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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817216/functional-neuroimaging-after-severe-anoxic-brain-injury-in-children-may-reveal-preserved-yet-covert-cognitive-function
#1
Adrian M Owen
A growing body of evidence has confirmed that, after severe brain injury in adults, motoric and task-dependent factors that are essential for reliable communication, frequently interfere with an accurate assessment of cognitive status. In the current study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children who have sustained an anoxic brain injury following a near drowning incident suggests a similar pattern; preserved cognition amidst severe motoric impairment that effectively precludes accurate clinical diagnosis at the bedside...
August 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810068/putrefaction-an-additional-complicating-factor-in-the-assessment-of-freshwater-drownings-in-rivers
#2
Roger W Byard
Background hypothesis: That bodies immersed in freshwater (rivers) may show greater changes of decomposition than bodies immersed in saltwater (sea). Fifty de-identified river drownings and 50 sea drownings were randomly selected from autopsy files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia and assessed for decomposition. RESULTS: The river cases consisted of 43 males and seven females (M:F 6:1); age range of 2-92 years (mean 46.8 years); decomposition-16/50 (32%); postmortem interval 1-14 days, average 3...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808336/linear-and-non-linear-responses-of-vegetation-and-soils-to-glacial-interglacial-climate-change-in-a-mediterranean-refuge
#3
Jens Holtvoeth, Hendrik Vogel, Verushka Valsecchi, Katja Lindhorst, Stefan Schouten, Bernd Wagner, George A Wolff
The impact of past global climate change on local terrestrial ecosystems and their vegetation and soil organic matter (OM) pools is often non-linear and poorly constrained. To address this, we investigated the response of a temperate habitat influenced by global climate change in a key glacial refuge, Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia). We applied independent geochemical and palynological proxies to a sedimentary archive from the lake over the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5) and the following interglacial (MIS 5e-c), targeting lake surface temperature as an indicator of regional climatic development and the supply of pollen and biomarkers from the vegetation and soil OM pools to determine local habitat response...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803722/advantages-of-analyzing-postmortem-brain-samples-in-routine-forensic-drug-screening-case-series-of-three-non-natural-deaths-tested-positive-for-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#4
Marie Mardal, Sys Stybe Johansen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet
Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
July 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801484/predicting-outcomes-in-traumatic-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-the-relevance-of-utstein-factors
#5
Ben Beck, Janet E Bray, Peter Cameron, Lahn Straney, Emily Andrew, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
BACKGROUND: Given low survival rates in cases of traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), there is a need to identify factors associated with outcomes. We aimed to investigate Utstein factors associated with achieving return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital in traumatic OHCA. METHODS: The Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry (VACAR) was used to identify cases of traumatic OHCA that received attempted resuscitation and occurred between July 2008 and June 2014...
August 11, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777318/unintentional-child-and-adolescent-drowning-mortality-from-2000-to-2013-in-21-countries-analysis-of-the-who-mortality-database
#6
Yue Wu, Yun Huang, David C Schwebel, Guoqing Hu
Limited research considers change over time for drowning mortality among individuals under 20 years of age, or the sub-cause (method) of those drownings. We assessed changes in under-20 drowning mortality from 2000 to 2013 among 21 countries. Age-standardized drowning mortality data were obtained through the World Health Organization (WHO) Mortality Database. Twenty of the 21 included countries experienced a reduction in under-20 drowning mortality rate between 2000 and 2013, with decreases ranging from -80 to -13%...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774894/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-strategies-for-the-prevention-of-global-unintentional-fatal-drowning-in-people-aged-50-years-and-older-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Amy E Peden, Richard C Franklin, Ana Catarina Queiroga
PURPOSE: Drowning is a global public health issue and prevention poses an ongoing challenge for all countries. Many nations are experiencing ageing populations, and little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of drowning deaths among older people. This paper reports on a systematic review of literature published on drowning among older people. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken using English-language, Portuguese-language and Spanish-language papers published between 1980 and 2015...
August 3, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772155/external-foam-and-the-post-mortem-period-in-freshwater-drowning-results-from-a-retrospective-study-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands
#8
G Reijnen, M C Buster, P J E Vos, U J L Reijnders
INTRODUCTION: Determining the time of death of bodies recovered from water can be difficult. A feature of drowning is the presence of external foam. This study describes the presence of external foam in relation to the post-mortem period. METHOD: The study utilizes a database of death reports dated between January 2011 and July 2016. For bodies recovered from fresh water, the presence or absence of external foam was noted. RESULTS: In this study, 112 death reports are included...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766738/major-shifts-in-amazon-wildlife-populations-from-recent-climatic-intensification
#9
Richard Bodmer, Pedro Mayor, Miguel Antunez, Kimberlyn Chota, Tula Fang, Pablo Puertas, Marlini Pittet, Maire Kirkland, Mike Walkey, Claudia Rios, Pedro Perez-Peña, Peter Henderson, William Bodmer, Andy Bicerra, Joseph Zegarra, Emma Docherty
In the western Amazon basin, recent intensification of river level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011-2015 during high water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest to study the consequences of intensification of climatic fluctuations to wildlife populations and in turn resource use by traditional people...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766713/comparison-between-temperature-gradient-gel-electrophoresis-of-bacterial-16s-rdna-and-diatom-test-for-diagnosis-of-drowning
#10
Nozomi Idota, Hajime Tsuboi, Marin Takaso, Misa Tojo, Takako Kinebuchi, Mami Nakamura, Hiroaki Ichioka, Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
When a body is discovered in water, it is difficult to conclude whether the cause of death was drowning, even today. Although diatom testing by the digestive method is classical, we hypothesized that aquatic bacteria, as well as diatoms, might be detected in drowned bodies, and conducted temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE)-targeting 16S rDNA. DNA was extracted from the site water, and from heart blood and liver samples from 27 bodies concluded as drowning deaths by autopsy and subjected to TGGE after amplification of 16S rDNA by polymerase chain reaction...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764763/the-shrinking-health-advantage-unintentional-injuries-among-children-and-youth-from-immigrant-families
#11
Natasha Ruth Saunders, Alison Macpherson, Jun Guan, Lisa Sheng, Astrid Guttmann
BACKGROUND: Immigrants typically arrive in good health. This health benefit can decline as immigrants adopt behaviours similar to native-born populations. Risk of injury is low in immigrants but it is not known whether this changes with increasing time since migration. We sought to examine the association between duration of residence in Canada and risk of unintentional injury. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study of children and youth 0 to 24 years in Ontario, Canada (2011-2012), using linked health and administrative databases...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760968/impact-of-glacial-interglacial-sea-level-change-on-the-ocean-nitrogen-cycle
#12
Haojia Ren, Daniel M Sigman, Alfredo Martínez-García, Robert F Anderson, Min-Te Chen, Ana Christina Ravelo, Marietta Straub, George T F Wong, Gerald H Haug
The continental shelves are the most biologically dynamic regions of the ocean, and they are extensive worldwide, especially in the western North Pacific. Their area has varied dramatically over the glacial/interglacial cycles of the last million years, but the effects of this variation on ocean biological and chemical processes remain poorly understood. Conversion of nitrate to N2 by denitrification in sediments accounts for half or more of the removal of biologically available nitrogen ("fixed N") from the ocean...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760802/this-much-water-a-qualitative-study-using-behavioural-theory-to-develop-a-community-service-video-to-prevent-child-drowning-in-western-australia
#13
Mel Denehy, Justine E Leavy, Jonine Jancey, Lauren Nimmo, Gemma Crawford
OBJECTIVES: Drowning in children under the age of 5 is a frequently occurring, yet preventable event. This research used behavioural theory to test the suitability and appropriateness of a drowning prevention message in a community service video. DESIGN: This qualitative study used content analysis of focus groups. Constructs from the Health Belief Model guided the data analysis. SETTING: Community organisations and playgrounds in Perth, Western Australia...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759710/functional-integrity-in-children-with-anoxic-brain-injury-from-drowning
#14
Mariam Ishaque, Janessa H Manning, Mary D Woolsey, Crystal G Franklin, Elizabeth W Tullis, Christian F Beckmann, Peter T Fox
Drowning is a leading cause of accidental injury and death in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI) is a common consequence of drowning and can cause severe neurological morbidity in survivors. Assessment of functional status and prognostication in drowning victims can be extremely challenging, both acutely and chronically. Structural neuroimaging modalities (CT and MRI) have been of limited clinical value. Here, we tested the utility of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) for assessing brain functional integrity in this population...
July 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757754/therapeutic-hypothermia-brings-favorable-neurologic-outcomes-in-children-with-near-drowning
#15
Ming-Chun Chen, Chia-Hsiang Chu, Ching-Feng Cheng, Jun-Song Lin, Jui-Hsia Chen, Yu-Hsun Chang
A 1-year-10-month-old boy was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit due to near drowning with pulmonary edema. A conventional ventilator with 100% oxygen supplementation was used initially, but was shifted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation as his oxygen saturation was around 84-88%. Therapeutic hypothermia was applied due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with severe acidosis. His respiratory condition improved and he was extubated successfully on the 6(th) hospital day. The patient had no obvious neurological defects and he was discharged in a stable condition after 17 days of hospitalization...
October 2016: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751530/a-10-year-review-of-child-injury-hospitalisations-health-outcomes-and-treatment-costs-in-australia
#16
Rebecca J Mitchell, Kate Curtis, Kim Foster
BACKGROUND: Childhood injury is a leading cause of hospitalisation, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of child injury and survival over time in Australia. To examine the characteristics, temporal trend and survival for children who were hospitalised as a result of injury in Australia. METHOD: A retrospective examination of linked hospitalisation and mortality data for injured children aged 16 years or less during 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2012. Negative binomial regression examined change in injury hospitalisation trends...
July 27, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743731/shifting-disease-burden-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-14-year-survival-analysis-of-childhood-mortality-in-bangladesh
#17
REVIEW
Olakunle Alonge, Siran He, Dewan Emdadul Hoque, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Irteja Islam, Shams El-Arifeen, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to compare all-cause mortality and drowning-specific mortality rates and survival times among birth cohorts of children from rural Bangladesh over a 14-year period. METHOD: Seven birth cohorts of children aged 12-59 months were created using data from the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. Each cohort represents children born within a 2-year interval between 1 July 1995 and 30 June 2009, who were then evaluated over a 2-year snapshot...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737353/-neonaticides-in-france-analysis-of-357%C3%A2-cases-identified-in-the-press-1993-2012
#18
Laurence Simmat-Durand
Background and objectives: Despite easy access to contraception and child abandonment in France, neonaticides continue to occur and, although rare, are widely publicized. The objective of this study was to characterize neonaticides and their perpetrators over a twenty-year period in France based on cases reported in the press. Methods: 2,319 press articles describing the discovery of a newborn corpse in the regional and national press were extracted from electronic databases or other digital supports. A total of 357 neonaticides were described, corresponding to a mean annual rate of 2...
July 10, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735156/adaptive-periodic-paralysis-allows-weaning-deep-sedation-overcoming-the-drowning-syndrome-in-ecmo-patients-bridged-for-lung-transplantation-a-case-series
#19
Irina Timofte, Michael Terrin, Erik Barr, June Kim, Joseph Rinaldi, Nicholas Ladikos, Jay Menaker, Ali Tabatabai, Zachary Kon, Bartley Griffith, Richard Pierson, Si Pham, Aldo Iacono, Daniel Herr
PURPOSE: Sedation in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is challenging. Patients require deep sedation because of extremely high respiratory rates and increased work of breathing ("Drowning Syndrome") resulting in altered intra-thoracic pressure and reduced pump flow associated with hemodynamic compromise and decreased oxygenation. However, deep sedation impedes essential active rehabilitation with physical therapy. METHODS: We reviewed data on 3 ECMO patients for whom we used a novel approach to replace continuous drips with periodic sedation/paralysis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728893/2015-revised-utstein-style-recommended-guidelines-for-uniform-reporting-of-data-from-drowning-related-resuscitation-an-ilcor-advisory-statement
#20
Ahamed H Idris, Joost J L M Bierens, Gavin D Perkins, Volker Wenzel, Vinay Nadkarni, Peter Morley, David S Warner, Alexis Topjian, Allart M Venema, Christine M Branche, David Szpilman, Luiz Morizot-Leite, Masahiko Nitta, Bo Løfgren, Jonathon Webber, Jan-Thorsten Gräsner, Stephen B Beerman, Chun Song Youn, Ulrich Jost, Linda Quan, Cameron Dezfulian, Anthony J Handley, Mary Fran Hazinski
BACKGROUND: Utstein-style guidelines use an established consensus process, endorsed by the international resuscitation community, to facilitate and structure resuscitation research and publication. The first "Guidelines for Uniform Reporting of Data From Drowning" were published over a decade ago. During the intervening years, resuscitation science has advanced considerably, thus making revision of the guidelines timely. In particular, measurement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation elements and neurological outcomes reporting have advanced substantially...
September 2017: Resuscitation
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