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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148810/enhancement-of-light-absorption-in-silicon-nanowire-photovoltaic-devices-with-dielectric-and-metallic-grating-structures
#1
Jin-Sung Park, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Min-Soo Hwang, Xing Zhang, Jung Min Lee, Jungkil Kim, Kyung-Deok Song, You-Shin No, Kwang-Yong Jeong, James F Cahoon, Sun-Kyung Kim, Hong-Gyu Park
We report the enhancement of light absorption in Si nanowire photovoltaic devices with one-dimensional dielectric or metallic gratings that are fabricated by a damage-free, precisely aligning, polymer-assisted transfer method. Incorporation of a Si3N4 grating with a Si nanowire effectively enhances the photocurrents for transverse-electric polarized light. The wavelength at which a maximum photocurrent is generated is readily tuned by adjusting the grating pitch. Moreover, the electrical properties of the nanowire devices are preserved before and after transferring the Si3N4 gratings onto Si nanowires, ensuring that the quality of pristine nanowires is not degraded during the transfer...
November 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148265/resveratrol-ameliorates-the-severity-of-fibrogenesis-in-mice-with-experimental-chronic-pancreatitis
#2
Yixuan Xia, Hai-Tao Xiao, Kanglun Liu, Hong-Jie Zhang, Siu Wai Tsang
SCOPE: Resveratrol is generally considered beneficial to health-span and longevity since this dietary stilbenoid has been scrutinized for its activating property on the "rescue gene" sirtuin-1 that promotes cellular survival under stress. In addition to its antiaging property, our previous in vitro studies revealed that resveratrol notably inhibited the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), the classic effector cells against pancreatic injury...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146465/more-than-blindsight-case-report-of-a-child-with-extraordinary-visual-capacity-following-perinatal-bilateral-occipital-lobe-injury
#3
Inaki-Carril Mundinano, Juan Chen, Mitchell de Souza, Marc G Sarossy, Marc F Joanisse, Melvyn A Goodale, James A Bourne
Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) and the geniculostriate pathway in adults results in cortical blindness, abolishing conscious visual perception. Early studies by Larry Weiskrantz and colleagues demonstrated that some patients with an occipital-lobe injury exhibited a degree of unconscious vision and visually-guided behaviour within the blind field. A more recent focus has been the observed phenomenon whereby early-life injury to V1 often results in the preservation of visual perception in both monkeys and humans...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146208/glaucoma-associated-corneal-endothelial-cell-damage-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Ben J Janson, Wallace L Alward, Young H Kwon, Daniel I Bettis, John H Fingert, Lorraine M Provencher, Kenneth M Goins, Michael D Wagoner, Mark A Greiner
The corneal endothelium is critical in maintaining a healthy and clear cornea. Corneal endothelial cells have a significant reserve function, but preservation of these cells is paramount as they have limited regenerative capacity. Glaucoma is a prevalent disease, and damage to the corneal endothelium may be caused by the disease process itself as well as by its treatment. The mechanisms involved in glaucoma-associated damage to the corneal endothelium need further investigation. Understanding how glaucoma and glaucoma surgery impact the endothelium is important for protecting corneal clarity and visual acuity in all glaucoma patients, including those undergoing corneal transplant...
November 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142848/injury-of-the-external-branch-of-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-in-thyroid-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Andre S Potenza, Vergilius J F Araujo Filho, Claudio R Cernea
The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) innervates the cricothyroid muscle (CTM) to promote lengthening and thinning of the vocal fold, thus increasing voice pitch. The close relation with the superior thyroid vessels (STV) puts the EBSLN in risk every time the superior pole of the thyroid is dissected. It travels downward to innervate the CTM, lateral to the thyroid cartilage and to the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (IPCM), being eventually covered by this muscle fibers as it approaches its entry point...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142845/parathyroid-transplantation-in-thyroid-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Marcin Barczyński, Filip Gołkowski, Ireneusz Nawrot
Permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid surgery is rare. Its prevalence is reported to be below 1-2% if surgery is performed by experienced thyroid surgeons. Parathyroid identification and preservation in situ with good vascular supply is the mainstay of safe thyroid surgery. However, if the parathyroid glands are damaged, autotransplantation should be undertaken to preserve their function. Parathyroid transplantation can be considered in three distinct modes of application: (I) fresh parathyroid tissue autotransplantation during thyroidectomy in order to reduce the risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism; (II) cryopreserved parathyroid tissue autotransplantation in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism; (III) parathyroid allotransplantation in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism when cryopreserved parathyroid tissue is not available for grafting...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142469/hypothermic-machine-perfusion-with-metformin-university-of-wisconsin-solution-for-ex-vivo-preservation-of-standard-and-marginal-liver-grafts-in-a-rat-model
#7
Yi-Chao Chai, Guo-Xin Dang, Hai-Qi He, Jian-Hua Shi, Hong-Ke Zhang, Rui-Tao Zhang, Bo Wang, Liang-Shuo Hu, Yi Lv
AIM: To compare the effect of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution with or without metformin, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, for preserving standard and marginal liver grafts of young and aged rats ex vivo by hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP). METHODS: Eighteen young (4 mo old) and 18 aged (17 mo old) healthy male SD rats were selected and randomly divided into three groups: control group, UW solution perfusion group (UWP), and UW solution with metformin perfusion group (MUWP)...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141966/nutritional-factors-affecting-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function
#8
REVIEW
Shibu M Poulose, Marshall G Miller, Tammy Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141899/atypical-g-protein-%C3%AE-5-promotes-cardiac-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-and-fibrotic-remodeling-in-response-to-multiple-cancer-chemotherapeutics
#9
Biswanath Maity, Sreemoyee Chakraborti, Arnab Pramanick, Sudipta Saha, Somnath Singha Roy, Arnab Ray Chaudhuri, Madhusudan Das, Sujoy Ghosh, Adele Stewart
The clinical use of multiple classes of cancer chemotherapeutics is limited by irreversible, dose-dependent, and sometimes life-threatening cardiotoxicity. We report here that, though distinct in their mechanisms of action, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and 5-FU all induce rapid and robust upregulation of atypical G protein Gβ5 in the myocardium, correlating with oxidative stress, myocyte apoptosis, and the accumulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines. In ventricular cardiac myocytes (VCM), Gβ5 deficiency provided substantial protection against the cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutics, including reductions in oxidative stress and simultaneous attenuation of ROS-dependent activation of the ATM and CaMKII pro-apoptotic signaling cascades...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140820/renal-effects-of-cytokines-in-hypertension
#10
Yi Wen, Steven D Crowley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension through effects on renal blood flow and sodium handling. This review will update recent advances that explore the renal actions of immune cells and cytokines in the pathogenesis of hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Populations of cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to hypertension by modulating functions of the vasculature and epithelial cells in the kidney...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138454/differences-in-mitochondrial-function-and-morphology-during-cooling-and-rewarming-between-hibernator-and-non-hibernator-derived-kidney-epithelial-cells
#11
Koen D W Hendriks, Eleonora Lupi, Maarten C Hardenberg, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Leo E Deelman, Robert H Henning
Hibernators show superior resistance to ischemia and hypothermia, also outside the hibernation season. Therefore, hibernation is a promising strategy to decrease cellular damage in a variety of fields, such as organ transplantation. Here, we explored the role of mitochondria herein, by comparing epithelial cell lines from a hibernator (hamster kidney cells, HaK) and a non-hibernator (human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293) during cold preservation at 4 °C and rewarming. Cell survival (Neutral Red), ATP and MDA levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial morphology (using fluorescent probes) and metabolism (seahorse XF) were assessed...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138447/the-semaphorin-3a-inhibitor-sm-345431-preserves-corneal-nerve-and-epithelial-integrity-in-a-murine-dry-eye-model
#12
Risa Yamazaki, Katsuya Yamazoe, Satoru Yoshida, Shin Hatou, Emi Inagaki, Hideyuki Okano, Kazuo Tsubota, Shigeto Shimmura
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common disorder causing discomfort and ocular fatigue. Corneal nerves are compromised in DED, which may further cause loss of corneal sensation and decreased tear secretion. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is expressed by the corneal epithelium under stress, and is known as an inhibitor of axonal regeneration. Using a murine dry eye model, we found that topical SM-345431, a selective Sema3A inhibitor, preserved corneal sensitivity (2.3 ± 0.3 mm versus 1.4 ± 0.1 mm in vehicle control, p = 0...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137990/affective-blindsight-in-the-absence-of-input-from-face-processing-regions-in-occipital-temporal-cortex
#13
Christopher L Striemer, Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale
Previous research suggests that the implicit recognition of emotional expressions may be carried out by pathways that bypass primary visual cortex (V1) and project to the amygdala. Some of the strongest evidence supporting this claim comes from case studies of "affective blindsight" in which patients with V1 damage can correctly guess whether an unseen face was depicting a fearful or happy expression. In the current study, we report a new case of affective blindsight in patient MC who is cortically blind following extensive bilateral lesions to V1, as well as face and object processing regions in her ventral visual stream...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136322/heme-oxygenase-1-regulates-sirtuin-1-autophagy-pathway-in-liver-transplantation-from-mouse-to-human
#14
Kojiro Nakamura, Shoichi Kageyama, Shi Yue, Jing Huang, Takehiro Fujii, Bibo Ke, Rebecca A Sosa, Elaine F Reed, Nakul Datta, Ali Zarrinpar, Ronald W Busuttil, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski
Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a major risk factor of early graft dysfunction and a key obstacle to expanding the donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although graft autophagy is essential for resistance against hepatic IRI, its significance in clinical OLT remains unknown. Despite recent data identifying heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a putative autophagy inducer, its role in OLT and interactions with Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a key autophagy regulator, have not been studied. We aimed to examine HO-1 mediated autophagy induction in human OLT and in a murine OLT model with extended (20h) cold storage, as well as to analyze the requirement for SIRT1 in autophagy regulation by HO-1...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135288/selective-debridement-with-labral-preservation-using-narrow-indications-in-the-hip-minimum-5-year-outcomes-with-a-matched-pair-labral-repair-control-group
#15
Austin W Chen, Leslie C Yuen, Victor Ortiz-Declet, Jody Litrenta, David R Maldonado, Benjamin G Domb
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic labral debridement in the hip can be an effective treatment for labral tears but has demonstrated inferior outcomes compared with labral repair. Thus, the role for labral debridement has become unclear. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the outcomes of a selective debridement with labral preservation (SDLP) group with a minimum 5-year follow-up. It was hypothesized that, with narrow indications, SDLP would produce statistically improved patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores, comparable with those of a matched-pair labral repair control group...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134243/-implants-for-genital-prolapse-pro-mesh-surgery
#16
REVIEW
J Neymeyer, D-E Moldovan, K Kornienko, K Miller, A Weichert
There has been an overall increase in pelvic organ prolapse due to demographic changes (increased life expectancy). Increasing sociocultural demands of women require treatments that are more effective with methods that are more successful. In the treatment of pelvic floor insufficiency and uterovaginal prolapse, pelvic floor reconstructions with mesh implants have proven to be superior to conventional methods such as the classic colporrhaphy, reconstructions with biomaterial, and native tissue repair in appropriately selected patients and when applying exact operation techniques, especially because of good long-term results and low recurrence rates...
November 13, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#17
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130363/antioxidant-role-of-autophagy-in-maintaining-the-integrity-of-glomerular-capillaries
#18
Jun Matsuda, Tomoko Namba, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Tomonori Kimura, Atsushi Takahashi, Takeshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Minami, Shinsuke Sakai, Ryuta Fujimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Yoko Fukushima, Keiko Matsui, Tomoyoshi Soga, Yoshitaka Isaka
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation system by which cytosolic materials and damaged organelles are broken down into basic components. To explore the physiological role of autophagy in glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs), we compared the autophagic flux among cells in the kidney under starvation. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine administration significantly increased the number of autophagosomes or autolysosomes in GEnCs and proximal tubular cells, but not in podocytes, suggesting that the GEnCs exhibit substantial autophagic activity...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128308/oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-after-cerebral-ischemia-potential-therapeutic-targets-to-preserve-the-genome-and-improve-stroke-recovery
#19
REVIEW
Peiying Li, R Anne Stetler, Rehana K Leak, Yejie Shi, Yan Li, Weifeng Yu, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen
The past two decades have witnessed remarkable advances in oxidative stress research, particularly in the context of ischemic brain injury. Oxidative stress in ischemic tissues compromises the integrity of the genome, resulting in DNA lesions, cell death in neurons, glial cells, and vascular cells, and impairments in neurological recovery after stroke. As DNA is particularly vulnerable to oxidative attack, cells have evolved the ability to induce multiple DNA repair mechanisms, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and non-homogenous endpoint jointing (NHEJ)...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127185/advances-in-computational-modelling-for-personalised-medicine-after-myocardial-infarction
#20
REVIEW
Kenneth Mangion, Hao Gao, Dirk Husmeier, Xiaoyu Luo, Colin Berry
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality worldwide. Determining which patients will experience heart failure and sudden cardiac death after an acute MI is notoriously difficult for clinicians. The extent of heart damage after an acute MI is informed by cardiac imaging, typically using echocardiography or sometimes, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). These scans provide complex data sets that are only partially exploited by clinicians in daily practice, implying potential for improved risk assessment...
November 10, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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