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Polycystic ovarian syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324041/line1-cpg-dna-hypomethylation-in-granulosa-cells-and-blood-leukocytes-is-associated-with-pcos-and-related-traits
#1
Pooja Sagvekar, Vijay Mangoli, Sadhana Desai, Anushree Patil, Srabani Mukherjee
CONTEXT: Altered global DNA methylation is indicative of epigenomic instability concerning chronic disease-states. Investigating its incidence and association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is essential towards understanding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. OBJECTIVES: To assess, global DNA methylation differences in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) of PCOS and controls and their association with PCOS and its traits...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323936/the-steroid-metabolome-in-the-isolated-ovarian-follicle-and-its-response-to-androgen-exposure-and-antagonism
#2
Marie Lebbe, Angela E Taylor, Jenny A Visser, Jackson Kirkman-Brown, Teresa K Woodruff, Wiebke Arlt
The ovarian follicle is a major site of steroidogenesis, crucially required for normal ovarian function and female reproduction. Our understanding of androgen synthesis and metabolism in the developing follicle has been limited by sensitivity and specificity issues of previously used assays. Here we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to map the stage-dependent endogenous steroid metabolome in an encapsulated in vitro follicle growth system, from murine secondary through antral follicles. Furthermore, follicles were cultured in the presence of androgen precursors, non-aromatizable active androgen and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist to assess effects on steroidogenesis and follicle development...
February 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323907/resveratrol-inhibits-androgen-production-of-human-adrenocortical-h295r-cells-by-lowering-cyp17-and-cyp21-expression-and-activities
#3
Nesa Marti, Nadia Bouchoucha, Kay-Sara Sauter, Christa E Flück
Resveratrol, a natural compound found in grapes, became very popular for its suggested protective effects against aging. It was reported to have similar positive effects on the human metabolism as caloric restriction. Recently, positive effects of resveratrol on steroid biosynthesis in cell systems and in humans suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome have also been reported, but the exact mechanism of this action remains unknown. Sirtuins seem targeted by resveratrol to mediate its action on energy homeostasis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316042/serum-level-of-zinc-and-copper-in-sudanese-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#4
Manal E Sharif, Isahg Adam, Mohamed A Ahmed, Duria A Rayis, Hamdan Z Hamdan
The study aimed to evaluate the serum level of zinc and copper in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A case-control study was conducted at Saad Abualila infertility center (Khartoum, Sudan). The cases were women who had a PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria. The controls were infertile women with no evidence of PCOS. The socio-demographic characteristics and medical history data were gathered using questionnaires. Zinc and copper levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. While there was no difference in zinc and copper levels between the two groups (50 women in each arm), mean (SD) of body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in women with PCOS compared to the controls [28...
March 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299992/developmental-programming
#5
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Ashleigh Irwin, Jacob D Martin, Makeda Mesquitta, Almudena Veiga-Lopez, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated sheep, similar to women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), manifests reproductive defects that include multifollicular ovarian phenotype. Women with PCOS manifest increased ovarian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. We tested the hypothesis that gestational T excess in sheep would alter ovarian expression of MMPs, tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) and their target proteins laminin B (LAMB), collagen, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), and connexin 43 (GJA1) consistent with increased MMP activity and that these changes are developmentally regulated...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292619/obesity-and-female-infertility-potential-mediators-of-obesity-s-impact
#6
REVIEW
Darcy E Broughton, Kelle H Moley
The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who are also obese demonstrate a more severe metabolic and reproductive phenotype. Obese women have reduced fecundity even when eumenorrheic and demonstrate poorer outcomes with the use of in vitro fertilization...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288674/cytochrome%C3%A2-p450-oxidoreductase-deficiency-caused-by-r457h-mutation-in-por-gene-in-chinese-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Yang Bai, Jinhui Li, Xiaoli Wang
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare disease exhibiting a variety of clinical manifestations. It can be difficult to differentiate with other diseases such as 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). Nearly 100 cases of PORD have been reported worldwide. However, the genetic characters and clinical management are still unclear, especially in China. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we report a 27-year-old female Chinese patient who first presented with amenorrhea and recurrence of large ovary cyst...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287628/prevalence-of-hypovitaminosis-d-and-associated-factors-in-obese-spanish-children
#8
T Durá-Travé, F Gallinas-Victoriano, M J Chueca-Guindulain, S Berrade-Zubiri
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to endocrine health and disease (diabetes, autoimmune thyroid diseases, polycystic ovarian syndrome, etc.). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and specific factors for hypovitaminosis D among children stratified by body mass index (BMI) in Northern Spain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional clinical (sex, age, season of study visit, place of residence and BMI) and blood testing (calcium, phosphorous, calcidiol and parathyroid hormone (PTH)) were accomplished in 546 Caucasian individuals (aged 3...
March 13, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284219/the-role-of-notch-signalling-in-ovarian-angiogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Qi Xie, Zuowang Cheng, Xiaocui Chen, Corrinne G Lobe, Ju Liu
In adults, the ovary is characterized with extensive angiogenesis and regular intervals of rapid growth. Ovarian function is dependent on the network of angiogenic vessels which enable the follicle and/or corpus luteum to receive oxygen, nutrients and hormonal support. Abnormal angiogenesis is involved in the induction and development of pathological ovary, such as polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian cancer. Notch signalling pathway is one of the primary regulators of angiogenesis and a therapeutic target for ovarian diseases...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277136/the-role-of-nesfatin-1-expression-in-letrozole-induced-polycystic-ovaries-in-the-rat
#10
Yingqiao Xu, Hua Zhang, Qingchun Li, Kaixue Lao, Yanlin Wang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disorder, generally exhibiting the characteristic features of hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR) and obesity. Nesfatin-1 is derived from the precursor nucleobindin2 (NUCB2), and plays an active role in energy balance, glucose metabolism and most likely gonadal function. In order to explore the role of nesfatin-1, we employed a rat model that uses letrozole to induce PCOS. The PCOS rats exhibited increased body weight, irregular cycles, polycystic ovaries characterized by cysts formed from atretic follicles, and a diminished granulosa layer...
February 21, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277126/alteration-in-follistatin-gene-expression-detected-in-prenatally-androgenized-rats
#11
Marziyeh Salehi Jahromi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Jennifer W Hill, Mahsa Noroozzadeh, Maryam Zarkesh, Asghar Ghasemi, Azita Zadeh-Vakili
Impaired ovarian follicle development, the hallmark of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), is believed to be due to the changes in expression of related genes such as follistatin (FST). Expression of FST gene and methylation level of its promoter in theca cells from adult female rats, prenatally exposed to androgen excess, during different phases of the estrus cycle was determined and compared with controls. Eight pregnant Wistar rats (experimental group) were treated by subcutaneous injection of 5 mg free testosterone on day 20 of pregnancy, while controls (n = 8) received 500 ml solvent...
February 26, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277112/myo-inositol-administration-positively-effects-ovulation-induction-and-intrauterine-insemination-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-prospective-controlled-randomized-trial
#12
Özlen Emekçi Özay, Ali Cenk Özay, Erkan Çağlıyan, Recep Emre Okyay, Bülent Gülekli
Objectıve: The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of myo-inositol (MYO) on pregnancy rates of patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who undergone controlled ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination (IUI). METHODS: A total of 196 infertile patients diagnosed with PCOS and admitted to Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine were included in the study between March 2013 and May 2016. The patients in group 1 (n = 98) were given 4 g MYO and 400 μg folic acid before and during ovulation induction...
March 3, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276778/glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Elizabeth Mary Lamos, Rana Malek, Stephen N Davis
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects many women of child-bearing age and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory and metabolic dysfunction. A primary treatment goal is weight reduction. The weight loss effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), previously demonstrated in diabetic and obese non-diabetic patients, offer a unique opportunity to expand the medical options available to PCOS patients. Areas covered: Available clinical trials of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy in PCOS were reviewed...
February 13, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275229/association-between-periodontal-disease-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
S V Kellesarian, V R Malignaggi, T V Kellesarian, A A Al-Kheraif, M M Alwageet, H Malmstrom, G E Romanos, F Javed
The purpose of the present study was to review systematically the association between periodontal diseases (PDs) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To address the focused question, 'Is there a relationship between PD and PCOS?' indexed databases were searched up to October 2016 without time or language restrictions using different combinations of the following key words: PCOS, ovarian cysts, PD, periodontitis, gingival diseases and gingivitis. Letters to the Editor, commentaries, historic reviews, case-report, unpublished articles and animal/experimental studies were excluded...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274354/hormonal-therapies-for-acne
#15
Brittany Barros, Diane Thiboutot
Acne is a common, worldwide problem that is usually multifactorial in etiology, but androgens may play a pivotal role in the development and severity of acne. Endocrinopathies, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian tumors, or adrenal hyperplasia or tumors, may be detected in some patients with acne, especially if acne is sudden in onset, associated with hirsutism or menstrual irregularities, or associated with cushingoid facies, acanthosis nigricans, patterned hair loss, or deepened voice. In these instances, serum-free and total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone should be tested...
March 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274349/sex-hormones-and-acne
#16
Qiang Ju, Tao Tao, Tingting Hu, Ayşe Serap Karadağ, Safaa Al-Khuzaei, WenChieh Chen
The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed...
March 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271655/use-of-electroacupuncture-and-transcutaneous-electrical-acupoint-stimulation-in-reproductive-medicine-a-group-consensus
#17
Fan Qu, Rong Li, Wei Sun, Ge Lin, Rong Zhang, Jing Yang, Li Tian, Guo-Gang Xing, Hui Jiang, Fei Gong, Xiao-Yan Liang, Yan Meng, Jia-Yin Liu, Li-Ying Zhou, Shu-Yu Wang, Yan Wu, Yi-Jing He, Jia-Yu Ye, Song-Ping Han, Ji-Sheng Han
With the rapid development of assisted reproductive technology, various reproductive disorders have been effectively addressed. Acupuncture-like therapies, including electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), become more popular world-wide. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that EA and TEAS are effective in treating gynecological disorders, especially infertility. This present paper describes how to select acupoints for the treatment of infertility from the view of theories of traditional Chinese medicine and how to determine critical parameters of electric pulses of EA/TEAS based on results from animal and clinical studies...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266237/frozen-embryo-transfer-cycles-in-women-with-deep-endometriosis
#18
George Queiroz Vaz, Alessandra Viviane Evangelista, Maria Cecilia Almeida Cardoso, Paulo Gallo, Maria Cecilia Erthal, Marco Aurelio Pinho Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To compare the transfer pregnancy rates with frozen embryos from patients with deep endometriosis and non-endometriosis patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of review of medical records of 181 women aged 18-40 years, undergoing transfer of frozen embryos into a fertility center. The data collected was from January 2007 to December 2013. RESULTS: Regarding the patients with endometriosis, there was no statistical difference in proportion to compare polycystic ovarian syndrome, male factor, tubal factor and unexplained infertility...
March 7, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246376/altered-circulating-inflammatory-cytokines-are-associated-with-anovulatory-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-women-resistant-to-clomiphene-citrate-treatment
#19
LianLian Wang, HongBo Qi, Philip N Baker, QianNa Zhen, Qing Zeng, Rui Shi, Chao Tong, Qian Ge
BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological disease characterized by chronic oligoanovulation, clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and insulin resistance. Accumulating evidence has shown that PCOS-related ovarian dysfunction is the main cause of anovulatory infertility. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first-line therapy for PCOS patients; however, approximately 15-40% PCOS patients are resistant to CC treatment. It has been demonstrated that PCOS is a chronic pro-inflammatory state, as some pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in the peripheral circulation of PCOS patients, but whether altered inflammatory cytokines expression in PCOS patients is associated with blunted response to CC remains unknown...
March 1, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235465/ovarian-reserve-testing-a-user-s-guide
#20
REVIEW
Reshef Tal, David B Seifer
Ovarian reserve is a complex clinical phenomenon that is influenced by age, genetics and environmental variables. Although it is challenging to predict the rate of an individual's ovarian reserve decline, clinicians are often asked for advice about fertility potential and/or recommendations regarding the pursuit of fertility treatment options. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian reserve testing (ORT), providing a guide for the Ob/Gyn generalist and reproductive endocrinologist...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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