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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922407/segmental-arterial-stiffness-in-relation-to-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-with-preserved-systolic-heart-function
#1
Chih-Hsuan Yen, Chung-Lieh Hung, Ping-Ying Lee, Jui-Peng Tsai, Yau-Huei Lai, Cheng-Huang Su, Hung-I Yeh, Charles Jia-Yin Hou, Kuo-Liong Chien
BACKGROUND: Central arterial stiffness has been shown to play a key role in cardiovascular disease. However, evidence regarding such arterial stiffness from various arterial segments in relation to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) remains elusive. METHODS: A total of 1255 participants (47.8% men; mean age: 62.6 ± 12.3 [SD] years) with preserved left ventricular function (ejection fraction ≥50%) and ≥1 risk factors were consecutively studied. Arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) by automatic device (VP-2000; Omron Healthcare) for heart-femoral (hf-PWV), brachial-ankle (ba-PWV), and heart-carotid (hc-PWV) segments were obtained and related to BNP concentrations (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL, USA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921587/dimethyl-fumarate-treatment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-prevents-depletion-of-antioxidative-brain-glutathione-and-confers-neuroprotection
#2
Tobias Krämer, Theresa Grob, Lutz Menzel, Tobias Hirnet, Eva Griemert, Konstantin Radyushkin, Serge C Thal, Axel Methner, Michael K E Schaefer
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an immunomodulatory therapeutic for multiple sclerosis and psoriasis with neuroprotective potential. Its mechanism of action involves activation of the antioxidant pathway regulator Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) thereby increasing synthesis of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The objective of this study was to investigate whether post-traumatic DMF treatment is beneficial after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact followed by oral administration of DMF (80 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at 3 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the inflicted TBI...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921465/emerging-roles-for-epigenetic-programming-in-the-control-of-inflammatory-signaling-integration-in-heath-and-disease
#3
Yiqun Hu, Feng Yan, Le Ying, Dakang Xu
Macrophages and dendritic cells initiate the innate immune response to infection and injury and contribute to inflammatory signaling to maintain the homeostasis of various tissues, which includes resident macrophages for the elimination of invading microorganisms and tissue damage. Inappropriate inflammatory signaling can lead to persistent inflammation and further develop into autoimmune and inflammation-associated diseases. Inflammatory signaling pathways have been well characterized, but how these signaling pathways are converted into sustained and diverse patterns of expression of cytokines, chemokines, and other genes in response to environmental challenges is unclear...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917444/developing-a-hospital-wide-fertility-preservation-service-for-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients
#4
Claire A Carlson, Thomas F Kolon, Peter Mattei, Wendy Hobbie, Clarisa R Gracia, Sue Ogle, Jill P Ginsberg
PURPOSE: Gonadal damage is a common consequence of treatment for pediatric malignancies. Nononcologic conditions may also utilize treatments with potential impact on fertility. Models for oncology fertility preservation programs have emerged and demonstrate that a multidisciplinary team approach can have a positive impact on referral patterns, appropriate risk counseling, and access to fertility preservation options. Expansion of programmatic breadth is needed, providing improved care to nonmalignant conditions where the disease itself may impact reproductive health or treatment modalities...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916678/gucy2c-signaling-opposes-the-acute-radiation-induced-gi-syndrome
#5
Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M Hyslop, Scott A Waldman
High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916544/muscle-deficits-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-contribute-to-inferior-cortical-bone-structure-and-trabecular-bone-mineral-density
#6
Joshua F Baker, Jin Long, Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Michele Denburg, Erik Jorgenson, Prerna Sharma, Babette S Zemel, Elena Taratuta, Said Ibrahim, Mary B Leonard
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with muscle loss, osteoporosis, and fracture. We examined associations between skeletal muscle mass, strength, and quality and trabecular and cortical bone deficits in patients with RA and healthy controls. METHODS: Participants, ages 18-75 years, completed whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the tibia to quantify appendicular lean mass and fat mass indices (ALMI, FMI), muscle density at the lower leg, trabecular bone density, and cortical bone thickness...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916476/pharmacologic-ascorbate-induces-neuroblastoma-cell-death-by-hydrogen-peroxide-mediated-dna-damage-and-reduction-in-cancer-cell-glycolysis
#7
Enlong Ma, Ping Chen, Heather M Wilkins, Tao Wang, Russell H Swerdlow, Qi Chen
An ascorbate-mediated production of oxidative stress has been shown to retard tumor growth. Subsequent glycolysis inhibition has been suggested. Here, we further define the mechanisms relevant to this observation. Ascorbate was cytotoxic to human neuroblastoma cells through the production of H2O2, which led to ATP depletion, inhibited GAPDH, and non-apoptotic and non-autophagic cell death. The mechanism of cytotoxicity is different when PARP-dependent DNA repair machinery is active or inhibited. Ascorbate-generated H2O2 damaged DNA, activated PARP, depleted NAD+, and reduced glycolysis flux...
September 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915523/-biologic-reconstruction-of-full-sized-cartilage-defects-of-the-hip-a-guideline-from-the-dgou-group-clinical-tissue-regeneration-and-the-hip-committee-of-the-aga
#8
Stefan Fickert, Matthias Aurich, Dirk Albrecht, Peter Angele, Lorenz Büchler, Michael Dienst, Christoph Erggelet, Jürgen Fritz, Christoph Gebhart, Hans Gollwitzer, Moritz Kindler, Christoph Lampert, Henning Madry, Gregor Möckel, Phillip Niemeyer, Jörg Schröder, Christian Sobau, Gunter Spahn, Wolfgang Zinser, Stefan Landgraeber
Background Symptomatic pre-arthritic deformities such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia often lead to localised cartilage defects and subsequently to osteoarthritis. The present review of the working group "Clinical Tissue Regeneration" of the German Society of Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) and the hip committee of the AGA (German speaking Society for Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery) provides an overview of current knowledge of the diagnosis and surgical treatment of cartilage defects, in order to infer appropriate therapy recommendations for the hip...
September 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915249/effect-of-treatment-with-angiopoietin-2-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-on-the-quality-of-xenografted-bovine-ovarian-tissue-in-mice
#9
Hyun Sun Kong, Jaewang Lee, Hye Won Youm, Seul Ki Kim, Jung Ryeol Lee, Chang Suk Suh, Seok Hyun Kim
Cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue (OT) represents a method for fertility preservation. However, as the transplantation is performed without vessel anastomosis, unavoidable ischemic damage occurs. To reduce this ischemic damage and improve outcomes after transplantation, we used two kind of angiogenic factors, angiopoietin-2 (ang-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Fresh or vitrified-warmed bovine OTs were prepared for xenotransplantation (XT). Fresh OTs were immediately xenografted into nude mice (XT-Fresh)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914501/andrology-of-male-to-female-transsexuals-influence-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-on-testicular-function
#10
REVIEW
F Schneider, S Kliesch, S Schlatt, N Neuhaus
Patients with gender dysphoria are offered cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery to achieve the transition between the sex assigned at birth and gender identity. According to international guidelines, cross-sex hormone therapy in trans-women should lead to a psychologically and physiologically healthy body with feminized serum hormone levels, resulting in suppression of spermatogenesis. However, in a recently published multi-center study, we discovered a high proportion of patients with male serum hormone levels and qualitatively intact spermatogenesis on the day of sex reassignment surgery...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911826/immunoproteasome-selective-and-non-selective-inhibitors-a-promising-approach-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#11
REVIEW
Roberta Ettari, Maria Zappalà, Silvana Grasso, Caterina Musolino, Vanessa Innao, Alessandro Allegra
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major non-lysosomal proteolytic system for the degradation of abnormal or damaged proteins no longer required. The proteasome is involved in degradation of numerous proteins which regulate the cell cycle, indicating a role in controlling cell proliferation and maintaining cell survival. Defects in the UPS can lead to anarchic cell proliferation and to tumor development. For these reasons UPS inhibition has become a significant new strategy for drug development in cancer treatment...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910720/study-of-the-influence-of-physical-chemical-and-biological-conditions-that-influence-the-deterioration-and-protection-of-underwater-cultural-heritage
#12
Manuel Bethencourt, Tomás Fernández-Montblanc, Alfredo Izquierdo, Manuel María González-Duarte, Cristian Muñoz-Mas
Two wrecks related to the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) were studied. Following the guidelines of the UNESCO-2001 Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, a holistic and interdisciplinary approach based on the development of four of the thirty-six Rules of this international agreement was applied. A non-destructive survey technique was developed to obtain information from the scattered cannons and anchors without altering their condition (Rule 4). The work performed provided information about the origin of both wrecks, the Fougueux and the Bucentaure, two ships of the line of the French Navy, and allowed to characterize the state of conservation at each site without jeopardizing their future conservation in the marine environment...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903417/disruption-of-dna-repair-in-cancer-cells-by-ubiquitination-of-a-destabilising-dimerization-domain-of-nucleotide-excision-repair-protein-ercc1
#13
Lanlan Yang, Ann-Marie Ritchie, David W Melton
DNA repair pathways present in all cells serve to preserve genome stability, but in cancer cells they also act reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy. The endonuclease ERCC1-XPF has an important role in the repair of DNA damage caused by a variety of chemotherapeutic agents and there has been intense interest in the use of ERCC1 as a predictive marker of therapeutic response in non-small cell lung carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and ovarian cancer. We have previously validated ERCC1 as a therapeutic target in melanoma, but all small molecule ERCC1-XPF inhibitors reported to date have lacked sufficient potency and specificity for clinical use...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903153/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-expressing-cells-infiltrating-the-cornea-control-corneal-nerve-degeneration-in-response-to-hsv-1-infection
#14
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Hem R Gurung, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Purpose: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis, characterized by decreased or absent corneal sensation due to damage to the sensory corneal innervation. We previously reported the elicited immune response to infection contributes to the mechanism of corneal nerve regression/damage during acute HSV-1 infection. Our aim is to further establish the involvement of infiltrated macrophages in the mechanism of nerve loss upon infection. Methods: Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis (MAFIA) transgenic C57BL/6 mice were systemically treated with AP20187 dimerizer or vehicle (VEH), and their corneas, lymph nodes, and blood were assessed for CD45+CD11b+GFP+ cell depletion by flow cytometry (FC)...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903034/piwi-is-required-to-limit-exhaustion-of-aging-somatic-stem-cells
#15
Pedro Sousa-Victor, Arshad Ayyaz, Rippei Hayashi, Yanyan Qi, David T Madden, Victoria V Lunyak, Heinrich Jasper
Sophisticated mechanisms that preserve genome integrity are critical to ensure the maintenance of regenerative capacity while preventing transformation of somatic stem cells (SCs), yet little is known about mechanisms regulating genome maintenance in these cells. Here, we show that intestinal stem cells (ISCs) induce the Argonaute family protein Piwi in response to JAK/STAT signaling during acute proliferative episodes. Piwi function is critical to ensure heterochromatin maintenance, suppress retrotransposon activation, and prevent DNA damage in homeostasis and under regenerative pressure...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902069/antiinflammatory-strategies-in-intrahepatic-islet-transplantation-a-comparative-study-in-preclinical-models
#16
A Citro, E Cantarelli, S Pellegrini, E Dugnani, L Piemonti
BACKGROUND: The identification of pathway(s) playing a pivotal role in peritransplant detrimental inflammatory events represents the crucial step towards a better management and outcome of pancreatic islet transplanted patients. Recently, we candidate the CXCR1/2 inhibition as a relevant strategy in enhancing pancreatic islet survival after transplantation. METHODS: Here, the most clinically used antiinflammatory compounds (IL1-receptor antagonist, steroids and TNF-α inhibitor) alone or in combination with a CXCR1/2 inhibitor were evaluated in their ability to improve engraftment or delay graft rejection...
September 8, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901972/normothermic-machine-perfusion-of-the-kidney
#17
Annemarie Weissenbacher, James Hunter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is a preservation method that is generating increasing interest. The aim of this review is to summarise the current status of NMP in regards of kidney viability assessment, reducing organ damage and improving transplant logistics. RECENT FINDINGS: The results of recent large animal experiments and clinical trials show that continuous prolonged normothermic ex-vivo kidney perfusion appears better than a brief period of NMP after static cold storage in terms of renal injury and function...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901192/neuronal-cell-sheets-of-cortical-motor-neuron-phenotype-derived-from-human-ipscs
#18
Noboru Suzuki, Nagisa Arimitsu, Jun Shimizu, Kenji Takai, Chieko Hirotsu, Yuji Ueda, Sueshige Wakisaka, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki
Transplantation of stem cells that differentiate into more mature neural cells brings about functional improvement in preclinical studies of stroke. Previous transplant approaches in the diseased brain utilized injection of the cells in a cell suspension. In addition, neural stem cells were preferentially used for grafting. However, these cells had no specific relationship to the damaged tissue of stroke and brain injury patients. The injection of cells in a suspension destroyed the cell-cell interactions that are suggested to be important for promoting functional integrity of cortical motor neurons...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900770/how-regularities-of-mortality-statistics-explain-why-we-age-despite-having-potentially-ageless-somatic-stem-cells
#19
Alexander V Khalyavkin, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko
Researchers working in the area of ageing have found numerous manifestations of this process at the molecular biological level, including DNA and protein damage, accumulation of metabolic by-products, lipids peroxidation, macromolecular cross-linking, non-enzymatic glycosylation, anti-oxidant/pro-oxidant misbalance, rising of pro-inflammatory cytokines, etc. This results in an increase in the proportion of cells in growth arrest, reduction of the rate of information processing, metabolic rate decrease, and decrease in rates of other processes characterizing dynamic aspects of the organism's interaction with its environment...
September 12, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900231/functional-neural-changes-associated-with-acquired-amusia-across-different-stages-of-recovery-after-stroke
#20
Aleksi J Sihvonen, Teppo Särkämö, Pablo Ripollés, Vera Leo, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Seppo Soinila
Brain damage causing acquired amusia disrupts the functional music processing system, creating a unique opportunity to investigate the critical neural architectures of musical processing in the brain. In this longitudinal fMRI study of stroke patients (N = 41) with a 6-month follow-up, we used natural vocal music (sung with lyrics) and instrumental music stimuli to uncover brain activation and functional network connectivity changes associated with acquired amusia and its recovery. In the acute stage, amusic patients exhibited decreased activation in right superior temporal areas compared to non-amusic patients during instrumental music listening...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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