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Olfactory Neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210219/mice-lacking-m1-and-m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-have-impaired-odor-discrimination-and-learning
#1
Wilson Chan, Sanmeet Singh, Taj Keshav, Ramita Dewan, Christian Eberly, Robert Maurer, Alexia Nunez-Parra, Ricardo C Araneda
The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1(-/-) and the M1/M3(-/-) knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197172/the-dynamics-of-adult-neurogenesis-in-human-hippocampus
#2
REVIEW
Amadi O Ihunwo, Lackson H Tembo, Charles Dzamalala
The phenomenon of adult neurogenesis is now an accepted occurrence in mammals and also in humans. At least two discrete places house stem cells for generation of neurons in adult brain. These are olfactory system and the hippocampus. In animals, newly generated neurons have been directly or indirectly demonstrated to generate a significant amount of new neurons to have a functional role. However, the data in humans on the extent of this process is still scanty and such as difficult to comprehend its functional role in humans...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193234/differential-timing-of-neurogenesis-underlies-dorsal-ventral-topographic-projection-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#3
Eerdunfu, Naoki Ihara, Bao Ligao, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: The mammalian primary olfactory system has a spatially-ordered projection in which olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the dorsomedial (DM) and ventrolateral (VL) region of the olfactory epithelium (OE) send their axons to the dorsal and ventral region of the olfactory bulb (OB), respectively. We previously found that OSN axonal projections occur sequentially, from the DM to the VL region of the OE. The differential timing of axonal projections is important for olfactory map formation because early-arriving OSN axons secrete guidance cues at the OB to help navigate late-arriving OSN axons...
February 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163110/cadmium-impairs-the-survival-and-proliferation-of-cultured-adult-subventricular-neural-stem-cells-through-activation-of-the-jnk-and-p38-map-kinases
#4
Hao Wang, Anna K Engstrom, Zhengui Xia
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal with a long biological half-life in humans and is recognized as a toxic pollutant. Cd is also a potential neurotoxicant and its exposure is associated with olfactory impairment in humans. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of Cd neurotoxicity are not well defined. Adult neurogenesis is a process that generates functional neurons from adult neural stem/progenitor cells (aNPCs). It occurs in specific regions of the adult brain including the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles in mammals, a process that is critical for olfaction...
February 2, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161254/pharmacological-inhibition-of-dna-methyltransferase-1-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-from-rodent-and-human-nasal-olfactory-stem-progenitor-cell-cultures
#5
I Franco, L Ortiz-López, B Roque-Ramírez, G B Ramírez-Rodríguez, M Lamas
Nasal olfactory stem and neural progenitor cells (NOS/PCs) are considered possible tools for regenerative stem cell therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. Neurogenesis is a complex process regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic signals that include DNA-methylation and other chromatin modifications that could be experimentally manipulated in order to increase neuronal differentiation. The aim of the present study was the characterization of primary cultures and consecutive passages (P2-P10) of NOS/PCs isolated from male Swiss-Webster (mNOS/PCs) or healthy humans (hNOS/PCs)...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155152/detecting-neuronal-differentiation-markers-in-newborn-cells-of-the-adult-brain
#6
Sara Bonzano, Silvia De Marchis
Adult neurogenesis is the lifelong generation of new neurons that occurs into restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, namely the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. In this chapter, we describe the procedures aimed to investigate adult neurogenesis in the murine brain. Specifically, we explain how to inject into animals exogenous markers of proliferation (i.e., BrdU) and prepare brain tissues to perform immunofluorescence reactions for neuronal markers in combination with BrdU staining...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152579/5htr3a-driven-gfp-labels-immature-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#7
Thomas E Finger, Dianna L Bartel, Nicole Shultz, Noah B Goodson, Charles Greer
The ionotropic serotonin receptor, 5-HT3 , is expressed by many developing neurons within the central nervous system. Since the olfactory epithelium continues to generate new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life, we investigated the possibility that 5-HT3 is expressed in the adult epithelium. Using a transgenic mouse in which the promoter for the 5-HT3a subunit drives expression of GFP, we assessed the expression of this marker in the olfactory epithelium of adult mice. Both the native 5-HT3a mRNA and GFP are expressed within globose basal cells of the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelium in adult mice...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112682/nasal-neuron-pet-imaging-quantifies-neuron-generation-and-degeneration
#8
Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Misha M Riley, Luxiang Cao, Janina Ehses, Scott P Herrick, Emily L Ricq, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Michael J O'Neill, Zeshan Ahmed, Tracey K Murray, Jaclyn E Smith, Changning Wang, Frederick A Schroeder, Mark W Albers, Jacob M Hooker
Olfactory dysfunction is broadly associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and predicts increased mortality rates in healthy individuals. Conventional measurements of olfactory health assess odor processing pathways within the brain and provide a limited understanding of primary odor detection. Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102318/transcriptional-profiling-of-olfactory-system-development-identifies-distal-antenna-as-a-regulator-of-subset-of-neuronal-fates
#9
Scott Barish, Qingyun Li, Jia W Pan, Charlie Soeder, Corbin Jones, Pelin C Volkan
Drosophila uses 50 different olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes that are clustered within distinct sensilla subtypes to decipher their chemical environment. Each sensilla subtype houses 1-4 ORN identities that arise through asymmetric divisions of a single sensory organ precursor (SOP). Despite a number of mutational studies investigating the regulation of ORN development, a majority of the transcriptional programs that lead to the different ORN classes in the developing olfactory system are unknown. Here we use transcriptional profiling across the time series of antennal development to identify novel transcriptional programs governing the differentiation of ORNs...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098178/lithium-accumulates-in-neurogenic-brain-regions-as-revealed-by-high-resolution-ion-imaging
#10
Giulia Zanni, Wojciech Michno, Elena Di Martino, Anna Tjärnlund-Wolf, Jean Pettersson, Charlotte Elizabeth Mason, Gustaf Hellspong, Klas Blomgren, Jörg Hanrieder
Lithium (Li) is a potent mood stabilizer and displays neuroprotective and neurogenic properties. Despite extensive investigations, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, especially in the juvenile, developing brain. Here we characterized lithium distribution in the juvenile mouse brain during 28 days of continuous treatment that result in clinically relevant serum concentrations. By using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry- (ToF-SIMS) based imaging we were able to delineate temporospatial lithium profile throughout the brain and concurrent distribution of endogenous lipids with high chemical specificity and spatial resolution...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091742/c-jun-is-differentially-expressed-in-embryonic-and-adult-neural-precursor-cells
#11
Fumiaki Kawashima, Kengo Saito, Hirofumi Kurata, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Tetsuji Mori
c-jun, a major component of AP-1 transcription factor, has a wide variety of functions. In the embryonic brain, c-jun mRNA is abundantly expressed in germinal layers around the ventricles. Although the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain is a derivative of embryonic germinal layers and contains neural precursor cells (NPCs), the c-jun expression pattern is not clear. To study the function of c-jun in adult neurogenesis, we analyzed c-jun expression in the adult SVZ by immunohistochemistry and compared it with that of the embryonic brain...
January 16, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057268/control-of-neuronal-development-by-t-box-genes-in-the-brain
#12
A B Mihalas, R F Hevner
T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024159/developmental-broadening-of-inhibitory-sensory-maps
#13
Kathleen B Quast, Kevin Ung, Emmanouil Froudarakis, Longwen Huang, Isabella Herman, Angela P Addison, Joshua Ortiz-Guzman, Keith Cordiner, Peter Saggau, Andreas S Tolias, Benjamin R Arenkiel
Sensory maps are created by networks of neuronal responses that vary with their anatomical position, such that representations of the external world are systematically and topographically organized in the brain. Current understanding from studying excitatory maps is that maps are sculpted and refined throughout development and/or through sensory experience. Investigating the mouse olfactory bulb, where ongoing neurogenesis continually supplies new inhibitory granule cells into existing circuitry, we isolated the development of sensory maps formed by inhibitory networks...
February 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987378/in-vitro-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-derived-from-human-olfactory-bulb-into-dopaminergic-like-neurons
#14
Rafieh Alizadeh, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mansoureh Soleimani, Fatemeh Moradi, Shahram Mohammadpour, Jahangir Ghorbani, Ali Safavi, Maryam Sarbishegi, Vahid Pirhajati Mahabadi, Leila Alizadeh, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem
Obtaining new accessible source of neuronal stem cells that can be used in Parkinson's disease cell transplant is the aim of this research. The human olfactory bulb contains neural stem cells (NSCs) that are responsible for the neurogenesis in the brain and the replacement of damaged cellular components throughout life. NSCs are capable of differentiating into neuronal and glial cells. We isolated NSCs from brain-death donor's olfactory bub and differentiate them to dopaminergic neurons. The obtained olfactory bulb tissues were cultured in DMEM12, B27 supplemented with bFGF, EGF, and LIF...
December 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924451/mir-124-promotes-newborn-olfactory-bulb-neuron-dendritic-morphogenesis-and-spine-density
#15
Guifa Li, Shucai Ling
Using microarray analysis, we detected microRNA-124 (miR-124) to be abundantly expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). miR-124 regulates adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). However, much less is known about its role in newborn OB neurons. Here, using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that brain-specific miR-124 affects dendritic morphogenesis and spine density in newborn OB neurons. Functional Annotation Clustering of miR-124 targets was enriched in "cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918532/developmentally-defined-forebrain-circuits-regulate-appetitive-and-aversive-olfactory-learning
#16
Nagendran Muthusamy, Xuying Zhang, Caroline A Johnson, Prem N Yadav, H Troy Ghashghaei
Postnatal and adult neurogenesis are region- and modality-specific, but the significance of developmentally distinct neuronal populations remains unclear. We demonstrate that chemogenetic inactivation of a subset of forebrain and olfactory neurons generated at birth disrupts responses to an aversive odor. In contrast, novel appetitive odor learning is sensitive to inactivation of adult-born neurons, revealing that developmentally defined sets of neurons may differentially participate in hedonic aspects of sensory learning...
January 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893223/intervention-with-the-mother-infant-relationship-reduces-cell-proliferation-in-the-locus-coeruleus-of-female-rat-pups
#17
Elisa Cristiana Winkelmann Duarte, Márcia Scherem de Azevedo, Gabriela Augusta Mateus Pereira, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Aldo Bolten Lucion
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a noradrenergic nucleus involved in several neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. During the neonatal period, the LC is critical for olfactory learning. Full development occurs during the early postnatal period. Environmental interventions after birth may affect neurogenesis. In rats, the neonatal handling procedure has been used as a model to analyze the effects of environmental intervention early in life. It has been related to several long-lasting behavioral and neuroendocrine changes...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886228/plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-the-maternal-mouse-is-prevented-by-gestational-stress
#18
Laure Belnoue, Sarah Malvaut, Elodie Ladevèze, Djoher Nora Abrous, Muriel Koehl
Maternal stress is associated with an altered mother-infant relationship that endangers offspring development, leading to emotional/behavioral problems. However, little research has investigated the stress-induced alterations of the maternal brain that could underlie such a disruption of mother-infant bonding. Olfactory cues play an extensive role in the coordination of mother-infant interactions, suggesting that motherhood may be associated to enhanced olfactory performances, and that this effect may be abolished by maternal stress...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871979/sex-specific-effects-of-dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-on-glucose-metabolism-in-the-cns
#19
Claudia Vieira-Marques, Bruno Dutra Arbo, Aline Gonçalves Cozer, Ana Lúcia Hoefel, Ana Lúcia Cecconello, Priscila Zanini, Gabriela Niches, Luiz Carlos Kucharski, Maria Flávia M Ribeiro
DHEA is a neuroactive steroid, due to its modulatory actions on the central nervous system (CNS). DHEA is able to regulate neurogenesis, neurotransmitter receptors and neuronal excitability, function, survival and metabolism. The levels of DHEA decrease gradually with advancing age, and this decline has been associated with age related neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of endogenous DHEA. There are significant sex differences in the pathophysiology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of many neurological diseases...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869716/a-genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factors-in-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#20
Pin-Jun Wan, San-Yue Yuan, Wei-Xia Wang, Xu Chen, Feng-Xiang Lai, Qiang Fu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in insects play essential roles in multiple developmental processes including neurogenesis, sterol metabolism, circadian rhythms, organogenesis and formation of olfactory sensory neurons. The identification and function analysis of bHLH family members of the most destructive insect pest of rice, Nilaparvata lugens, may provide novel tools for pest management. Here, a genome-wide survey for bHLH sequences identified 60 bHLH sequences (NlbHLHs) encoded in the draft genome of N...
November 18, 2016: Genes
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