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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527911/cancer-stem-cells-at-the-forefront-of-personalized-medicine-and-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Micol E Fiori, Lidia Villanova, Ruggero De Maria
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent the main target of the current efforts to eradicate cancer, because of their ability to promote metastatic dissemination and survive cytotoxic therapies. Here, we highlight the potential of patient-derived CSCs as an in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical model and of liquid biopsy as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tool. We discuss recently developed therapeutic strategies aiming at specifically targeting the cancer stem cell population, particularly focusing on the latest advances in cancer immunotherapy...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507236/dynamics-of-the-cell-mediated-immune-response-to-tumour-growth
#2
Álvaro G López, Jesús M Seoane, Miguel A F Sanjuán
Using a hybrid cellular automaton, we investigate the transient and asymptotic dynamics of the cell-mediated immune response to tumour growth. We analyse the correspondence between this dynamics and the three phases of the theory of immunoedition: elimination, equilibrium and escape. Our results demonstrate that the immune system can keep a tumour dormant for long periods of time, but that this dormancy is based on a frail equilibrium between the mechanisms that spur the immune response and the growth of the tumour...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438290/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expression-and-tumor-microenvironment-implications-for-patients-with-oral-precancerous-lesions
#3
Takahiro Yagyuu, Kinta Hatakeyama, Mitsuhiko Imada, Miyako Kurihara, Yumiko Matsusue, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Chiho Obayashi, Tadaaki Kirita
OBJECTIVES: Cancer immunoediting represents a relatively novel concept attempting to explain the process of tumor escape from the host immune system response. Here, we attempted to elucidate the role of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the tumor microenvironment, and tumor escape mechanisms that allow malignant transformation of oral precancerous lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with oral precancerous lesions managed at the Nara Medical University Hospital, Japan, (n=120) were enrolled in this study...
May 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423700/hla-class-i-loss-in-metachronous-metastases-prevents-continuous-t-cell-recognition-of-mutated-neoantigens-in-a-human-melanoma-model
#4
Barbara Schrörs, Silke Lübcke, Volker Lennerz, Martina Fatho, Anne Bicker, Catherine Wölfel, Patrick Derigs, Thomas Hankeln, Dirk Schadendorf, Annette Paschen, Thomas Wölfel
T lymphocytes against tumor-specific mutated neoantigens can induce tumor regression. Also, the size of the immunogenic cancer mutanome is supposed to correlate with the clinical efficacy of checkpoint inhibition. Herein, we studied the susceptibility of tumor cell lines from lymph node metastases occurring in a melanoma patient over several years towards blood-derived, neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In contrast to a cell line established during early stage III disease, all cell lines generated at later time points from stage IV metastases exhibited partial or complete loss of HLA class I expression...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405523/histidine-decarboxylase-hdc-expressing-granulocytic-myeloid-cells-induce-and-recruit-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-murine-colon-cancer
#5
Xiaowei Chen, Yoshihiro Takemoto, Huan Deng, Moritz Middelhoff, Richard A Friedman, Timothy H Chu, Michael J Churchill, Yan Ma, Karan K Nagar, Yagnesh H Tailor, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Timothy C Wang
The colorectal tumor microenvironment contains a diverse population of myeloid cells that are recruited and converted to immunosuppressive cells, thus facilitating tumor escape from immunoediting. We have identified a genetically and functionally distinct subset of dynamic bone marrow myeloid cells that are characterized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression. Lineage tracing in Hdc-CreERT2;R26-LSL-tdTomato mice revealed that in homeostasis, there is a strong bias by HDC(+) myeloid cells toward the CD11b(+)Ly6G(hi) granulocytic lineage, which was accelerated during azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced colonic carcinogenesis...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378631/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-and-breast-cancer-beyond-the-prognostic-and-predictive-utility
#6
REVIEW
Andrea Ravelli, Giandomenico Roviello, Daniele Cretella, Andrea Cavazzoni, Alessandra Biondi, Maria Rosa Cappelletti, Laura Zanotti, Giuseppina Ferrero, Marco Ungari, Fabrizio Zanconati, Alberto Bottini, Roberta Alfieri, Pier Giorgio Petronini, Daniele Generali
The importance of the immune system as a potent anti-tumor defense has been consolidated in recent times, and novel immune-related therapies are today demonstrating a strong clinical benefit in the setting of several solid neoplasms. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reflect the attempt of the host to eradicate malignancies, and during the last decades, they have been shown to possess an interesting prognostic utility for breast cancer, especially in case of HER2 positive and triple-negative molecular subtypes...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363679/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-early-breast-cancer
#7
Giancarlo Pruneri, Andrea Vingiani, Carsten Denkert
Immunoediting represents a complex and dynamic process involving cancer and immune system cells, composed by three intertwined phases: elimination, equilibrium and escape. A large number of immune cell subtypes are involved, each playing a peculiar role in interacting with cancer cells: cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells play a main role in cancer killing by inducing tumor cell death, while FOXP3+ T-regulatory cells represent an immune-inhibitory cell subtype. The evaluation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in H&E routine samples has been shown to represent a reliable surrogate of the immune anti-tumor activity and a robust independent prognostic biomarker in breast cancer (BC) patients, especially in the Tripe Negative and HER2+ subtypes...
March 28, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361232/cancer-immunotherapy-how-low-level-ionizing-radiation-can-play-a-key-role
#8
REVIEW
Marek K Janiak, Marta Wincenciak, Aneta Cheda, Ewa M Nowosielska, Edward J Calabrese
The cancer immunoediting hypothesis assumes that the immune system guards the host against the incipient cancer, but also "edits" the immunogenicity of surviving neoplastic cells and supports remodeling of tumor microenvironment towards an immunosuppressive and pro-neoplastic state. Local irradiation of tumors during standard radiotherapy, by killing neoplastic cells and generating inflammation, stimulates anti-cancer immunity and/or partially reverses cancer-promoting immunosuppression. These effects are induced by moderate (0...
March 30, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352189/mechanism-of-immune-evasion-in-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Mozhi Wang, Changwang Zhang, Yongxi Song, Zhenning Wang, Yaojia Wang, Fang Luo, Yujie Xu, Yi Zhao, Zhonghua Wu, Yingying Xu
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignant tumor among women, with high morbidity and mortality. Its onset, development, metastasis, and prognosis vary among individuals due to the interactions between tumors and host immunity. Many diverse mechanisms have been associated with BC, with immune evasion being the most widely studied to date. Tumor cells can escape from the body's immune response, which targets abnormal components and foreign bodies, using different approaches including modification of surface antigens and modulation of the surrounding environment...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344881/immunosurveillance-and-immunoediting-in-mmtv-pymt-induced-mammary-oncogenesis
#10
Emilie T E Gross, Semi Han, Prasantha Vemu, Carlos D Peinado, Martin Marsala, Lesley G Ellies, Jack D Bui
Evidence of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting processes has been primarily demonstrated in mouse models of chemically induced oncogenesis. Although these models are very tractable, they are characterized by high mutational loads that represent a minority of human cancers. In this study, we sought to determine whether cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting could be demonstrated in a more clinically relevant oncogene-induced model of carcinogenesis, the MMTV-PyMT (PyMT) mammary carcinoma model...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340323/a-key-to-the-backdoor-into-the-castle-the-clinical-ramifications-of-immunoediting-driven-by-antigenic-competition
#11
M G Hanna, Jason David Howard
Over the last decade the field of cancer biology has gained considerable data on genomic heterogeneity. This situation creates challenges and possibly opportunities for cancer treatment. The evolution of the tumor at all stages also requires the growing malignancy to confront and avoid the immune system. What we describe here is the interaction of two immune phenomena that work together to change the characteristics of the tumor, i.e., antigenic competition and immune editing. These two systems are mutually functional and their interaction is capable of altering the characteristics of the tumor for protection and survival in an immune competent host as well as restricting the diversity of the tumor clones...
March 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275390/dual-role-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
T G Shrihari
Inflammation is the body's response to noxious stimuli such as infectious, physiological or chemical agents, it releases various inflammatory mediators via immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. These inflammatory mediators are growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) activate transcriptional factors (NF-KB, STAT-3) and bring about cellular proliferation, genomic instability, angiogenesis, resistance to apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256642/identifying-the-optimal-anticancer-targets-from-the-landscape-of-a-cancer-immunity-interaction-network
#13
Chunhe Li
Cancer immunotherapy, an approach of targeting immune cells to attack tumor cells, has been suggested to be a promising way for cancer treatment recently. However, the successful application of this approach warrants a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay between cancer cells and the immune system. Especially, the mechanisms of immunotherapy remain elusive. In this work, we constructed a cancer-immunity interplay network by incorporating interactions among cancer cells and some representative immune cells, and uncovered the potential landscape of the cancer-immunity network...
March 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212890/annexin-a1-influences-in-breast-cancer-controversies-on-contributions-to-tumour-host-and-immunoediting-processes
#14
REVIEW
Yan Tu, Cameron N Johnstone, Alastair G Stewart
Annexin A1 is a multifunctional protein characterised by its actions in modulating the innate and adaptive immune response. Accumulating evidence of altered annexin A1 expression in many human tumours raises interest in its functional role in cancer biology. In breast cancer, altered annexin A1 expression levels suggest a potential influence on tumorigenic and metastatic processes. However, reports of conflicting results reveal a relationship that is much more complex than first conceptualised. In this review, we explore the diverse actions of annexin A1 on breast tumour cells and various host cell types, including stromal immune and structural cells, particularly in the context of cancer immunoediting...
May 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176650/is-there-a-role-for-epigenetic-enhancement-of-immunomodulatory-approaches-to-cancer-treatment
#15
Kirsty J Flower, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Robert Brown
The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the host immune system to recognise the cancer as non-self and eliminate it from the body. Whilst this is an extremely fertile area of medical research, with positive clinical trials showing durable responses, attention must be paid to the subset of patients that do not respond to these treatments. Immune surveillance and immunoediting by the host could itself select for immune-evasive tumour cells during tumour development leading to immunotherapy resistance...
February 5, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100240/reactivation-of-dormant-anti-tumor-immunity-a-clinical-perspective-of-therapeutic-immune-checkpoint-modulation
#16
REVIEW
Richard Greil, Evelyn Hutterer, Tanja Nicole Hartmann, Lisa Pleyer
In favor of their outgrowth, cancer cells must resist immune surveillance and edit the immune response. Cancer immunoediting is characterized by fundamental changes in the cellular composition and the inflammatory cytokine profiles in the microenvironment of the primary tumor and metastatic niches, with an ever increasing complexity of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system. Recent data suggest that genetic instability and immunoediting are not necessarily disparate processes. Increasing mutational load may be associated with multiple neoepitopes expressed by the tumor cells and thus increased chances for the immune system to recognize and combat these cells...
January 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031719/potential-role-of-immunotherapy-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Ramon Andrade de Mello, Ana Flávia Veloso, Paulo Esrom Catarina, Sara Nadine, Georgios Antoniou
Immuno checkpoint inhibitors have ushered in a new era with respect to the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Many patients are not suitable for treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (eg, gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib) or with anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors (eg, crizotinib and ceritinib). As a result, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors may play a novel role in the improvement of outcomes in a metastatic setting. The regulation of immune surveillance, immunoediting, and immunoescape mechanisms may play an interesting role in this regard either alone or in combination with current drugs...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995176/epithelial-ovarian-cancer-inherent-resistance-may-the-pleiotropic-interaction-between-reduced-immunosurveillance-and-drug-resistant-cells-play-a-key-role
#18
Antonio Simone Laganà, Vincenza Sofo, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Onofrio Triolo
•Cancer cells may have inherent chemoresistance which allows an indefinite expansion.•Transformed ovarian epithelial cells may undergo an immunoediting process.•Immunoedited ovarian cancer drug-resistant cells escape first-line chemotherapy.
November 2016: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880900/tailored-tumor-immunogenicity-reveals-regulation-of-cd4-and-cd8%C3%A2-t-cell-responses-against-cancer
#19
Sarah Knocke, Bettina Fleischmann-Mundt, Michael Saborowski, Michael P Manns, Florian Kühnel, Thomas C Wirth, Norman Woller
CD4 and CD8 T cells play a pivotal role in controlling tumor growth. However, the interplay of both cell types and their role in tumor suppression still remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the regulation of CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to different classes of tumor-specific antigens in liver cancer mouse models. Tumors were induced in p19Arf-deficient mice by hydrodynamic injection of transposon plasmids encoding NrasG12V and pre-defined tumor antigens. This allowed for assessing the regulation of tumor-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843441/the-janus-face-of-death-receptor-signaling-during-tumor-immunoediting
#20
REVIEW
Eimear O' Reilly, Andrea Tirincsi, Susan E Logue, Eva Szegezdi
Cancer immune surveillance is essential for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Malignantly transformed cells can be recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems through different mechanisms. Immune effector cells induce extrinsic cell death in the identified tumor cells by expressing death ligand cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor ligand family. However, some tumor cells can escape immune elimination and progress. Acquisition of resistance to the death ligand-induced apoptotic pathway can be obtained through cleavage of effector cell expressed death ligands into a poorly active form, mutations or silencing of the death receptors, or overexpression of decoy receptors and pro-survival proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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