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Christopher J E Watson, Ina Jochmans
Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review was to summarise how machine perfusion could contribute to viability assessment of donor livers. Recent Findings: In both hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion, perfusate transaminase measurement has allowed pretransplant assessment of hepatocellular damage. Hypothermic perfusion permits transplantation of marginal grafts but as yet has not permitted formal viability assessment. Livers undergoing normothermic perfusion have been investigated using parameters similar to those used to evaluate the liver in vivo...
2018: Current Transplantation Reports
Riho Nakajima, Masashi Kinoshita, Hirokazu Okita, Tetsutaro Yahata, Mie Matsui, Mitsutoshi Nakada
Mentalizing is the ability to understand others' mental state through external cues. It consists of two networks, namely low-level and high-level metalizing. Although it is an essential function in our daily social life, surgical resection of right cerebral hemisphere disturbs mentalizing processing with high possibility. In the past, little was known about the white matter related to high-level mentalizing, and the conservation of high-level mentalizing during surgery has not been a focus of attention. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to examine the neural networks underlying high-level mentalizing and then, secondarily, investigate the usefulness of awake surgery in preserving the mentalizing network...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Katsuhiro Hosoyama, Shohei Wakao, Yoshihiro Kushida, Fumitaka Ogura, Kay Maeda, Osamu Adachi, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Mari Dezawa, Yoshikatsu Saiki
OBJECTIVES: Aortic aneurysms result from the degradation of multiple components represented by endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and elastic fibers. Cells that can replenish these components are desirable for cell-based therapy. Intravenously injected multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, endogenous nontumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells, reportedly integrate into the damaged site and repair the tissue through spontaneous differentiation into tissue-compatible cells...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Sue Rodway-Dyer, Nicola Ellis
Footpaths are a prominent consequence of natural area tourism and reflect damage caused to valuable, sensitive habitats by people pressure. Degradation impacts on vegetation, wildlife, on and off-site soil movement and loss, creation of additional informal off-path footpaths (desire lines), and visual destruction of landscapes. Impacts need to be measured and monitored on a large temporal and spatial scale to aid in land management to maintain access and preserve natural environments. This study combined remote sensing (Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] and aerial photography) with on-site measurement of footpaths within a sensitive heathland habitat (Land's End, Cornwall, UK)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Hiroshi Takahashi, Yasuchika Aoki, Arata Nakajima, Masato Sonobe, Fumiaki Terajima, Masahiko Saito, Takuya Miyamoto, Keita Koyama, Keiichiro Yamamoto, Takeo Furuya, Masao Koda, Seiji Ohtori, Masashi Yamazaki, Koichi Nakagawa
PURPOSE: To determine levels of biomarkers reflecting damage to axon, myelin, astrocytes, and neuron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with cervical compression myelopathy. METHODS: We collected 69 CSF samples from patients before spinal surgery for acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM, 20), chronic compression myelopathy (CM, 20), and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS 29; control). We measured levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit H (pNF-H), tau (reflecting axonal damage), myelin basic protein (MBP) (reflecting demyelination), S100b (reflecting astrocyte damage), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (reflecting neuronal damage)...
March 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
Sarel R van Amstel, David E Anderson, Ricardo Videla
CASE DESCRIPTION 3 Angus bulls, aged 2 to 3 years, with severe lameness of 2 to 4 weeks' duration and swelling proximal to the coronary band of the affected limb were evaluated after failing to respond to antimicrobial treatment. CLINICAL FINDINGS Septic arthritis of a distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) was diagnosed in all 3 bulls on the basis of results of a physical examination, radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluations of the affected foot, and cytologic evaluation of synovial fluid from the affected DIPJ...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Ramón Cugat, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Xavier Cuscó, Jordi Navarro, Gilbert Steinbacher, Pedro Álvarez-Díaz, Roberto Seijas, David Barastegui, Montse García-Balletbó
Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transtibial technique provides successful clinical outcomes. However, a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft with the transtibial technique has not been used by some surgeons because of concerns with graft passage from the tibial to the femoral tunnels (sharp turn) that can damage graft fibers. In the present surgical technique, an arthroscopic, transtibial, single-bundle technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the BTB autograft with an easy and effective technical tip to facilitate graft passage is presented...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Sara Milanizadeh, Karrar Najm Najaf Zuwarali, Abbas Aliaghaei, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli
Brain ischemia is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide, which usually happens through diminished blood supply to the tissue. Cell therapy and treatments using trophic factors are some of the new methods to protect brain cells against damage. Specific properties of Sertoli cells (SCs) make them suitable for improving neurological disorders. This study is to evaluate possible neuroprotective effects of SCs transplantation on ischemic damage. Rats were divided into three experimental groups including sham, control, and SCs-treated group...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Alfredo Briones-Herrera, Sabino Hazael Avila-Rojas, Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Magdalena Cristóbal, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Enrique Pinzón, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Edilia Tapia
Maleic acid (MA)-induced nephropathy that is characterized by proteinuria, glycosuria, phosphaturia and a deficient urinary acidification and concentration. Sulforaphane (SF) is an indirect antioxidant that shows nephroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to test the pre-treatment with SF against the MA-induced nephropathy. Wistar rats (230-260 g) were separated in the following groups: control, MA (which received 400 mg/kg of MA), SF + MA (which received MA and 1 mg/kg of SF each day for four days) and SF (which only received SF)...
March 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yad Ram Yadav, Shailendra Ratre, Vijay Parihar, Amitesh Dubey, Mashoo N Dubey
Symptomatic ventral cervical cord compressions have been treated by anterior discectomy with fusion, anterior corpectomy and fusion, discectomy with an artificial disc, and minimally invasive techniques. There are complications associated with the fusion procedure, especially when a long segment fusion is undertaken. Partial removal of the vertebral body without fusion could help in avoiding fusion and its associated complications. We are describing the detailed surgical technique, indications, limitations, and early results of endoscopic partially corpectomy...
March 2018: Neurology India
Nicolas S Merle, Anne Grunenwald, Marie-Lucile Figueres, Sophie Chauvet, Marie Daugan, Samantha Knockaert, Tania Robe-Rybkine, Remi Noe, Olivia May, Marie Frimat, Nathan Brinkman, Thomas Gentinetta, Sylvia Miescher, Pascal Houillier, Veronique Legros, Florence Gonnet, Olivier P Blanc-Brude, Marion Rabant, Regis Daniel, Jordan D Dimitrov, Lubka T Roumenina
Intravascular erythrocyte destruction, accompanied by the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory components hemoglobin and heme, is a common event in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases with heterogeneous etiology and clinical features. A frequent adverse effect related to massive hemolysis is the renal injury and inflammation. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether heme--a danger-associated molecular pattern--and ligand for TLR4 or upstream hemolysis-derived products are responsible for these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Péter Nagy, Gyöngyvér O Sándor, Gábor Juhász
Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by tightly controlled proliferation and differentiation of tissue-resident multipotent stem cells during aging and regeneration, which ensures organismal adaptation. Here we show that autophagy is required in Drosophila intestinal stem cells to sustain proliferation, and preserves the stem cell pool. Autophagy-deficient stem cells show elevated DNA damage and cell cycle arrest during aging, and are frequently eliminated via JNK-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, loss of Chk2, a DNA damage-activated kinase that arrests the cell cycle and promotes DNA repair and apoptosis, leads to uncontrolled proliferation of intestinal stem cells regardless of their autophagy status...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pingping Jia, Weihang Chai
Genome instability gives rise to cancer. MLH1, commonly known for its important role in mismatch repair (MMR), DNA damage signaling and double-strand break (DSB) repair, safeguards genome stability. Recently we have reported a novel role of MLH1 in preventing aberrant formation of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) at intra-chromosomal regions. Deficiency in MLH1, in particular its N-terminus, leads to an increase of ITSs. Here, we identify that the ATPase activity in the MLH1 N-terminal domain is important for suppressing the formation of ITSs...
March 7, 2018: DNA Repair
Julie A Reisz, Alexander S Barrett, Travis Nemkov, Kirk C Hansen, Angelo D'Alessandro
Proteins have been historically regarded as "nature's robots": Molecular machines that are essential to cellular/extracellular physical mechanical properties and catalyze key reactions for cell/system viability. However, these robots are kept in check by other protein-based machinery to preserve proteome integrity and stability. During aging, protein homeostasis is challenged by oxidation, decreased synthesis, and increasingly inefficient mechanisms responsible for repairing or degrading damaged proteins...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Tzong-Ming Shieh, Chi-Yuan Chen, Chuen Hsueh, Cheng-Chia Yu, Chin-Chuan Chen, Tong-Hong Wang
The quality of biological samples greatly affects the accuracy of scientific results. However, RNA in cryopreserved tissues gradually degrades during storage, leading to errors in the results of subsequent experiments. A suitable sample preservative solution can prolong storage and enhance the research value of samples. Here, we developed a sample preservative solution using the properties of the ribonucleoside vanadyl complex (RVC) and compared its effects on RNA and DNA quality, protein activity, and tissue morphology with the commercially available and widely used RNAlater® Stabilization Solution...
2018: PloS One
Ming Gao, Weihua Zhang, Waiou Zhao, Ling Qin, Fei Pei, Yang Zheng
RATIONALE: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disease characterized by hypereosinophilia and its ensuing organ damage. Cardiac involvement is divided into 3 chronological stages: an acute necrotic stage; a thrombus formation stage; and a fibrotic stage. Infiltration of the myocardium by eosinophilic cells followed by endomyocardial fibrosis is known as "Loeffler endocarditis." PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 60-year-old man diagnosed with left-sided restrictive cardiomyopathy...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jan-Michael Abicht, Riccardo Sfriso, Bruno Reichart, Matthias Längin, Katja Gahle, Gisella L Puga Yung, Jörg D Seebach, Robert Rieben, David Ayares, Eckhard Wolf, Nikolai Klymiuk, Andrea Baehr, Alexander Kind, Tanja Mayr, Andreas Bauer
BACKGROUND: In pig-to-human xenotransplantation, early cellular rejection reactions are mediated by natural killer cells (NK cells). Human NK cells are inhibited by HLA-E via CD94/NKG2A receptors. To protect porcine grafts against human NK cell responses, transgenic GTKO pigs expressing hCD46 and HLA-E have been generated. The aim of this study was to test the effect of this genetic modification on xenogeneic, and in particular human NK cell response, using an ex vivo perfusion model of pig hearts with human blood...
March 14, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Maria V Soloveva, Sharna D Jamadar, Govinda Poudel, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis
The 'reserve' hypothesis posits that the brain undergoes structural and functional reorganisation to actively cope with brain damage or disease. Consistent with passive and active components of 'reserve', the brain moderates its biological substrates (brain reserve) and differentially changes the level of neural activity in tasks-specific networks and/or by recruiting additional non-task related brain regions (cognitive reserve) to optimise behavioural performance. How the 'reserve' hypothesis applies in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD) remains unknown...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Natalia Pascuali, Leopoldina Scotti, Mariana Di Pietro, Gonzalo Oubiña, Diana Bas, María May, Antonio Gómez Muñoz, Patricia S Cuasnicú, Débora J Cohen, Marta Tesone, Dalhia Abramovich, Fernanda Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Is ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) an ovarian protective agent during alkylating chemotherapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Local administration of C1P drastically reduces ovarian damage induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy) via protection of follicular reserve, restoration of hormone levels, inhibition of apoptosis and improvement of stromal vasculature, while protecting fertility, oocyte quality and uterine morphology. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cancer-directed therapies cause accelerated loss of ovarian reserve and lead to premature ovarian failure (POF)...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Hannes Petersen, Alexandra Gliese, Yannick Stober, Stephanie Maier, Nils-Owe Hansen, Sebastian Kruber, Dennis Eggert, Miklós Tóth, Tobias Gosau, Hartmut Schlüter, Klaus Püschel, Udo Schumacher, Robert John Dwayne Miller, Adrian Münscher, Carsten Dalchow
OBJECTIVE: Using a contact-free laser technique for stapedotomy reduces the risk of mechanical damage of the stapes footplate. However, the risk of inner ear dysfunction due to thermal, acoustic, or direct damage has still not been solved. The objective of this study was to describe the first experiences in footplate perforation in cadaver tissue performed by the novel Picosecond-Infrared-Laser (PIRL), allowing a tissue preserving ablation. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: Three human cadaver stapes were perforated using a fiber-coupled PIRL...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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