosis. The antioxidant effect of HDL is mostly associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Increasing PON1 activity using nutrients might improve HDL function and quality and thus, decrease atherosclerotic risk. We previously isolated and identified a novel active compound, lyso-DGTS (C20:5,0) from Nannochloropsis sp. ethanol extract. In the present study, its effect on PON1 activities was examined and the mechanism by which the compound affects PON1 activity was explored...
April 16, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656339/role-of-ampk-in-atherosclerosis-via-autophagy-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Hanxiao Ou, Chuhao Liu, Wenjie Feng, Xinwen Xiao, Shengsong Tang, Zhongcheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids and deposition of fibrous elements in the vascular wall, which is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor of energy metabolism that regulates multiple physiological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and the normalization of energy imbalances. Overwhelming evidence indicates that AMPK activation markedly attenuates atherosclerosis development. Autophagy inhibits cell apoptosis and inflammation and promotes cholesterol efflux and efferocytosis...
April 12, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655699/scutellarin-protects-against-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-and-prevents-atherosclerosis-via-antioxidation
#6
Jiao Mo, Renhua Yang, Fan Li, Xiaochao Zhang, Bo He, Yue Zhang, Peng Chen, Zhiqiang Shen
BACKGROUND: Scutellarin is the major constituent responsible for the clinical benefits of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz which finds a long history of ethnopharmacological use in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Scutellarin as a pure compound is now under investigation for its protections against various tissue injuries. PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the effects of scutellarin on oxidative stress-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and endothelial cell damage, and then to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of scutellarin in preventing atherosclerosis in rats...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652673/inflammation-and-coronary-artery-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-canakinumab-anti-inflammatory-thrombosis-outcomes-study-cantos
#7
Mahboob Ali, Sameh Girgis, Atif Hassan, Steven Rudick, Richard C Becker
The worldwide prevalence of cardiovascular disease in general and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in particular is a health and economic concern of unparalleled proportion. Despite a long history of astute observations beginning in 1575 made by Fallopius, followed by those of von Rokatansky, Virchow, Osler, and Ross, and incremental knowledge of the pathobiology of atherosclerosis to include varying stages of inflammation, response to internally and externally mediated vascular injury, and impaired homeostasis, gaps in the field's understanding persist...
April 12, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651042/effects-of-scavenger-receptors-1-class-a-stimulation-on-macrophage-morphology-and-highly-modified-advanced-glycation-end-product-protein-phagocytosis
#8
Shinichi Hamasaki, Takuro Kobori, Yui Yamazaki, Atsuhiro Kitaura, Atsuko Niwa, Takashi Nishinaka, Masahiro Nishibori, Shuji Mori, Shinichi Nakao, Hideo Takahashi
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which comprise non-enzymatically glycosylated proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid amino groups, play an important role in several diseases and aging processes including angiopathy, renal failure, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative diseases. Among AGE-associated phenotypes, toxic AGEs, glyceraldehyde-derived AGE-2, and glycolaldehyde-derived AGE-3 are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In addition, macrophages are reported to remove extracellular AGEs from tissues via scavenger receptors, leading to the progression of atherosclerosis...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650711/american-heart-association-s-life-simple-7-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-population-without-known-cardiovascular-disease-the-aric-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#9
Parveen K Garg, Wesley T O'Neal, Lin Y Chen, Laura R Loehr, Nona Sotoodehnia, Elsayed Z Soliman, Alvaro Alonso
BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association has defined metrics of ideal cardiovascular health known as Life's Simple 7 (LS7) to prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between LS7 and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in a biracial cohort of middle- and older-aged adults without known cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: This analysis included 13 182 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants (mean baseline age=54±5...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644507/the-impact-of-obesity-on-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Daniel F Argolo, Clifford A Hudis, Neil M Iyengar
The rates of obesity are increasing worldwide and this condition is now recognized as a leading preventable cause of cancer. Several diseases are directly related to obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, and a diverse range of malignances-such as breast cancer. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and worse cancer-related outcomes for all breast tumor subtypes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the obesity-cancer link, including high levels of circulating and local estrogens, altered amounts of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), disrupted insulin/IGF signaling, modifications within the microbiome, and local and systemic effects of inflammation...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629297/influences-of-pinpoint-plantar-long-wavelength-infrared-light-irradiation-stress-free-therapy-on-chorioretinal-hemodynamics-atherosclerosis-factors-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#11
Keisou Ishimaru, Takuma Nakajima, Yoshihisa Namiki, Kenji Ryotokuji
Background: We previously reported that pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation (stress-free therapy; SFT) is useful for alleviating insulin resistance and improving intracranial blood flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influences of SFT on chorioretinal hemodynamics (retinal artery and vein blood flows) as well as atherosclerosis-related factors (TG, LDL-C) and VEGF in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: Four patients with dyslipidemia received 15-minute irradiation with a stress-free apparatus (far-infrared wavelength, 30 mW)...
March 2018: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629289/structural-characteristics-bioavailability-and-cardioprotective-potential-of-saponins
#12
REVIEW
Deepika Singh, Prabir Kumar Chaudhuri
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death, accounting about 31% deaths globally in 2012. The major risk factors causing cardiovascular diseases are coronary atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The dominating cause of cardiovascular diseases is accredited to our modern lifestyle and diet. Medicinal plants have been used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases from centuries. The in built chirality and chemical space of natural products have been playing an important role in providing leads and templates for pharmacophore synthesis...
March 2018: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628458/low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-goal-attainment-rates-by-initial-statin-monotherapy-among-patients-with-dyslipidemia-and-high-cardiovascular-risk-in-japan-a-retrospective-database-analysis
#13
Tatsuya Umeda, Ai Hayashi, Akiko Harada, Kotoba Okuyama, Carl A Baxter, Shigeru Tokita, Tamio Teramoto
BACKGROUND: To understand the recent management status in Japan, we determined the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment (GA) rate of patients initiating statin monotherapy for dyslipidemia.Methods and Results:Dyslipidemic patients undergoing either primary prevention with high cardiovascular risk or secondary prevention (defined by 2012 Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines) were retrospectively analyzed from a hospital-based claims database. In both groups, the LDL-C levels and GA rates of patients treated with intensive or standard statin monotherapy for ≥4 weeks (January 2012-August 2016) were evaluated...
April 7, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622590/carotid-atherosclerosis-detected-by-ultrasonography-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#14
Xiaojun Wang, Wenzhen Li, Fujian Song, Longde Wang, Qian Fu, Shiyi Cao, Yong Gan, Wei Zhang, Wei Yue, Feng Yan, Wenhuan Shi, Xiaoli Wang, Hong Zhang, Hao Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Zuxun Lu
BACKGROUND: Carotid atherosclerosis (CA) is a reflector of generalized atherosclerosis that is associated with systemic vascular disease. Data are limited on the epidemiology of carotid lesions in a large, nationally representative population sample. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CA detected by carotid ultrasonography and related risk factors based on a national survey in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 107 095 residents aged ≥40 years from the China National Stroke Prevention Project underwent carotid ultrasound examination...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621160/therapeutic-potential-and-recent-advances-of-curcumin-in-the-treatment-of-aging-associated-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Sathish Sundar Dhilip Kumar, Nicolette Nadene Houreld, Heidi Abrahamse
Curcumin, a low molecular weight, lipophilic, major yellow natural polyphenolic, and the most well-known plant-derived compound, is extracted from the rhizomes of the turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) plant. Curcumin has been demonstrated as an effective therapeutic agent in traditional medicine for the treatment and prevention of different diseases. It has also shown a wide range of biological and pharmacological effects in drug delivery, and has actively been used for the treatment of aging-associated diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, ocular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney diseases, chronic inflammation and infection...
April 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618649/brain-large-artery-lymphocytic-inflammation-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-brain-arterial-remodeling
#16
Adele Shenoy, Andrew Dwork, Mitchell S V Elkind, Randolph Marshall, Susan Morgello, Jose Gutierrez
The pathogenesis of increased stroke risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains unclear. Our study investigated the relationship between adventitial and intimal CD3+ T cells and brain arterial remodeling that potentially contributes to HIV-related vasculopathy and stroke. Large brain arteries from 84 HIV+ cases and 78 HIV- cases were analyzed to determine interadventitial and luminal diameters, intimal and wall thickness, percentage stenosis, and presence of atherosclerosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect and visually score CD3, a pan T cell marker, in the intima and adventitia...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618474/cruciferous-and-total-vegetable-intakes-are-inversely-associated-with-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-older-adult-women
#17
Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Catherine P Bondonno, Joshua R Lewis, Richard J Woodman, Amanda Devine, Nicola P Bondonno, Wai H Lim, Kun Zhu, Lawrence J Beilin, Peter L Thompson, Richard L Prince, Jonathan M Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables are considered to reduce atherosclerotic disease presentation and are reported to be inversely associated with subclinical measures of atherosclerosis, such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque. However, the effect of vegetable intake alone, and relationships to specific types of vegetables containing different phytochemical profiles, is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of total vegetable intake and specific vegetables grouped according to phytochemical constituents with common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and carotid plaque severity in a cohort of older adult women (aged ≥70 years)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615934/chamazulene-attenuates-ros-levels-in-bovine-aortic-endothelial-cells-exposed-to-high-glucose-concentrations-and-hydrogen-peroxide
#18
Giulia Querio, Susanna Antoniotti, Federica Foglietta, Cinzia M Bertea, Roberto Canaparo, Maria P Gallo, Renzo Levi
Endothelial cells surround the lumen of blood vessels and modulate many physiological processes, including vascular tone, blood fluidity, inflammation, immunity and neovascularization. Many pathological conditions, including hyperglycemia, may alter endothelial function through oxidative stress, leading to impaired nitric oxide bioavailability and to the onset of an inflammatory state. As widely shown in the last decade, dietary intervention could represent a good strategy to control endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614967/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-nephrotic-syndrome-in-childhood-cvons-study-a-protocol-for-prospective-cohort-study
#19
S K Patnaik, P Kumar, M Bamal, S Patel, M P Yadav, V Kumar, A Sinha, A Bagga, M Kanitkar
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by dyslipidemia which is a well-known risk factor for atherogenesis. Atherosclerosis in childhood is mostly subclinical and endothelial dysfunction is known to precede this. Evidence for screening for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors and early identification of premature onset of atherosclerosis in childhood NS remains tenuous in the absence of well-designed prospective studies addressing cardiovascular comorbidity in NS...
April 3, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611586/ultrasonicated-lespedeza-cuneata-extract-prevents-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-early-atherosclerosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Su Jeong Ha, Jangho Lee, Kyung-Mo Song, Young Ho Kim, Nam Hyouck Lee, Young-Eon Kim, Sung Keun Jung
This study evaluated the use of ultrasonication to extract Lespedeza cuneata as a potential nutraceutical for preventing vascular inflammation. Ultrasonicated L. cuneata extract (ULCE) was prepared using 20% ethanol and 2 h of ultrasonication at room temperature, and its effects were investigated using relevant in vitro and in vivo models. ULCE suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced adhesion capacity, vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) expression, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
April 3, 2018: Food & Function
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