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Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Yilu Chen, Tanchu Yang, Cuifang Hao, Junzhao Zhao
BACKGROUND Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are given letrozole before a trigger injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to lower estrogen (E2) levels, but can experience ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral letrozole, prior to administration of hCG, on the outcome of IVF and development of OHSS. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective clinical review included 181 cases of women with PCOS who underwent IVF cycles with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) (IVF/ICSI-ET)...
June 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Y-C Jiang, J-X Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of microRNA-324-3p (miR-324-3p) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal group (n=30) and experimental group (n=30). Rats in the experimental group were intramuscularly injected with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (6 mg/100 g of body weight) and 0.2 mL oil for injection, while those in normal group were intramuscularly injected with 0...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Cuiling Lu, Hongbin Chi, Yapeng Wang, Xue Feng, Lina Wang, Shuo Huang, Liying Yan, Shengli Lin, Ping Liu, Jie Qiao
In an attempt to explore the early developmental arrest in embryos from polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients, we sequenced the transcriptome profiles of PCOS arrested 2-cell embryos, non-PCOS arrested 2-cell embryos and non-arrested 2-cell embryos using single-cell RNA-Seq technique. Differential expression analysis was performed using the DEGSeq R package. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment was analyzed using the GOseq R package. Data revealed 62 differentially expressed genes between non-PCOS arrested and PCOS arrested embryos and 2217 differentially expressed genes between PCOS arrested and non-arrested 2-cell embryos...
June 18, 2018: Cell Cycle
Yiping Wang, Xu Xiong, Lydia Bazzano, Emily W Harville
BACKGROUND: Although childhood cardiovascular risk can contribute to adult cardiovascular disease, and fertility and adult cardiovascular health are linked, the association between early-life cardiovascular risk and female infertility has not been studied. METHODS: A total of 1799 women participated in the Babies substudy of the Bogalusa Heart Study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, glucose, and insulin were age-standardized and examined as predictors of self-reported fertility difficulties using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for confounders...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Research
Tom Tanbo, Jan Mellembakken, Sverre Bjercke, Eva Ring, Thomas Åbyholm, Peter Fedorcsak
The objective of this narrative review is to suggest a rational order of treatment choices in anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), for whom a multitude of treatment options exist. In obese/overweight PCOS patients the importance of weight reduction should be stressed. Inositol, a dietary supplement with a documented effect on ovulation and without side effects in the doses recommended, may be suggested. Additional first line medical alternatives include insulin sensitizers, selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors...
June 11, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Ling-Yu Shen, Cui-Mei Liang, Wen-Jin Yang, Liang Pan, Hua Li, Hui Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with abdominal obesity by regulating glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, sex hormones, etc. METHODS: Eligible PCOS volunteers were randomly divided into treatment group( n =30) and control group( n =28). The treatment group received acupuncture therapy three times a week combined with diet control and exercise. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 4-8 mA) was applied to bilateral Daimai (GB 26)and Tianshu (ST 25) for 20 min/time, and bilateral Daheng (SP 15), Shenshu (BL 23), Ciliao (BL 32), Guilai (ST 29), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Waiguan (SJ 5) were stimulated with filiform needles, with the needles retained for 20 min...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Aparna Prathap, T P Subhalakshmi, P Joseph Varghese
Background: The polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphologic features. Earlier studies have shown that depression was significantly increased in the polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) group and also that PCOD women had marked reduction in quality of life, impaired emotional well-being, and reduced sexual satisfaction. This study was undertaken with the objectives of studying the proportion of anxiety and depression and assessing the quality of life and its correlates in women with PCOD...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Aditi P Chaudhari, Kaustubh Mazumdar, Pooja Deepak Mehta
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Symptoms include amenorrhea, hirsutism, infertility, obesity, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia. PCOS is a stigmatizing condition that affects a woman's identity, mental health and quality of life (QOL). This aspect has not received adequate attention in India. Aims and Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of anxiety and depression among women suffering from PCOS (2) To determine if symptoms of PCOS were associated with psychiatric morbidity, and (3) To determine the impact of psychiatric morbidity on the QOL...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Timothy Wang, Wei Yang, Sidika Karakas, Souvik Sarkar
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of disease, including hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. NAFLD carries the risk of progression to cirrhosis with its associated complications and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is now the most common liver disease in the Western world and its prevalence is increasing. While the association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes has been well documented, there is significantly less understanding of the pathophysiology and progression of NAFLD in patients with other endocrine disorders affecting metabolism in various ways...
June 6, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Brianna M Lyttle Schumacher, Anne Marie Z Jukic, Anne Z Steiner
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between antimüllerian hormone (AMH), a measure of ovarian reserve, and miscarriage among naturally conceived pregnancies. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women (n = 533), between 30 and 44 years of age with no known history of infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or endometriosis who conceived naturally. INTERVENTION(S): None...
June 2, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Yoni Cohen, Alexandra St-Onge-St-Hilaire, Samer Tannus, Grace Younes, Michael H Dahan, William Buckett, Weon-Young Son
PURPOSE: To assess effects on fertilization rate, embryo quality, pregnancy, and live birth rates of vitrification and warming of oocytes that matured in vitro (vIVM) compared to fresh in vitro maturation (fIVM) cycles. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study conducted at a university hospital-affiliated IVF unit. Fifty-six cycles of vIVM cycles and 263 fIVM in women diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) ovaries were included in the analysis. The study group included PCOS patients who failed ovulation induction with intrauterine insemination and were offered IVM cycle followed by oocyte vitrification and warming...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Marziyeh Salehi Jahromi, Jennifer W Hill, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Azita Zadeh-Vakili
INTRODUCTION: The methylation level of promoters is one of the most studied and well-known epigenetic mechanisms that programs the amount of gene expression. Over expression of steroidogenesis genes via epigenetic control can result in hypetandrogenism, which is the main endocrine aspect of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). AIMS: In the present study we aimed to determine and compare the promoter methylation levels of three steroidogenic genes, CYP17, GATA6 and StAR, in theca cells of prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats to those of controls...
May 30, 2018: Life Sciences
Inthrani R Indran, Zhongwei Huang, Lay Wai Khin, Jerry K Y Chan, Veronique Viardot-Foucault, E L Yong
OBJECTIVES: Though the Rotterdam 2003 polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) diagnostic criteria is widely used, the need to consider multiple variables makes it unwieldy in clinical practice. We propose a simplified PCOS criteria wherein diagnosis is made if two of the following three items were present: a) oligomenorrhoea b) anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) above threshold and/or c) hyperandrogenism defined as either testosterone above threshold and/or the presence of hirsutism. DESIGN SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cross-sectional study consists of healthy women (n=157) recruited at an annual hospital health screen for staff and volunteers from the university community, and a patient cohort (n=174) comprising women referred for suspected PCOS...
May 30, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Jordan S Klebanoff, Shivani K Shah, Mark G Cadungog
We present the case of a 28-year-old nulliparous female with malignant transformation of an ectopic focus of endometriosis in the right ischioanal fossa. A 28-year-old nulliparous patient with a past medical history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma in her right ischioanal fossa. Initially, patient presented to an emergency department and underwent a CT scan of the appendix to rule out appendicitis. A multiloculated cystic lesion adjacent to the right obturator internus muscle was found...
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Eleni Magdalini Kyritsi, Georgios K Dimitriadis, Anna Angelousi, Hiten Mehta, Amjad Shad, Maria Mytilinaiou, Gregory Kaltsas, Harpal S Randeva
BACKGROUND: To identify a serum prolactin (PRL) cut-off value indicative of a PRL-producing adenoma in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and hyperprolactinaemia and characterize such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present retrospective case-control study, the medical records of 528 PCOS women were reviewed. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in PCOS patients with PRL levels ≥94.0 ng/mL and/or symptoms suspicious of a pituitary adenoma (PA)...
May 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Hongjuan Ye, Hui Tian, Wen He, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang, Qiuju Chen, Lihua Sun
BACKGROUND: Oral progestin has recently been used to prevent premature LH surges in ovarian stimulation, and this progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) is effective and safe in patients with different ovarian reserves. The current data are lacking regarding how to individualize the gonadotropin dose and regimen for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A retrospective cohort trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of progestin-primed milder stimulation with clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to the standard progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) protocol for infertile women with PCOS...
May 28, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Abdullah Karaer, Gorkem Tuncay, Akın Mumcu, Berat Dogan
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a change in the follicular fluid metabolomics profile due to endometrioma is identifiable. Twelve women with ovarian endometriosis (aged<40 years, with a body mass index [BMI] of <30 kg/m2 ) and 12 age- and BMI-matched controls (women with infertility purely due to a male factor) underwent ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Follicular fluid samples were collected from both of groups at the time of oocyte retrieval for ICSI...
May 28, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Sebastian Franik, Stephanie M Eltrop, Jan Am Kremer, Ludwig Kiesel, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infrequent periods (oligomenorrhoea) and absence of periods (amenorrhoea). It affects about 4% to 8% of women worldwide and often leads to anovulatory subfertility. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that were introduced for ovulation induction in 2001. Since about 2001 clinical trials have reached differing conclusions as to whether the AI letrozole is at least as effective as the first-line treatment clomiphene citrate (CC)...
May 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Dhananjay Radhakrishnan Subramaniam, Raanan Arens, Mark E Wagshul, Sanghun Sin, David M Wootton, Ephraim J Gutmark
Highly compliant tissue supporting the pharynx and low muscle tone enhance the possibility of upper airway occlusion in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The present study describes subject-specific computational modeling of flow-induced velopharyngeal narrowing in a female child with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) with OSA and a non-OSA control. Anatomically accurate three-dimensional geometries of the upper airway and soft-palate were reconstructed for both subjects using magnetic resonance (MR) images...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Ya-Li Yang, Li-Feng Sun, Yan Yu, Tian-Xia Xiao, Bao-Bei Wang, Pei-Gen Ren, Hui-Ru Tang, Jian V Zhang
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex genetic disease with multifarious phenotypes. Many researches use dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to induce PCOS in pubertal mouse models. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of GPR1 in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced hyperandrogenized mice. METHODS: Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (25 days of age) and Gpr1-deficient mice were each divided into two groups and injected daily with sesame oil with or without DHEA (6 mg/100 g) for 21 consecutive days...
May 24, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
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