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Polycystic ovarian syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676471/vitamin-d3-regulates-steroidogenesis-in-granulosa-cells-through-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
Shabnam Bakhshalizadeh, Fardin Amidi, Reza Shirazi, Maryam Shabani Nashtaei
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine and metabolic disorder in reproductive-aged women. Hormonal abnormality caused by steroidogenesis disturbances appears to be the main culprit of the clinical picture in PCOS. Vitamin D3 could regulate steroidogenesis in granulosa cells, but the mechanism of action of vitamin D3 on steroidogenesis remains unknown. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a modulating role in steroid hormone production. We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 on steroidogenesis in cultured granulosa cells of dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS mice and studied the involvement of AMPK signalling pathway in the current process...
April 20, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674607/up-regulation-of-long-noncoding-rna-sra-promotes-cell-growth-inhibits-cell-apoptosis-and-induces-secretion-of-estradiol-and-progesterone-in-ovarian-granular-cells-of-mice
#2
Yan Li, Haixu Wang, Dangxia Zhou, Ting Shuang, Haibo Zhao, Biliang Chen
BACKGROUND Increasing evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) play a key role in multiple pathological processes. It has been shown that LncRNA steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) is elevated in peripheral blood of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated LncRNA SRA on ovarian granular cells of mice in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS We firstly isolated granular cells from mouse ovaries and over-expressed the LncRNA SRA by means of lentiviral transfection in this cell line...
April 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673077/maternal-factors-associated-with-offspring-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#3
Anne Z Steiner
In this Swedish national registry-based cohort study Valgeirsdottir et al. sought to determine the association between 1) in-utero exposures and 2) birth indices and the subsequent development of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) after age 15. To do this, they selected 681,123 girls, whose birth was recorded in the Swedish birth registry between 1982 and 1995. They followed the girls in the Swedish Patient Registry until 2010 for a diagnosis of PCOS using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes...
April 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670770/genetic-variants-associated-with-hyperandrogenemia-in-pcos-pathophysiology
#4
REVIEW
Roshan Dadachanji, Nuzhat Shaikh, Srabani Mukherjee
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multifactorial endocrine disorder whose pathophysiology baffles many researchers till today. This syndrome is typically characterized by anovulatory cycles and infertility, altered gonadotropin levels, obesity, and bulky multifollicular ovaries on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are hallmark features of its complex pathophysiology. Hyperandrogenemia is a salient feature of PCOS and a major contributor to cosmetic anomalies including hirsutism, acne, and male pattern alopecia in affected women...
2018: Genetics Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668891/maternal-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-early-offspring-development
#5
Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, James Mills, Erin M Bell, Miranda Broadney, Edwina H Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663637/reproductive-health-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-samoan-women
#6
H Maredia, N L Hawley, G Lambert-Messerlian, U Fidow, M S Reupena, T Naseri, S T McGarvey
OBJECTIVES: Obesity leads to deleterious effects on not only cardiovascular health but also on the reproductive health of women. We estimate the prevalence of menstrual irregularity and of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in Samoan women, among whom obesity prevalence is extremely high. We explore the association of these reproductive health conditions with adiposity, cardiometabolic risk factors, and androgen levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of Samoan women 25-39 years of age (n = 470) from a larger population-based genome-wide association study of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease was assessed for the prevalence of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (OM/AM) using a self-reported questionnaire...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662964/comparison-of-the-effects-of-ginger-extract-with-clomiphene-citrate-on-sex-hormones-in-rats-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#7
Shekoufeh Atashpour, Hossein Kargar Jahromi, Zahra Kargar Jahromi, Mozhgan Maleknasab
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women which affect fertility. Clomiphene citrate is used as first-line treatment for this disorder, which is associated with some complications and therapeutic resistance. Objective: In this research, we compare the effectiveness of ginger with clomiphene on sexual hormones such as Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen and progesterone in order to treat PCOS effectively with fewer side effects...
September 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662284/a-comparative-study-on-quantitative-assessment-of-blood-flow-and-vascularization-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-and-normal-women-using-three-dimensional-power-doppler-ultrasonography
#8
Nitasha Garg, Harkiran Kaur Khaira, Manjot Kaur, Smita Sinha
Purpose of the Study: To compare the quantitative assessment of blood flow and vascularization of ovaries in polycystic ovary syndrome patients and normal women using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography. Methods: This cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted on women of reproductive age group (15-45 years) attending Gynaecology OPD AIMSR, Bathinda, Punjab. Thirty women were enrolled in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) group and 30 healthy women in control group...
April 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662281/role-of-amh-as-diagnostic-tool-for-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#9
Upma Saxena, Manisha Ramani, Pushpa Singh
Background: To evaluate role of AMH as a diagnostic tool for PCOS. Methods: This was a prospective case-control study on women attending Gynae OPD of Dr RML Hospital, New Delhi, from 1 November 2015 to 31 March 2017. Study comprised of 45 women with PCOS, diagnosed using Rotterdam criteria and 45 women as controls. Clinical history included oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, examination included BMI, Ferriman-Gallwey score, investigations included blood for FSH, LH, estradiol, TSH, prolactin, total testosterone, AMH level and pelvic USG which was done for all women...
April 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660734/interpretation-of-serum-gonadotropin-levels-in-hyperprolactinemia
#10
Ali Abbara, Sophie A Clarke, Alexander Nesbitt, Sabreen Ali, Alexander N Comninos, Emma Hatfield, Niamh Martin, Amir Sam, Karim Meeran, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>Background/Aims: Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Prolactin is hypothesized to impede the reproductive axis through an inhibitory action at the hypothalamus. However, limited data exists to aid the interpretation of serum gonadotropins in the context of hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: Serum gonadotropin values were reviewed in 243 patients with elevated serum monomeric prolactin due to discrete etiologies at a tertiary reproductive endocrine centre between 2012 and 2015...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651678/performance-of-the-2015-us-preventive-services-task-force-screening-criteria-for-prediabetes-and-undiagnosed-diabetes
#11
Matthew J O'Brien, Kai McKeever Bullard, Yan Zhang, Edward W Gregg, Mercedes R Carnethon, Namratha R Kandula, Ronald T Ackermann
BACKGROUND: In 2015, The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended screening for prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes (collectively called dysglycemia) among adults aged 40-70 years with overweight or obesity. The recommendation suggests that clinicians consider screening earlier in people who have other diabetes risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of limited and expanded screening criteria recommended by the USPSTF for detecting dysglycemia among US adults...
April 12, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642911/gnrh-dysregulation-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-pcos-is-a-manifestation-of-an-altered-neurotransmitter-profile
#12
Nirja Chaudhari, Mitali Dawalbhakta, Laxmipriya Nampoothiri
BACKGROUND: GnRH is the master molecule of reproduction that is influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Any alteration in these regulatory loops may result in reproductive-endocrine dysfunction such as the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although low dopaminergic tone has been associated with PCOS, the role of neurotransmitters in PCOS remains unknown. The present study was therefore aimed at understanding the status of GnRH regulatory neurotransmitters to decipher the neuroendocrine pathology in PCOS...
April 11, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629043/lower-levels-of-serum-adiponectin-and-the-t-allele-of-rs1501299-of-the-adipoq-gene-are-protective-against-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-jordan
#13
Mahmoud A Alfaqih, Yousef S Khader, Ahmed N Al-Dwairi, Abdallah Alzoubi, Othman Al-Shboul, Amanie Hatim
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder. Obesity, which is linked with lower adiponectin levels, increases a woman's risk of developing PCOS; however, the association between adiponectin and PCOS is controversial. Adiponectin levels could be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene. This study aimed to test the relationship between serum adiponectin and PCOS in Jordan and the association between the rs2241766, rs1501299, and rs266729 SNPs in the ADIPOQ gene and PCOS...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627845/eicosapentaenoic-acid-improves-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-rats-via-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1-srebp-1-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-pathway
#14
Yanting Wang, Jinying He, Jing Yang
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). MATERIAL AND METHODS Rats with PCOS were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of EPA. Levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) were measured using corresponding kits. HE staining was used to observe lesions in ovarian tissue. Levels of inflammatory factors in ovarian tissue of rats were detected by ELISA...
April 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624102/exogenous-testosterone-does-not-induce-or-exacerbate-the-metabolic-features-associated-with-pcos-among-transgender-men
#15
Kelly J Chan, Jennifer J Liang, Divya Jolly, Jamie D Weinand, Joshua D Safer
OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition which can include menstrual irregularity, metabolic derangement, and increased androgen levels. The mechanism of PCOS is unknown. Some suggest that excess production of androgens by the ovaries may cause or exacerbate the metabolic findings. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of increased testosterone on metabolic parameters on individuals presumed to be chromosomally female by examination of these parameters in hormone-treated transgender men...
April 6, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619209/contemporary-approaches-to-the-management-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Renato Pasquali
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder in women in their reproductive years and is characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology. It is also associated with several metabolic abnormalities, particularly insulin resistance and obesity, which play an important role in the pathophysiology of PCOS and, in particular, negatively influence ovarian function and fertility. This review article summarizes the available treatment for women with PCOS. Specifically, current and potentially new therapies are discussed...
April 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618656/ontogeny-and-reversal-of-brain-circuit-abnormalities-in-a-preclinical-model-of-pcos
#17
Mauro Sb Silva, Melanie Prescott, Rebecca E Campbell
Androgen excess is a hallmark of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a prevalent yet poorly understood endocrine disorder. Evidence from women and preclinical animal models suggests that elevated perinatal androgens can elicit PCOS onset in adulthood, implying androgen actions in both PCOS ontogeny and adult pathophysiology. Prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice exhibit a robust increase of progesterone-sensitive GABAergic inputs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons implicated in the pathogenesis of PCOS...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615083/therapeutic-potentials-of-quercetin-in-management-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-using-letrozole-induced-rat-model-a-histological-and-a-biochemical-study
#18
Sarwat Jahan, Abira Abid, Sidra Khalid, Tayyaba Afsar, Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ghazala Shaheen, Ali Almajwal, Suhail Razak
BACKGROUND: PCOS is a leading endocrinopathy of young women instigating androgens elevation, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiometabolic and menstrual complications. The study investigated the effects of quercetin in a letrozole induced rat model of polycystic ovarian syndrome, which displayed both clinical and metabolic features as in PCOS women. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups; control group received aqueous solution of carboxymethyl (CMC 0...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602230/alterations-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-ovarian-tissues-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-rats
#19
Rong Huang, Xinli Xue, Shengxian Li, Yuying Wang, Yun Sun, Wei Liu, Huiyong Yin, Tao Tao
The metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remains poorly characterized in ovarian tissues of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aimed to explore alterations in the levels of PUFAs and their metabolites in serum and ovarian tissues in a PCOS rat model treated with a high-fat diet and andronate. Levels of PUFAs and their metabolites were measured using gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after the establishment of a PCOS rat model. Only 3 kinds of PUFAs [linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid] were detected in both the circulation and ovarian tissues of the rats, and their concentrations were lower in ovarian tissues than in serum...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601613/an-acne-survey-from-the-world-s-largest-annual-gathering-of-twins
#20
Amanda Suggs, Mathew Loesch, Harib Ezaldein, Luisa Christensen, Danyelle Dawes, Elma Baron
IMPORTANCE: Surveying identical twins allows us to qualitatively separate genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to acne severity. OBJECTIVE: To study a cohort of identical and fraternal twins to identify environmental factors that may influence acne severity. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: A survey was administered to 139 identical and fraternal twin multiples (279 subjects) at the Annual Twins Day Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio on August 6-7, 2016...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
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