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Hemolytic disease of newborn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796682/a-guide-to-terminology-for-rh-immunoprophylaxis
#1
S Gerald Sandler, John T Queenan
Rh immunoprophylaxis for Rh-negative women requires an understanding of terminology used for Rh blood typing laboratory reports. The pathophysiology of Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn was elucidated by studies in rhesus monkeys. Subsequent studies revealed that the human blood group antigen responsible for Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (D antigen) is related to, but different from, the rhesus monkey antigen. Weak expression of the D antigen on red cells, originally termed D, is currently reported by laboratories as a "serologic weak D phenotype," which can be further defined by RHD genotyping to be either an RHD weak D type or a partial D phenotype...
August 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742673/practice-bulletin-no-181-prevention-of-rh-d-alloimmunization
#2
(no author information available yet)
Advances in the prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization have been one of the great success stories of modern obstetrics. There is wide variation in prevalence rates of Rh D-negative individuals between regions, for example from 5% in India to 15% in North America (1). However, high birth rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1)...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742667/practice-bulletin-no-181-summary-prevention-of-rh-d-alloimmunization
#3
(no author information available yet)
Advances in the prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization have been one of the great success stories of modern obstetrics. There is wide variation in prevalence rates of Rh D-negative individuals between regions, for example from 5% in India to 15% in North America (1). However, high birth rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1)...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729746/the-incidence-and-effects-of-alloimmunization-in-pregnancy-during-the-period-2000%C3%A2-%C3%A2-2013
#4
Marjana Jerković Raguž, Darinka Šumanovic Glamuzina, Jerko Brzica, Tonći Gruica
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the analysis was to examine the epidemiological aspects of maternal alloimmunization and to determine the most common antibody specificities resulting in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective epidemiological study encompasses all pregnant women who underwent immunohematological screening and the newborn treated for HDN in the period from 2000 to 2013 in the Herzegovina region. RESULTS: The indirect Coombs test (ICT) detected antibodies against antigens in 384 (2...
July 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719639/oral-administration-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-during-gestation-period-for-preventing-hemolytic-disease-of-the-newborn-due-to-abo-incompatibility-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Huijuan Cao, Ruohan Wu, Mei Han, Patrina Ha Yuen Caldwell, Jian-Ping Liu
BACKGROUND: About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. METHODS: The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719385/prevention-of-hemolytic-disease-of-the-fetus-and-newborn-what-have-we-learned-from-animal-models
#6
Yoelys Cruz-Leal, Danielle Marjoram, Alan H Lazarus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to highlight recent advances in our understanding of how anti-red blood cell (RBC) antibodies prevent erythrocyte immunization with an emphasis on new murine models. RECENT FINDINGS: New murine models with clinically relevant human erythrocyte antigens have been used to understand the alloimmunization process and its inhibition. The search to elucidate the mechanism of action of IgG-mediated inhibition of erythrocyte alloimmunization has provided new evidence in support of a potential role for epitope masking, immune deviation and/or antigen modulation in this process...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681433/prevalence-of-positive-direct-antiglobulin-test-and-clinical-outcomes-in-surinamese-newborns-from-d-negative-women
#7
Rens Zonneveld, Margriet Lamers, Henk Schonewille, Anneke Brand, Humphrey H H Kanhai, Wilco C W R Zijlmans
BACKGROUND: In low-resource countries, screening for D antibodies to detect pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn is not routine practice. Retrospective data showed that 5.5% of Surinamese newborns of D-negative women had a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT), indicating the presence of maternal antibodies against fetal antigens. Here, the frequency and clinical relevance of DAT positivity is evaluated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Between April 2015 and June 2016, an observational, multicenter cohort study was undertaken among Surinamese newborns born to D-negative women...
July 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657764/two-cases-of-the-variant-rhd-dau5-allele-associated-with-maternal-alloanti-d
#8
Jennifer A Duncan, Susan Nahirniak, Rodrigo Onell, Gwen Clarke
Rh is a complex blood group system with diverse genotypes that may encode weak and partial D variants. Standard serologic analysis may identify clinically significant D variants as D+; nevertheless, individuals with these D variants should be managed as D- patients to prevent antibody formation to absent D epitopes. Variant identification is necessary during pregnancy to allow for timely and appropriate Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) as D alloimmunization can occur with some D variants...
June 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657763/the-vel-blood-group-system-a-review
#9
Jill R Storry, Thierry Peyrard
The blood group antigen Vel has been one of immunohematology's greatest enigmas: the variation in antigen strength from one individual to another, the property of anti-Vel to readily hemolyze Vel+ red blood cells (RBCs), and the difficulty to screen for sufficient numbers of Vel- blood donors had made Vel a tough nut to crack. In 2013, a small, previously unknown protein called small integral membrane protein 1 (SMIM1) was identified on the RBC by three independent research groups using different approaches, and all three groups demonstrated that Vel- RBCs lacked SMIM1...
June 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639307/anti-d-in-a-mother-hemizygous-for-the-variant-rhd-dnb-gene-associated-with-hemolytic-disease-of-the-fetus-and-newborn
#10
Kelli M Quantock, Genghis H Lopez, Catherine A Hyland, Yew-Wah Liew, Robert L Flower, Frans J Niemann, Arthur Joyce
BACKGROUND: Individuals with the partial D phenotype when exposed to D+ red blood cells (RBCs) carrying the epitopes they lack may develop anti-D specific for the missing epitopes. DNB is the most common partial D in Caucasians and the clinical significance for anti-D in these individuals is unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This article describes the serologic genotyping results and clinical manifestations in two group D+ babies of a mother presenting as group O, D+ with alloanti-D...
August 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615230/rapid-rhd-zygosity-determination-using-digital-pcr
#11
Kelly A Sillence, Amr J Halawani, Wajnat A Tounsi, Kirsty A Clarke, Michele Kiernan, Tracey E Madgett, Neil D Avent
BACKGROUND: Paternal zygosity testing is used for determining homo- or hemizygosity of RHD in pregnancies that are at a risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. At present, this is achieved by using real-time PCR or the Rhesus box PCR, which can be difficult to interpret and unreliable, particularly for black African populations. METHODS: DNA samples extracted from 53 blood donors were analyzed using 2 multiplex reactions for RHD-specific targets against a reference (AGO1)(2) to determine gene dosage by digital PCR...
August 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596661/what-is-it-really-anti-g-or-anti-d-plus-anti-c-clinical-significance-in-antenatal-mothers
#12
Soumya Das, Shamee Shastry, M Murugesan, Poornima Baliga B, Shamee Shastry
G antigen of Rh blood group system is present either along with D and/or C positive red cells. Hence, [serologically anti-G presents with the similar picture as that of multiple antibodies (anti-D + anti-C). Differentiating them is important as anti-D + anti-C causes severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn than anti-G. In pregnancies with anti-G alone, alloimmunization due to D antigen could be prevented by prophylactic administration of RhIg. Differentiating between anti-D + C from anti-G in alloimmunized pregnant mothers becomes essential...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580721/persistent-hemolytic-disease-of-the-fetus-and-newborn-hdfn-associated-with-passive-acquisition-of-anti-d-in-maternal-breast-milk
#13
Marissa Li, John C Blaustein
BACKGROUND: Anti-D is a well-documented, significant cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), but its presence in breast milk is not routinely described. Theoretically, breast milk containing anti-D could have the potential to exacerbate HDFN if ingested by the affected infant. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a case report of a 28-week premature male neonate with hydrops fetalis born to a 32-year-old woman (gravidity 3/parity 3) with anti-D and anti-G...
June 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503958/neonatal-management-and-outcome-in-alloimmune-hemolytic-disease
#14
Isabelle M C Ree, Vivianne E H J Smits-Wintjens, Johanna G van der Bom, Jeanine M M van Klink, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) occurs when fetal and neonatal erythroid cells are destroyed by maternal erythrocyte alloantibodies, it leads to anemia and hydrops in the fetus, and hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus in the newborn. Postnatal care consists of intensive phototherapy and exchange transfusions to treat severe hyperbilirubinemia and top-up transfusions to treat early and late anemia. Other postnatal complications have been reported such as thrombocytopenia, iron overload and cholestasis requiring specific management...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357148/anti-k1-kell-antibody-expressed-in-maternal-breastmilk-a-case-report-of-a-neonate-with-multiple-intrauterine-transfusions-and-postnatal-exposure-to-kell-antibody-in-maternal-breastmilk
#15
Patrick DeMoss, Mohamed Asfour, Kelly Hersey
Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a common consideration in newborn medicine, especially among the jaundiced. Maternal breastmilk provides numerous benefits to the infant, including nutrition and immunologic factors. Here, we present an infant who received three intrauterine transfusions for anemia secondary to anti-K1 (Kell), anti-C, and anti-e antibodies and whose maternal breastmilk tested positive for anti-Kell antibodies. The infant required another transfusion at 4 weeks of life for anemia...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316444/anti-g-with-concomitant-anti-c-and-anti-d-a-case-report-in-a-pregnant-woman
#16
Rabeya Yousuf, Ahmad Nasirudin Mustafa, Siew-Ling Ho, Yee-Loong Tang, Chooi-Fun Leong
The G antigen of Rh blood group system is present in almost all D-positive or C-positive red cells but absent from red cells lacking D and C antigens. The differentiation of anti-D and anti-C from anti-G is not necessary for routine transfusion; however, during pregnancy, it is important because anti-G can masquerade as anti-D and anti-C with initial antibody testing. The false presence of anti-D will exclude the patient from receiving anti-D immunoglobulin (RhIG) when the patient actually is a candidate for RhIG prophylaxis...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283555/developmental-genetic-dietary-and-xenobiotic-influences-on-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#17
REVIEW
Mei-Fei Yueh, Shujuan Chen, Nghia Nguyen, Robert H Tukey
Hyperbilirubinemia, caused by the accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin, is one of the most common clinical diagnoses in both premature and term newborns. Owing to the fact that bilirubin is metabolized solely through glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, it is now known that immaturity of UGT1A1, in combination with the overproduction of bilirubin during the developmental stage, acts as a bottleneck to bilirubin elimination and predisposes the infant to high total serum bilirubin levels...
May 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277805/intrauterine-transfusion-and-non-invasive-treatment-options-for-hemolytic-disease-of-the-fetus-and-newborn-review-on-current-management-and-outcome
#18
REVIEW
Carolien Zwiers, Inge van Kamp, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) remains a serious pregnancy complication which can lead to severe fetal anemia, hydrops and perinatal death. Areas covered: This review focusses on the current prenatal management, treatment with intrauterine transfusion (IUT) and promising non-invasive treatment options for HDFN. Expert commentary: IUTs are the cornerstone in prenatal management of HDFN and have significantly improved perinatal outcome in the past decades. IUT is now a relatively safe procedure, however the risk of complications is still high when performed early in the second trimester...
April 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275334/clinical-significance-of-an-alloantibody-against-the-kell-blood-group-glycoprotein
#19
Stella Maris Mattaloni, Carine Arnoni, Rosario Céspedes, Claudia Nonaka, Carolina Trucco Boggione, Melina Eliana Luján Brajovich, Andrea Trejo, Néstor Zani, Claudia Silvia Biondi, Lilian Castilho, Carlos Miquel Cotorruelo
BACKGROUND: Kell null (K0) individuals can produce anti-Ku, an antibody against many epitopes in the Kell glycoprotein, after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Since sensitized K0 patients are rare, little is known about anti-Ku clinical relevance and in particular about its association to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. CASE REPORT: This work describes a case of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction by an alloantibody directed against the Kell glycoprotein...
January 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267201/a-case-of-anti-rd-causing-fetal-anemia
#20
Stefan Rauch, Jochen Ritgen, Matthias Wißkirchen, Ursula Bauerfeind, Elisabeth Kohne, Christof Weinstock
BACKGROUND: Rd (SC4) is a low-frequency antigen of the Scianna blood group system. Only very few reports on anti-Rd in pregnancy exist. Mild to moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-Rd has been reported. This report may add further information on the clinical significance of anti-Rd for the fetus. CASE REPORT: In a case of severe fetal anemia (hemoglobin concentration, 3.0 g/dL) repeated intrauterine transfusions were required. The strongly positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) of the fetal red blood cells led to the diagnosis of hemolytic disease...
March 7, 2017: Transfusion
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