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Polycystic ovarian syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226956/analysis-of-secreted-peptidome-from-omental-adipose-tissue-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-patients
#1
Genmei Jia, Hongjiang Tao, Yunping Xue, Sujuan Xu, Kai Xue, Qiaoying Zhu, Xiaoyan Chen, Qian Li, Pengfei Xu
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders. Prevalence of adiposity and obesity is greater in women suffering from PCOS. Moreover, adipose tissue dysfunction has been demonstrated in PCOS patients, particularly in abdominal adipose tissue. This dysfunction likely aggravates the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities. We used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to compare the peptides secreted from PCOS and non-PCOS abdominal adipose tissue...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224376/regulation-of-follicle-growth-through-hormonal-factors-and-mechanical-cues-mediated-by-hippo-signaling-pathway
#2
Ikko Kawashima, Kazuhiro Kawamura
The ovary is an interesting organ that shows major structural changes within a short period of time during each reproductive cycle. Follicle development is controlled by local paracrine and systemic endocrine factors. Many hormonal and molecular analyses have been conducted to find the mechanisms underlying structural changes in ovaries, However, exact mechanisms still remain to be determined. Recent development of mechanobiology facilitates the understanding on the contribution of physical forces and changes in the mechanical properties of cells and tissues to physiology and pathophysiology...
December 9, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224112/the-role-of-androgen-excess-in-metabolic-dysfunction-in-women-androgen-excess-and-female-metabolic-dysfunction
#3
Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the association of androgen excess with chronic oligoovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, yet metabolic disorders and classic and nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors cluster in these women from very early in life. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying the association of PCOS with metabolic dysfunction, focusing on the role of androgen excess on the development of visceral adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217212/ovarian-morphology-by-transabdominal-ultrasound-correlates-with-reproductive-and-metabolic-disturbance-in-adolescents-with-pcos
#4
Beth W Rackow, Heidi Vanden Brink, Lynwood Hammers, Clare A Flannery, Marla E Lujan, Tania S Burgert
PURPOSE: To determine whether ovarian morphology imaged using transabdominal ultrasonography reflects clinical and metabolic features in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A retrospective pilot study was conducted in 33 adolescents (12-18 years) with PCOS as defined by hyperandrogenism and irregular cycles. Adolescents underwent the following assessments at a random time during the menstrual cycle: transabdominal ultrasonography, physical examination (height, weight, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), fasting hormonal tests (free, percent free, and total testosterone, androstenedione, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone), and metabolic tests (including an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting and 2-hour insulin and glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and whole-body insulin sensitivity index)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211888/combined-oral-contraception-and-bicalutamide-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-severe-hirsutism-a-double-blind-rtc
#5
Costanzo Moretti, Laura Guccione, Paola Di Giacinto, Ilaria Simonelli, Caterina Exacoustos, Vincenzo Toscano, Cecilia Motta, Vincenzo De Leo, Felice Petraglia, Andrea Lenzi
Background: Hirsutism is frequently expressed in women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The efficacy of oral contraceptive pill (OC) plus anti-androgens in the treatment of its severe expression is controversial due to the lack of randomized double-blind long-term studies. Aim: The primary outcome was the reduction of hirsutism in PCOS women objectively measured by videodermoscopy (VD) on the androgen-sensitive skin areas assessed by the modified Ferriman&Gallwey (mF&G) total score, after 12 months of therapy with OC+Bicalutamide (BC) versus OC plus placebo (P)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210800/molecular-modifiers-of-hormone-receptor-action-decreased-androgen-receptor-expression-in-mismatch-repair-deficient-endometrial-endometrioid-adenocarcinoma
#6
Qiong Gan, Suzanne Crumley, Russell R Broaddus
Endometrial endometrioid carcinoma is related to estrogen excess and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to elevated androgens, as in polycystic ovarian syndrome, increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Factors impacting androgen receptor (AR) expression are not well studied. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency due to MLH1 gene methylation is one of the most common molecular alterations in endometrial cancer, occurring in 15% to 20% of cases. MLH1 methylation can be associated with decreased expression of other genes, so we examined the effect of MMR status on AR expression...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210631/uterine-function-from-normal-to-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-alterations
#7
Silvana Rocio Ferreira, Alicia Beatriz Motta
BACKGROUND: The endometrium is one of the most important female reproductive organs. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and endocrine pathology that affect women of reproductive age. PCOS negatively affects the endometrium, leading to implantation failure and proliferative aberrations. METHODS: We conducted a search at the http://www.ncbi.nlm.nhi.gov/pubmed/electronic database using the following key words: endometrial steroid receptors, endometrium, uterine function, endometrium and PCOS, implantation window, implantation and PCOS, implantation markers, inflammation, oxidative stress...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209995/early-clinical-expressions-of-insulin-resistance-the-real-enemy-to-look-for
#8
René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro, José Gerardo González-González
The type 2 diabetes mellitus epidemic threatens public healthcare systems worldwide. Efforts to prevent chronic complications of diabetes and reduce their associated mortality have been ineffective. Hence, early prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease needs to be prioritized. This strategy, however, must be centered not on an approach based on hyperglycemia but on early pathophysiologic mechanisms, such as insulin resistance. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, androgenic alopecia, acanthosis nigricans, and polycystic ovarian syndrome are all well-accepted early clinical manifestations of insulin resistance that represent, in themselves, a risk for further development of type 2 diabetes and that appear years before hyperglycemia...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205115/the-overlap-between-binge-eating-behaviors-and-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-an-etiological-integrative-model
#9
Chiara Paganini, Gregory Peterson, Vasilis Stavropoulos, Isabel Krug
Studies indicate that Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) features (e.g. insulin instability, food cravings, overproduction of androgens and menstrual irregularities) associate with increased appetite, impaired impulse control and feelings of body dissatisfaction. Counter intuitively, binge eating behaviors have been shown to reinforce PCOS symptomatology, precipitating concurrently body dissatisfaction, weight gain, insulin instability and overproduction of androgens. The present systematic literature review aspires to investigate the relationship between binge eating, in the broader context of eating disorder behaviors, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), taking into account shared characteristics between EDs (Eating Disorders) and PCOS...
December 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204121/abnormal-cftr-affects-glucagon-production-by-islet-%C3%AE-cells-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#10
Wen Qing Huang, Jing Hui Guo, Chun Yuan, Yu Gui Cui, Fei Yang Diao, Mei Kuen Yu, Jia Yin Liu, Ye Chun Ruan, Hsiao Chang Chan
Glucagon, produced by islet α cells, functions to increase blood glucose. Abnormal glucose levels are often seen in cystic fibrosis (CF), a systematic disease caused by mutations of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), an endocrine disorder featured with hyperandrogenism affecting 5-10% women of reproductive age. Here, we explored the role of CFTR in glucagon production in α cells and its possible contribution to glucagon disturbance in CF and PCOS...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202617/prevalence-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-thai-university-adolescents
#11
Jetsadaporn Kaewnin, Orawin Vallibhakara, Sakda Arj-Ong Vallibhakara, Penpun Wattanakrai, Benjamaporn Butsripoom, Ekasith Somsook, Sirichai Hongsanguansri, Areepan Sophonsritsuk
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex condition characterized by endocrine features and influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In Southeast Asia and Thailand, the prevalence of PCOS is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and determine factors associated with PCOS in Thai adolescents. We administered a validated questionnaire to 600 university female participants aged 17-19 years from Mahidol University in Bangkok. Of these, 548 (91.33%) responded and agreed to participate...
December 4, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202210/differential-effects-on-haemostatic-markers-by-metformin-and-the-contraceptive-pill-a-randomized-comparative-trial-in-pcos
#12
Genia F Burchall, Terrence J Piva, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Helena J Teede
Background Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects up to 18% of reproductive-aged women with increased risks of cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolic disease, related to metabolic and hormonal features, obesity and an apparent hypofibrinolytic state, possibly exacerbated by current PCOS treatments. Objective To investigate and compare haemostatic impacts of common pharmacological treatments and explore relationships with hormonal and metabolic variables in PCOS. Patients/Methods This mechanistic sub-study using biobanked samples from a 6-month randomized comparative trial of pharmacological treatments assessed pro- and anti-thrombotic markers and overall haemostatic activity...
November 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201665/the-effect-of-curcumin-on-tnf-%C3%AE-il-6-and-crp-expression-in-a-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-as-an-inflammation-state
#13
Shima Mohammadi, Parvin Kayedpoor, Latifeh Karimzadeh-Bardei, Mohammad Nabiuni
Background: Having low-grade chronic inflammation such as elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a crucial role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aimed at investigating the therapeutic effects of curcumin on IL-6, CRP and TNF-α and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: In this research, 72 female adult Wistar rats were divided into control (n=12), PCOS (n=12) and curcumin-treated PCOS groups (n=48)...
October 2017: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201072/the-role-of-kisspeptin-in-female-reproduction
#14
REVIEW
Sareh Zeydabadi Nejad, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Azita Zadeh-Vakili
Context: Kisspeptin (KISS1), a recently discovered neuropeptide that acts upstream of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, is critical for maturation and function of the reproductive axis. This review aimed at providing comprehensive and up-to-date information on Kisspeptin and its role in female reproduction. Evidence Acquisition: A literature review was performed using PubMed for all English language articles published between 1999 and 2016. Results: The kisspeptin system (KISS1/G protein-coupled receptor-54,GPR54) has recently been addressed as an essential gatekeeper of puberty onset and gonadotropin secretion...
July 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196492/high-fat-diet-exposure-from-pre-pubertal-age-induces-pcos-in-rats
#15
Roshni S Patel, Gaurang B Shah
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal models focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Therefore, we hypothesized that high fat diet feeding to pre-pubertal female rats results in both reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. Pre-pubertal female rats were divided into two groups: group I received normal pellet diet and group II received high fat diet (HFD)...
December 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192811/effects-of-vitamin-d-on-ovary-in-dhea-treated-pcos-rat-model-a-light-and-electron-microscopic-study
#16
Latife Seyran Çelik, Yurdun Kuyucu, Ebru Dündar Yenilmez, Abdullah Tuli, Kenan Dağlıoğlu, Ufuk Özgü Mete
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D treatment on ovary in experimentally designed polycystic ovary syndrome of female rats using light and electron microscopic techniques. METHODS: Twenty-four female pre-pubertal rats were divided into control, DHEA and DHEA+Vit.D groups. In DHEA group, the PCOS rat model was developed by 6mg/kg/day dehydroepiandrosterone administration as subcutaneously injections. In DHEA+Vit.D group, 6 mg/kg/day DHEA and 120ng/100g/week 1,25(OH)2D3 was performed simultaneously...
December 1, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190387/chronic-hyperandrogenemia-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-a-western-style-diet-impairs-ovarian-and-uterine-structure-function-in-young-adult-rhesus-monkeys
#17
Cecily V Bishop, Emily C Mishler, Diana L Takahashi, Taylor E Reiter, Kise R Bond, Cadence A True, Ov D Slayden, Richard L Stouffer
STUDY QUESTION: Does chronic hyperandrogenemia beginning at menarche, in the absence and presence of a western-style diet (WSD), alter ovarian and uterine structure-function in young adult rhesus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER: Phenotypic alterations in ovarian and uterine structure/function were induced by exogenous testosterone (T), and compounded in the presence of a WSD (T+WSD). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Hyperandrogenemia is a well-established component of PCOS and is observed in adolescent girls, indicating a potential pubertal onset of disease symptoms...
November 28, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187000/does-myo-inositol-oxygenase-the-only-enzyme-to-catalyze-myo-inositol-in-vivo-play-a-role-in-the-etiology-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#18
Cuma Mertoglu, Murat Gunay, Vahdet Gul, Mehmet Kulhan, Mehmet Aktas, Taha Abdulkadir Coban
In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), myo-inositol (MI) supplements have shown many beneficial effects. In this study, therefore, we aimed to investigate the serum level of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX), which is the only enzyme catalyzing MI in vivo, in patients with PCOS. Serum MIOX enzyme levels and other laboratory parameters were compared between sixty patients, who were diagnosed with PCOS for the first time, and sixty healthy individuals at similar age and sex. MIOX serum levels were not different between two groups (p = 0...
November 29, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184820/metabolic-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
REVIEW
Dania Al-Hamad, Vandana Raman
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents is increasing, in parallel with the increasing trends in obesity rates. Varying definitions of this syndrome have hindered the development of a consensus for the diagnostic criteria in the pediatric population. While pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is not completely understood, insulin resistance and subsequent inflammation are thought to be among its main mechanistic underpinnings. Overweight and obesity are cardinal features, along with abnormal glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
October 2017: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184811/dermatologic-manifestations-of-endocrine-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Michael Lause, Alisha Kamboj, Esteban Fernandez Faith
The skin serves as a window for clinicians to understand, diagnose, and monitor endocrine disease. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrinopathies contribute significantly to an individual's health and quality of life. In this review, we outline various disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and androgen axis as well as hereditary endocrine syndromes. In acromegaly, glycosaminoglycan deposition contributes to a thickening of skin and soft tissue, which manifests as coarsening and enlargement of facial and acral structures...
October 2017: Translational pediatrics
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