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Glycogen and fatigue

Lisa Oezel, Hanna Then, Anna L Jung, Samir Jabari, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Thaddeus T Wissniowski, Susanne F Önel, Matthias Ocker, Kati Thieme, Ralf Kinscherf, Pietro Di Fazio
Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and depression. The aim was to analyze potential mitochondrial dysfunction or autophagy in mice after exposure to intermittent cold stress (ICS). Muscle and liver specimens were obtained from 36 mice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (MAP1LC3B) and glycogen content were determined histologically; muscle ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Mitochondrial- and autophagy-related markers were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Zhen Qin, Jing-Jing Wan, Yang Sun, Peng-Yuan Wang, Ding-Feng Su, Hong Lei, Xia Liu
We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sun-Young Nam, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported an anti-fatigue effect of fermented porcine placenta (FPP). Glycine-leucine (GL) and leucine-glycine (LG) dipeptides are main peptides of FPP. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of GL and LG dipeptides on fatigue are still unclear. METHODS: Herein, we examined the anti-fatigue properties of GL and LG dipeptides using RAW264.7 macrophages and forced swimming test (FST) animal model. RESULTS: Our data revealed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6 productions were markedly inhibited by GL or LG in RAW264...
September 13, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yu-Xian Li, Zhong-Han Yang, Yin Lin, Wei Han, Shan-Shan Jia, Ke Yuan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine the antifatigue active fraction from Abelmoschus esculentus. The in vivo antifatigue effects of ethanol extracts and polysaccharides from A. esculentus fruit have been determined. The polysaccharides of A. esculentus were determined as the best effective fractions of antifatigue effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: About 360 Kunming male mice were randomly divided into nine subgroups: normal control subgroup, model subgroup, positive subgroup and the ethanol extracts of A...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
P E Maltese, L Venturini, E Poplavskaya, M Bertelli, S Cecchin, M Granato, S Y Nikulina, A Salmina, N Aksyutina, E Capelli, G Ricevuti, L Lorusso
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disease that can seriously impair one's quality of life; patients complain of excessive fatigue and myalgia following physical exertion. This disease may be associated with abnormalities in genes affecting exercise tolerance and physical performance. Adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2), and the muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM) genes provide instructions for producing enzymes that play major roles in energy production during work...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Kyle Scott, Maria Benkhalti, Nicholas D Calvert, Mathieu Paquette, Li Zhen, Mary-Ellen Harper, Osama Y Al-Dirbashi, Jean-Marc Renaud
The skeletal muscle ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel is crucial in preventing fiber damage and contractile dysfunction, possibly by preventing damaging ATP depletion. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in energy metabolism during fatigue in wild-type and inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (Kir6.2)-deficient (Kir6.2(-/-)) flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), a muscle that lacks functional KATP channels. Fatigue was elicited with one tetanic contraction every second. Decreases in ATP and total adenylate levels were significantly greater in wild-type than Kir6...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Hee-Yun Kim, Na-Ra Han, Na-Rae Kim, Mikyung Lee, Jongbae Kim, Chang-Ju Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong, Hyung-Min Kim
The fatigue spreads among the people who live under stressful life and brings about a negative impact on physical function. Here we evaluated the anti-fatigue effects of fermented porcine placenta (FPP) and main constituents, lysine (Lys) and leucine (Leu) with treadmill stress test and forced swimming test (FST) in animal models. The mice were administrated with FPP, Lys, and Leu for 21 days. After treadmill exercise, FPP, Lys, and Leu significantly reduced fatigue-related biochemical parameters, including lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, creatine kinase, urea nitrogen, cortisol, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas superoxide dismutase activity and glycogen levels were significantly increased by FPP, Lys, and Leu...
November 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jane A Kent, Niels Ørtenblad, Michael C Hogan, David C Poole, Timothy I Musch
Muscle fatigue has been studied with a variety approaches, tools and technologies. The foci of these studies have ranged tremendously, from molecules to the entire organism. Single cell and animal models have been used to gain mechanistic insight into the fatigue process. The theme of this review is the concept that the mechanisms of muscle fatigue do not occur in isolation in vivo: muscular work is supported by many complex physiological systems, any of which could fail during exercise and thus contribute to fatigue...
November 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Joseph Schneider, Lynn A Burmeister, Kyle Rudser, Chester B Whitley, Jeanine Jarnes Utz
PURPOSE: In Pompe disease, a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase enzyme activity leads to pathologic accumulation of glycogen in tissues. Phenotype heterogeneity in Pompe includes an infantile form and late-onset forms (juvenile- and adult-onset forms). Symptoms common to all phenotypes include progressive muscle weakness and worsening respiratory function. Patients with late-onset forms of Pompe disease commonly complain of chronic fatigue and generalized muscle weakness prior to being diagnosed with Pompe disease, and this may lead to consideration of hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Paula M Miotto, Graham P Holloway
The transport of cytosolic adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into the mitochondria is a major control point in metabolic homeostasis, as ADP concentrations directly affect glycolytic flux and oxidative phosphorylation rates within mitochondria. A large contributor to the efficiency of this process is thought to involve phosphocreatine (PCr)/Creatine (Cr) shuttling through mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mi-CK), whereas the biological importance of alterations in Cr-independent ADP transport during exercise remains unknown...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Huijie Fan, Zhangbin Tan, Yue Hua, Xiaofang Huang, Yiting Gao, Yuting Wu, Bin Liu, Yingchun Zhou
Physical fatigue is extremely common and occurs daily, and is considered to be associated with oxidative stress. The diverse functions of deep sea water (DSW) have recently gained increasing attention. Previous studies have emphasized the anti-fatigue effect of DSW, but the intrinsic mechanism behind the effect remains to be elucidated. In the imprinting control region (ICR) mice model, DSW delayed the exhaustive swimming time. In addition, DSW decreased the area under the blood lactate (BLA) curve, which was associated with the area under the BLA curve of pre-swimming, post-swimming and post-rest...
June 2016: Biomedical Reports
Rômulo D Novaes, Reggiani V Gonçalves, Marli C Cupertino, Eliziária C Santos, Solange M Bigonha, Geraldo J M Fernandes, Izabel R S C Maldonado, Antônio J Natali
This study investigated the pathological morphofunctional adaptations related to the imbalance of exercise tolerance triggered by paraquat (PQ) exposure in rats. The rats were randomized into four groups with eight animals each: (a) SAL (control): 0.5 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution; (b) PQ10: PQ 10 mg/kg; (c) PQ20: PQ 20 mg/kg; and (d) PQ30: PQ 30 mg/kg. Each group received a single injection of PQ. After 72 hours, the animals were subjected to an incremental aerobic running test until fatigue in order to determine exercise tolerance, blood glucose and lactate levels...
April 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
K J C Sanders, M C E Hermans, G H Koek
BACKGROUND: Pompe disease is a rare hereditary glycogen storage disease. Disease progression can be delayed by enzyme replacement therapy, which makes early identification important. Sometimes, the clinical presentation can be atypical, which may result in late recognition. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 23-year-old male presented with mild fatigue and persistently elevated liver transaminase levels. Biochemical, metabolic, viral, autoimmune, and toxicological examination, augmented with imaging and liver biopsy, initially did not result in a diagnosis...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Giulia Ricci, Federica Bertolucci, Annalisa Logerfo, Costanza Simoncini, Riccardo Papi, Ferdinando Franzoni, Giacomo Dell'Osso, Adele Servadio, Maria Chiara Masoni, Gabriele Siciliano
McArdle's disease is the most common metabolic myopathy of muscle carbohydrate metabolism, due to deficiency of myophosphorylase and alteration of glycogen breakdown in muscle. The clinical manifestations usually begin in young adulthood, with exercise intolerance, exercise-induced muscle cramps, pain and recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria. Many patients experience the second wind phenomenon, characterized by an improved tolerance for aerobic exercise approximately after eight minutes of motor activity, secondary to the increased availability of blood glucose and free fatty acids associated to an enhanced glucose uptake by muscle cells...
December 2015: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
Ruzaidi A M Mohktar, Magda K Montgomery, Robyn M Murphy, Matthew J Watt
Cytoplasmic lipid droplets provide a reservoir for triglyceride storage and are a central hub for fatty acid trafficking in cells. The protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is highly expressed in oxidative tissues such as skeletal muscle and regulates lipid metabolism by coordinating the trafficking and the reversible interactions of effector proteins at the lipid droplet. PLIN5 may also regulate mitochondrial function, although this remains unsubstantiated. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the role of PLIN5 in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate metabolism during acute exercise and to determine whether PLIN5 is required for the metabolic adaptations and enhancement in exercise tolerance following endurance exercise training...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gustavo Barbosa Dos Santos, André Gustavo de Oliveira, Luiz Alberto Ferreira Ramos, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes, Miguel Arcanjo Areas
What is the central question of this study? Can long-term leucine supplementation prevent prolonged strenuous endurance exercise induced cardiac injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged endurance exercise does not seem to exceed cardiac energetic capacity, hence it does not represent an energy threat to this organ, at least in trained subjects. However, it may induce, in susceptible individuals, a state of cardiac electrical instability, which has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death...
July 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E T Willems
Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Abdullah F Alghannam, Dawid Jedrzejewski, James Bilzon, Dylan Thompson, Kostas Tsintzas, James A Betts
We examined whether carbohydrate-protein ingestion influences muscle glycogen metabolism during short-term recovery from exhaustive treadmill running and subsequent exercise. Six endurance-trained individuals underwent two trials in a randomised double-blind design, each involving an initial run-to-exhaustion at 70% VO2max (Run-1) followed by 4-h recovery (REC) and subsequent run-to-exhaustion at 70% VO2max (Run-2). Carbohydrate-protein (CHO-P; 0.8 g carbohydrate•kg body mass [BM(-1)]•h(-1) plus 0.4 g protein•kg BM(-1)•h(-1)) or isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO; 1...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Thomas O Krag, Tomàs Pinós, Tue L Nielsen, Astrid Brull, Antoni L Andreu, John Vissing
McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings to those in McArdle disease patients. Muscle contractions in the McArdle mice were affected by structural degeneration due to glycogen accumulation, and glycolytic muscles fatigued prematurely, as occurs in the muscles of McArdle disease patients...
May 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Mohammed Ihsan, Greig Watson, Chris R Abbiss
Intense training results in numerous physiological perturbations such as muscle damage, hyperthermia, dehydration and glycogen depletion. Insufficient/untimely restoration of these physiological alterations might result in sub-optimal performance during subsequent training sessions, while chronic imbalance between training stress and recovery might lead to overreaching or overtraining syndrome. The use of post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) is gaining considerable popularity among athletes to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery...
August 2016: Sports Medicine
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