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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913265/hearing-preservation-during-anterior-petrosectomy-the-cochlear-safety-line
#1
Xiaoming Guo, Halima Tabani, Dylan Griswold, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Jose Juan Gonzalez Sanchez, Michael T Lawton, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: Identification and protection of the cochlea during anterior petrosectomy is key to prevent hearing loss. Currently, there is no optimal method to infer the position of the cochlea in relation to the Kawase quadrangle, therefore damage to the cochlea during anterior petrosectomy remains a substantial risk. OBJECTIVES: To identify and define landmarks available during anterior petrosectomy to locate the cochlea and prevent its damage. METHODS: Kawase approach was simulated in eleven specimens...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913222/human-liver-regeneration-in-advanced-cirrhosis-is-organized-by-the-portal-tree
#2
Katalin Dezső, András Rókusz, Edina Bugyik, Armanda Szücs, András Szuák, Bence Dorogi, Mátyás Kiss, Ágnes Nemeskéri, Péter Nagy, Sándor Paku
BACKGROUND&AIMS: In advanced cirrhosis new hepatocytic nodules are generated by budding of ductules in areas of parenchymal extinction. However, the vascular alterations in the areas of parenchymal extinction, the blood supply and the structure of the new hepatocytic nodules have not been analyzed in detail. METHODS: Explanted human cirrhotic livers of three different etiologies and two experimental models of cirrhosis in rats were examined thoroughly. 3D reconstruction of the immunohistochemically stained serial sections and casting of human and experimental cirrhotic livers have been used to reveal the structural organization of the regenerative buds...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913135/mycophenolate-mofetil-attenuates-uterine-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-rat-model
#3
Gulcin Sahin Ersoy, Meryem Kurek Eken, Ozge Cevik, Ozlem T Cilingir, Reshef Tal
This study evaluated the effect of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on uterine tissue preservation following ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Uterine I/R injury was induced in rats by clamping the lower abdominal aorta and ovarian arteries for 30 min. Group I/R + V (n = 7) received vehicle alone while Group I/R + M (n = 7) received 20 mg/kg/day MMF. Control groups underwent sham surgery and received vehicle (Group C) or 20 mg/kg/day MMF (Group M) (n = 7 for both). Four hours after detorsion, uterine tissue 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and serum ischaemia modified albumin (IMA) concentrations were measured...
November 21, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908199/hemoglobin-extravasation-in-the-brain-of-rats-exchange-transfused-with-hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carriers
#4
Laura Terraneo, Paola Bianciardi, Ashok Malavalli, Gnel Mkrtchyan, Stephanie N Spann, Jeff Lohman, Michele Samaja, Kim D Vandegriff
Haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers are under consideration as oxygen therapeutics. Their effect on apoptosis is critical, because the onset of pro-apoptotic pathways may lead to tissue damage. MP4OX, a polyethylene glycol-conjugated human Hb preserves the baseline level of neuron apoptosis with respect to sham. Here we develop a method for measuring Hb extravasation in brain. We exchange transfused rats by haemorrhaging 50% of their blood with simultaneous, isovolemic replacement with Hextend (negative control), MP4OX, or αα-cross-linked Hb...
December 1, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907057/the-effects-of-irreversible-electroporation-on-the-colon-in-a-porcine-model
#5
Xiaomei Luo, Xianjun Liang, Jiannan Li, Jian Shi, Wenlong Zhang, Wei Chai, Jiuping Wu, Shuai Guo, Gang Fang, Xulong Zhou, Jianhua Zhang, Kecheng Xu, Jianying Zeng, Lizhi Niu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a method of targeted cell ablation which has been suggested as a potential cancer therapy as it leaves structures such as blood vessels and the extracellular matrix intact, thereby allowing the rapid recovery of healthy tissue. Here, we investigated the effects of IRE on the colon in vivo in a porcine model. METHODS: IRE ablation was performed on the colon walls of 12 female Tibet mini-pigs, creating a total of 24 lesions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906704/renal-oxygen-flux-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-tubular-damage-to-preserve-glomerular-filtration-what-s-a-kidney-to-do
#6
Frederic T Billings, Yandong Jiang, Andrew D Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900617/new-and-evolving-concepts-regarding-the-prognosis-and-treatment-of-cardiac-amyloidosis
#7
REVIEW
Stefano Perlini, Roberta Mussinelli, Francesco Salinaro
Systemic amyloidoses are rare and proteiform diseases, caused by extracellular accumulation of insoluble misfolded fibrillar proteins. Prognosis is dictated by cardiac involvement, which is especially frequent in light chain (AL) and in transthyretin variants (ATTR, both mutated, (ATTRm), and wild-type, (ATTRwt)). Recently, ATTRwt has emerged as a potentially relevant cause of a heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Cardiac amyloidosis is an archetypal example of restrictive cardiomyopathy, with signs and symptoms of global heart failure and diastolic dysfunction...
November 29, 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900434/combination-of-microbiological-spectroscopic-and-molecular-docking-techniques-to-study-the-antibacterial-mechanism-of-thymol-against-staphylococcus-aureus-membrane-damage-and-genomic-dna-binding
#8
Lang-Hong Wang, Zhi-Hong Zhang, Xin-An Zeng, De-Ming Gong, Man-Sheng Wang
Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is a natural ingredient used as flavor or preservative agent in food products. The antibacterial mechanism of thymol against Gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in this work. A total of 15 membrane fatty acids were identified in S. aureus cells by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exposure to thymol at low concentrations induced obvious alterations in membrane fatty acid composition, such as decreasing the proportion of branched 12-methyltetradecanoic acid and 14-methylhexadecanoic acid (from 22...
November 29, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893831/retinal-pre-conditioning-by-cd59a-knockout-protects-against-light-induced-photoreceptor-degeneration
#9
Delu Song, Brooks Wilson, Liangliang Zhao, Rupak Bhuyan, Mausumi Bandyopadhyay, Arkady Lyubarsky, Chen Yu, Yafeng Li, Levi Kanu, Takashi Miwa, Wen-Chao Song, Silvia C Finnemann, Bärbel Rohrer, Joshua L Dunaief
Complement dysregulation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but the specific mechanisms are incompletely understood. Complement also potentiates retinal degeneration in the murine light damage model. To test the retinal function of CD59a, a complement inhibitor, CD59a knockout (KO) mice were used for light damage (LD) experiments. Retinal degeneration and function were compared in WT versus KO mice following light damage. Gene expression changes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and glial cell activation were also compared...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893744/optimization-of-irreversible-electroporation-protocols-for-in-vivo-myocardial-decellularization
#10
Yaniv Zager, David Kain, Natalie Landa, Jonathan Leor, Elad Maor
BACKGROUND: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a non-thermal cell ablation approach that induces selective damage to cell membranes only. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate and optimize its use for in-vivo myocardial decellularization. METHODS: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare myocardial damage of seven different IRE protocols with anterior myocardial infarction damage. An in-vivo open thoracotomy model was used, with two-needle electrodes in the anterior ventricular wall...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890728/the-role-of-alkyl-chain-length-of-monothiol-terminated-alkyl-carboxylic-acid-in-the-synthesis-characterization-and-application-of-gelatin-g-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-carriers-for-antiglaucoma-drug-delivery
#11
Li-Jyuan Luo, Jui-Yang Lai
To improve ocular bioavailability and extend pharmacological response, this study aims to investigate the role of alkyl chain length of monothiol-terminated alkyl carboxylic acids in the synthesis, characterization, and application of gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (GN) biodegradable in situ gelling carriers for antiglaucoma drug delivery. In the presence of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), mercaptobutyric acid (MBA), or mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) as a chain transfer agent, the carboxylic end-capped poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) samples were prepared by free radical polymerization technique...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889138/405%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-5%C3%A2-nm-light-emitting-diode-illumination-causes-photodynamic-inactivation-of-salmonella-spp-on-fresh-cut-papaya-without-deterioration
#12
Min-Jeong Kim, Woo Suk Bang, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of 405 ± 5 nm light emitting diode (LED) illumination against four Salmonella serovars on fresh-cut papaya and on fruit quality at various storage temperatures. To determine the antibacterial mechanism of LED illumination at 0.9 kJ/cm(2), oxidative damage to DNA and membrane lipids of Salmonella in phosphate-buffered saline solution was measured. The populations of Salmonella on cut fruits were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 0.3-1.3 log CFU/cm(2) at chilling temperatures following LED illumination for 36-48 h (1...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888083/clinical-and-imaging-evaluation-of-the-transuncus-selective-amygdalo-hippocampectomy
#13
Enrico Ghizoni, Roger Matias, Stefan Lieber, Brunno Machado de Campos, Clarissa Lin Yasuda, João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Pamela Castro Pereira, Augusto Amato, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Tátila Martins Lopes, Helder Tedeschi, Fernando Cendes
BACKGROUND: Various reports described the transuncus approach (TU) as a selective route to the amygdala and hippocampus, but this approach has not yet being submitted to a solid post operative imaging analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomy, surgical technique, postoperative imaging analysis and outcome in a series of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy (SHA) via TU. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 25 consecutive patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy through TU...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888040/evidence-that-hidden-hearing-loss-underlies-amplitude-modulation-encoding-deficits-in-individuals-with-and-without-tinnitus
#14
Brandon T Paul, Ian C Bruce, Larry E Roberts
Damage to auditory nerve fibers that expresses with suprathreshold sounds but is hidden from the audiogram has been proposed to underlie deficits in temporal coding ability observed among individuals with otherwise normal hearing, and to be present in individuals experiencing chronic tinnitus with clinically normal audiograms. We tested whether these individuals may have hidden synaptic losses on auditory nerve fibers with low spontaneous rates of firing (low-SR fibers) that are important for coding suprathreshold sounds in noise while high-SR fibers determining threshold responses in quiet remain relatively unaffected...
November 22, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885461/prevention-and-treatment-effect-of-evogliptin-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-fed-animal-models
#15
Mi-Kyung Kim, Yu Na Chae, Gook-Jun Ahn, Chang Yell Shin, Song-Hyen Choi, Eun Kyoung Yang, Yong Sung Sohn, Moon-Ho Son
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is an adipokine that interrupts insulin signaling. The resulting insulin resistance exacerbates hepatic steatosis. We previously reported that the novel DPP4 inhibitor evogliptin improves insulin resistance. This study aimed to verify the therapeutic potential of evogliptin for fatty liver. Evogliptin treatment was initiated simultaneously with a high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in normal mice and in a post-24 week HFD-fed rats. In a prevention study, insulin sensitivity was preserved in evogliptin-treated mice after a 16-week treatment...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882810/what-has-changed-in-the-prevalence-of-hypertension-in-dialyzed-children-during-the-last-decade
#16
Marcin Tkaczyk, Małgorzata Stańczyk, Monika Miklaszewska, Katarzyna Zachwieja, Ryszard Wierciński, Roman Stankiewicz, Agnieszka Firszt-Adamczyk, Jacek Zachwieja, Halina Borzęcka, Ilona Zagożdżon, Beata Leszczyńska, Anna Medyńska, Piotr Adamczyk, Maria Szczepańska, Wojciech Fendler
BACKGROUND: Hypertension very often accompanies progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. A cross-sectional analysis of hypertension prevalence in dialyzed children in Poland was designed with a comparison with the data previously recorded 10 years earlier. METHODS: Two cohorts of children were analyzed: 59 subjects dialyzed in 2013, and 134 children from the previous study performed in 2003 that were reevaluated according to the current methodology...
November 24, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881876/the-efficacy-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-target-enrichment-on-charred-archaeobotanical-remains
#17
H M Nistelberger, O Smith, N Wales, B Star, S Boessenkool
The majority of archaeological plant material is preserved in a charred state. Obtaining reliable ancient DNA data from these remains has presented challenges due to high rates of nucleotide damage, short DNA fragment lengths, low endogenous DNA content and the potential for modern contamination. It has been suggested that high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies coupled with DNA enrichment techniques may overcome some of these limitations. Here we report the findings of HTS and target enrichment on four important archaeological crops (barley, grape, maize and rice) performed in three different laboratories, presenting the largest HTS assessment of charred archaeobotanical specimens to date...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881606/mitochondria-protection-after-acute-ischemia-prevents-prolonged-upregulation-of-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-18-and-arrests-ckd
#18
Hazel H Szeto, Shaoyi Liu, Yi Soong, Surya V Seshan, Leona Cohen-Gould, Viacheslav Manichev, Leonard C Feldman, Torgny Gustafsson
The innate immune system has been implicated in both AKI and CKD. Damaged mitochondria release danger molecules, such as reactive oxygen species, DNA, and cardiolipin, which can cause NLRP3 inflammasome activation and upregulation of IL-18 and IL-1β It is not known if mitochondrial damage persists long after ischemia to sustain chronic inflammasome activation. We conducted a 9-month study in Sprague-Dawley rats after 45 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia. We detected glomerular and peritubular capillary rarefaction, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis at 1 month...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879681/kuwanon-g-preserves-lps-induced-disruption-of-gut-epithelial-barrier-in-vitro
#19
Hengli Guo, Youhua Xu, Wei Huang, Hua Zhou, Zhaoguang Zheng, Yonghua Zhao, Bao He, Tingting Zhu, Shanshan Tang, Quan Zhu
Defects in the gut epithelial barrier have now been recognized to be responsible for diabetic endotoxemia. In everyday life, Mulberry leaf tea is widely used in Asian nations due to its proposed benefits to health and control of diabetes. Evidence indicates the potential role of Kuwanon G (KWG), a component from Morus alba L., on blocking the gut epithelial barrier. In lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-damaged Caco-2 cells, it was found that KWG increased the viability of cells in a concentration-dependent manner. KWG administration significantly elevated the anti-oxidant abilities via increasing ratio of superoxidase dismutase (SOD)/malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cells...
November 22, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878601/reduction-of-permanent-hearing%C3%A2-loss-by-local-glucocorticoid-application-guinea-pigs-with-acute-acoustic-trauma
#20
M Müller, M Tisch, H Maier, H Löwenheim
BACKGROUND: High-intensity noise exposure from impulse and blast noise events often leads to acute hearing loss and may cause irreversible permanent hearing loss as a long-term consequence. Here, a treatment regime was developed to limit permanent damage based on a preclinical animal model of acute noise trauma. AIM: To develop clinical trials for the treatment of acute noise traumas using approved drugs. The otoprotective potential of glucocorticoids applied locally to the inner ear was examined...
November 23, 2016: HNO
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