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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701146/role-of-melatonin-in-the-inflammatory-process-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#1
Livia Carrascal, Pedro Nunez-Abades, Antonio Ayala, Mercedes Cano
Melatonin is an indolamine synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland along with other sources including immune system cells, the brain, skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Growing interest in this compound as a potential therapeutic agent in several diseases stems from its pleiotropic effects. Thus, melatonin plays a key role in various physiological activities that include regulation of circadian rhythms, immune responses, the oxidative process, apoptosis or mitochondrial homeostasis. Most of these processes are altered during inflammatory pathologies, among which neurodegenerative and bowel diseases stand out...
April 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521616/n-acetyl-cysteine-increases-the-replication-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-prolongs-the-clearance-of-the-pathogen-from-mice
#2
Dávid Kókai, Tímea Mosolygó, Dezső P Virók, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
PURPOSE: Within the community, 10 % of acquired pneumonia is caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is one of the most commonly used mucolytics in respiratory diseases, but its effect on C. pneumoniae infection has not yet been investigated. In this study, our aim was to investigate whether NAC influences the replication of C. pneumoniae. After determining that NAC does have an effect on C. pneumoniae replication, the effect of an alternative drug called Ambroxol (Ax) was investigated...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520442/cd274-lag3-and-ido1-expressions-in-tumor-infiltrating-immune-cells-as-prognostic-biomarker-for-patients-with-msi-high-colon-cancer
#3
Soo Jung Lee, Sun-Young Jun, In Hee Lee, Byung Woog Kang, Su Yeon Park, Hye Jin Kim, Jun Seok Park, Gyu-Seog Choi, Ghilsuk Yoon, Jong Gwang Kim
PURPOSE: This study attempted to reveal the prognostic impact of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colon cancer with tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) and immune checkpoint protein expression, which are good candidates for immunotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 89 patients with MSI-H colon cancer who underwent curative surgery at Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital. The expression status of specific inhibitory receptors, such as CD274 (programmed death-ligand 1, PD-L1), PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1, PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), and indolamine 2'3'-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), was retrospectively analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
June 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513756/microenvironmental-cues-enhance-mesenchymal-stem-cell-mediated-immunomodulation-and-regulatory-t-cell-expansion
#4
Rohini L Kadle, Salma A Abdou, Alvaro P Villarreal-Ponce, Marc A Soares, Darren L Sultan, Joshua A David, Jonathan Massie, William J Rifkin, Piul Rabbani, Daniel J Ceradini
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to both have powerful immunosuppressive properties and promote allograft tolerance. Determining the environmental oxygen tension and inflammatory conditions under which MSCs are optimally primed for this immunosuppressive function is essential to their utilization in promoting graft tolerance. Of particular interest is the mechanisms governing the interaction between MSCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which is relatively unknown. We performed our experiments utilizing rat bone marrow derived MSCs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512136/circadian-modulation-of-neuroplasticity-by-melatonin-a-target-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#5
REVIEW
Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Rosa Estrada-Reyes, Héctor Solís-Chagoyán, Jesús Argueta, Ana María Dorantes-Barrón, Daniel Quero-Chávez, Ricardo Cruz-Garduño, Montserrat G Cercós, Citlali Trueta, Julián Oikawa-Sala, Margarita L Dubocovich, Gloria Benítez-King
Mood disorders are a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by changes in the emotional state. In particular, major depressive disorder is expected to have a worldwide prevalence of 20% in 2020, representing a huge socio-economic burden. Currently used antidepressant drugs have poor efficacy with only 30% of the patients in remission after the first line of treatment. Importantly, mood disorder patients present uncoupling of circadian rhythms. In this regard, melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine), an indolamine synthesized by the pineal gland during the night, contributes to synchronization of body rhythms with the environmental light/dark cycle...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480191/alzheimer-s-disease-recent-concepts-on-the-relation-of-mitochondrial-disturbances-excitotoxicity-neuroinflammation-and-kynurenines
#6
Dénes Zádori, Gábor Veres, Levente Szalárdy, Péter Klivényi, László Vécsei
The pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD) certainly involves mitochondrial disturbances, glutamate excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The three main aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, i.e., the defects in dynamics, altered bioenergetics, and the deficient transport, act synergistically. In addition, glutamatergic neurotransmission is affected in several ways. The balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission is shifted toward the extrasynaptic site contributing to glutamate excitotoxicity, a phenomenon augmented by increased glutamate release and decreased glutamate uptake...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431732/stat3-p53-pathway-activation-disrupts-ifn-%C3%AE-induced-dormancy-in-tumor-repopulating-cells
#7
Yuying Liu, Jiadi Lv, Jinyan Liu, Xiaoyu Liang, Xun Jin, Jing Xie, Le Zhang, Degao Chen, Roland Fiskesund, Ke Tang, Jingwei Ma, Huafeng Zhang, Wenqian Dong, Siqi Mo, Tianzhen Zhang, Feiran Cheng, Yabo Zhou, Qingzhu Jia, Bo Zhu, Yan Kong, Jun Guo, Haizeng Zhang, Zhuo-Wei Hu, Xuetao Cao, F Xiao-Feng Qin, Bo Huang
Dynamic interaction with the immune system profoundly regulates tumor cell dormancy. However, it is unclear how immunological cues trigger cancer cell-intrinsic signaling pathways for entering into dormancy. Here, we show that IFN-β treatment induced tumor-repopulating cells (TRC) to enter dormancy through an indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase/kynurenine/aryl hydrocarbon receptor/p27-dependent (IDO/Kyn/AhR/p27-dependent) pathway. Strategies to block this metabolic circuitry did not relieve dormancy, but led to apoptosis of dormant TRCs in murine and human melanoma models...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416536/-trichinella-spiralis-excretory-secretory-products-induce-tolerogenic-properties-in-human-dendritic-cells-via-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#8
Nataša Ilic, Alisa Gruden-Movsesijan, Jelena Cvetkovic, Sergej Tomic, Dragana Bozidar Vucevic, Carmen Aranzamendi, Miodrag Colic, Elena Pinelli, Ljiljana Sofronic-Milosavljevic
Trichinella spiralis , as well as its muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1), given either alone or via dendritic cells (DCs), induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment in inbred rodents and successfully ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ES L1 directs the immunological balance away from T helper (Th)1, toward Th2 and regulatory responses by modulating DCs phenotype. The ultimate goal of our work is to find out if it is possible to translate knowledge obtained in animal model to humans and to generate human tolerogenic DCs suitable for therapy of autoimmune diseases through stimulation with ES L1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408377/the-melatonin-mt1-receptor-axis-modulates-tumor-growth-in-pten-mutated-gliomas
#9
Huihui Ma, Zhen Wang, Lei Hu, Shangrong Zhang, Chenggang Zhao, Haoran Yang, Hongzhi Wang, Zhiyou Fang, Lijun Wu, Xueran Chen
More than 40% of glioma patients have tumors that harbor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) mutations; this disease is associated with poor therapeutic resistance and outcome. Such mutations are linked to increased cell survival and growth, decreased apoptosis, and drug resistance; thus, new therapeutic strategies focusing on inhibiting glioma tumorigenesis and progression are urgently needed. Melatonin, an indolamine produced and secreted predominantly by the pineal gland, mediates a variety of physiological functions and possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377903/cytomegalovirus-induces-hla-class-ii-restricted-alloreactivity-in-an-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cell-line
#10
Michael Koldehoff, Monika Lindemann, Stefan R Ross, Ahmet H Elmaagacli
Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) reactivation is found frequently after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) and is associated with an increased treatment-related mortality. Recent reports suggest a link between HCMV and a reduced risk of cancer progression in patients with acute leukemia or lymphoma after alloSCT. Here we show that HCMV can inhibit the proliferation of the acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 and the promyeloid leukemia cell line NB4. HCMV induced a significant up-regulation of HLA-class-II-molecules, especially HLA-DR expression and an increase of apoptosis, granzyme B, perforin and IFN-γ secretion in Kasumi-1 cells cocultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#11
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246652/the-effect-of-minocycline-on-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase-expression-and-the-levels-of-kynurenic-acid-and-quinolinic-acid-in-lps-activated-primary-rat-microglia
#12
Zahra Bahrami, Masoumeh Firouzi, Afrouzeh Hashemi-Monfared, Hamid Zahednasab, Mohammad Hossein Harirchian
Microglia are one of the most important neural cells in the central nervous system (CNS) which account for 10-15% of all cells found in the brain. A vast majority of studies indicate that microglia play a pivotal role in protection and damage of the CNS. It has been shown that microglia are mainly scavenger cells but also produce a barrage of factors that are involved in tissue repair and neural regeneration. Several lines of evidence indicate that unregulated activation of microglia in response to either endogenous or exogenous insults results in the production of toxic factors that propagate neuronal injury...
December 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158705/melatonin-attenuates-thiocyanate-induced-vasoconstriction-in-aortic-rings
#13
Alexander M Prusa, Christian A Plass
Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN- ) arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN- levels are increased...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150070/decreased-expression-of-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-childhood-allergic-asthma-and-its-inverse-correlation-with-fractional-concentration-of-exhaled-nitric-oxide
#14
Ying Hu, Zhiqiang Chen, Ling Jin, Mei Wang, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: The tryptophan metabolic pathway mediated by indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan-degrading enzyme, plays an important role in controlling the development of allergic inflammation. The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is closely associated with the allergic state and is extensively used for the clinical evaluation of airway allergic inflammation. Clinical trials have rarely assessed the expression of IDO in childhood allergic asthma and its correlation with FeNO...
November 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036889/single-administration-of-melatonin-modulates-the-nitroxidergic-system-at-the-peripheral-level-and-reduces-thermal-nociceptive-hypersensitivity-in-neuropathic-rats
#15
Elisa Borsani, Barbara Buffoli, Veronica Bonazza, Russel J Reiter, Rita Rezzani, Luigi F Rodella
Neuropathic pain is a severe condition with unsatisfactory treatments. Melatonin, an indolamine, seems to be a promising molecule suitable for this purpose due to its well-known anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant effects, as well as its modulation of the nitroxidergic system. Nevertheless, the data on its mechanism of action and potentialities are currently insufficient in this pathology, especially at the peripheral level. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of a single administration of melatonin in an established mononeuropathy pain model that monitors the behaviour and the changes in the nitroxidergic system in dorsal root ganglia and skin, which are affected by nervous impairment...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974455/melatonin-as-an-angiogenesis-inhibitor-to-combat-cancer-mechanistic-evidence
#16
REVIEW
Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Milad Moloudizargari, Babak Negahdari, Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Mohammad Abdollahi
Melatonin, a pineal indolamine, participates in different body functions and is shown to possess diverse biological activities such as anti-tumor action. Angiogenesis inhibition is one of the mechanisms by which melatonin exerts its oncostatic effects. Increased angiogenesis is a major feature of tumor progression, thus angiogenesis inhibition is a critical step in cancer therapy. Melatonin employs a variety of mechanisms to target nutrients and oxygen supply to cancer cells. At the transcriptional level, hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the genes under its control, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are the main targets of melatonin for inhibition of angiogenesis...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961266/cryptic-effects-of-biological-invasions-reduction-of-the-aggressive-behaviour-of-a-native-fish-under-the-influence-of-an-invasive-biomolecule
#17
Laura Magliozzi, Frederico Almada, Joana Robalo, Ernesto Mollo, Gianluca Polese, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Serena Felline, Antonio Terlizzi, Biagio D'Aniello
The invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea has become an important component of the diet of the Mediterranean white seabream Diplodus sargus. As a consequence of this "exotic diet", the algal bisindolic alkaloid caulerpin accumulates in the fish tissues. Although the compound shows structural similarity to endogenous indolamines that modulate animal behaviour, the potential impact of caulerpin on fish behaviour still remains unexplored. In this report, behavioural experiments both on groups and on single fish responding towards a mirror were performed under different doses of dietary caulerpin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918172/melatonin-and-periodontal-tissues-molecular-and-clinical-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Agata Rita Carpentieri, María Elena Peralta Lopez, Javier Aguilar, Verónica Mariana Solá
Periodontal disease is a frequent chronic inflammatory pathology that implies the destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth, which represents a high sanitary cost. It usually appears associated with other systemic conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, depression and Alzheimer disease among others. The presence of melatonin and its receptors in the oral cavity supports the hypothesis that this hormone could play a role in homeostasis of periodontal tissues. In the present review we will discuss the potential role of melatonin, a circadian synchronizing hormone, with proved antiinflammatory and antioxidant profile, in the pathogenesis and treatment of periodontitis...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912098/melatonin-mediated-upregulation-of-sirt3-attenuates-sodium-fluoride-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-activating-the-mt1-pi3k-akt-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#19
Chao Song, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Dan Li, Tingchao Mao, Wei Peng, Haibo Wu, Yong Zhang
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fluoride toxicity in liver. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized in the pineal gland, was previously shown to protect against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hepatotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin pretreatment on NaF-induced hepatotoxicity and elucidates the potential mechanism of melatonin-mediated protection. Reducing mitochondrial ROS by melatonin substantially attenuated NaF-induced NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upregulation and cytotoxicity in L-02 cells...
September 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911850/activation-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-pathway-by-olanzapine-augments-antidepressant-effects-of-venlafaxine-in-mice
#20
Jaya Thomas, Razia Khanam, Divya Vohora
Recent clinical studies report antipsychotics as a better option to augment the action of antidepressants in treatment resistant cases. However, the proper mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of antipsychotics is still not clear. Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) pathway is considered to be an important pathway in pro-inflammatory cytokine associated stress-induced depression. The present study investigated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine, olanzapine and their combinations in chronic forced-swim stress-induced depression in mice...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
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