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Olfactory Neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893223/intervention-with-the-mother-infant-relationship-reduces-cell-proliferation-in-the-locus-coeruleus-of-female-rat-pups
#1
Elisa Cristiana Winkelmann Duarte, Márcia Scherem de Azevedo, Gabriela Augusta Mateus Pereira, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Aldo Bolten Lucion
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a noradrenergic nucleus involved in several neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. During the neonatal period, the LC is critical for olfactory learning. Full development occurs during the early postnatal period. Environmental interventions after birth may affect neurogenesis. In rats, the neonatal handling procedure has been used as a model to analyze the effects of environmental intervention early in life. It has been related to several long-lasting behavioral and neuroendocrine changes...
November 28, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886228/plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-the-maternal-mouse-is-prevented-by-gestational-stress
#2
Laure Belnoue, Sarah Malvaut, Elodie Ladevèze, Djoher Nora Abrous, Muriel Koehl
Maternal stress is associated with an altered mother-infant relationship that endangers offspring development, leading to emotional/behavioral problems. However, little research has investigated the stress-induced alterations of the maternal brain that could underlie such a disruption of mother-infant bonding. Olfactory cues play an extensive role in the coordination of mother-infant interactions, suggesting that motherhood may be associated to enhanced olfactory performances, and that this effect may be abolished by maternal stress...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871979/sex-specific-effects-of-dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-on-glucose-metabolism-in-the-cns
#3
Claudia Vieira-Marques, Bruno Dutra Arbo, Aline Gonçalves Cozer, Ana Lúcia Hoefel, Ana Lúcia Cecconello, Priscila Zanini, Gabriela Niches, Luiz Carlos Kucharski, Maria Flávia M Ribeiro
DHEA is a neuroactive steroid, due to its modulatory actions on the central nervous system (CNS). DHEA is able to regulate neurogenesis, neurotransmitter receptors and neuronal excitability, function, survival and metabolism. The levels of DHEA decrease gradually with advancing age, and this decline has been associated with age related neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of endogenous DHEA. There are significant sex differences in the pathophysiology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of many neurological diseases...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869716/a-genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factors-in-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#4
Pin-Jun Wan, San-Yue Yuan, Wei-Xia Wang, Xu Chen, Feng-Xiang Lai, Qiang Fu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in insects play essential roles in multiple developmental processes including neurogenesis, sterol metabolism, circadian rhythms, organogenesis and formation of olfactory sensory neurons. The identification and function analysis of bHLH family members of the most destructive insect pest of rice, Nilaparvata lugens, may provide novel tools for pest management. Here, a genome-wide survey for bHLH sequences identified 60 bHLH sequences (NlbHLHs) encoded in the draft genome of N...
November 18, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867363/a-comparative-review-of-microrna-expression-patterns-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Steven D Hicks, Frank A Middleton
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of deficits in social interaction, communication, and behavior. There is a significant genetic component to ASD, yet no single gene variant accounts for >1% of incidence. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression without altering the genetic code. They are abundant in the developing brain and are dysregulated in children with ASD. Patterns of miRNA expression are altered in the brain, blood, saliva, and olfactory precursor cells of ASD subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867091/development-and-aging-of-a-brain-neural-stem-cell-niche
#6
Joanne C Conover, Krysti L Todd
In the anterior forebrain, along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles, a neurogenic stem cell niche is found in a region referred to as the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In rodents, robust V-SVZ neurogenesis provides new neurons to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood; however, with increasing age stem cell numbers are reduced and neurogenic capacity is significantly diminished, but new olfactory bulb neurons continue to be produced even in old age. Humans, in contrast, show little to no new neurogenesis after two years of age and whether V-SVZ neural stem cells persist in the adult human brain remains unclear...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803687/emerging-putative-associations-between-non-coding-rnas-and-protein-coding-genes-in-neuropathic-pain-added-value-from-reusing-microarray-data
#7
Hemalatha B Raju, Nicholas F Tsinoremas, Enrico Capobianco
Regeneration of injured nerves is likely occurring in the peripheral nervous system, but not in the central nervous system. Although protein-coding gene expression has been assessed during nerve regeneration, little is currently known about the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This leaves open questions about the potential effects of ncRNAs at transcriptome level. Due to the limited availability of human neuropathic pain (NP) data, we have identified the most comprehensive time-course gene expression profile referred to sciatic nerve (SN) injury and studied in a rat model using two neuronal tissues, namely dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and SN...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789621/contribution-of-polycomb-group-proteins-to-olfactory-basal-stem-cell-self-renewal-in-a-novel-c-kit-culture-model-and-in-vivo
#8
Bradley J Goldstein, Garrett M Goss, Rhea Choi, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Joshua M Hare, Nirupa Chaudhari
Olfactory epithelium (OE) has a lifelong capacity for neurogenesis due to the presence of basal stem cells. Despite the ability to generate short-term cultures, the successful in vitro expansion of purified stem cells from adult OE has not been reported. We sought to establish expansion-competent OE stem cell cultures to facilitate further study of the mechanisms and cell populations important in OE renewal. Successful cultures were prepared using adult mouse basal cells selected for expression of c-KIT. We show that c-KIT signaling regulates self-renewal capacity and prevents neurodifferentiation in culture...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782186/opposite-sex-attraction-in-male-mice-requires-testosterone-dependent-regulation-of-adult-olfactory-bulb-neurogenesis
#9
Roberta Schellino, Sara Trova, Irene Cimino, Alice Farinetti, Bart C Jongbloets, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Giancarlo Panzica, Paolo Giacobini, Silvia De Marchis, Paolo Peretto
Opposite-sex attraction in most mammals depends on the fine-tuned integration of pheromonal stimuli with gonadal hormones in the brain circuits underlying sexual behaviour. Neural activity in these circuits is regulated by sensory processing in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first central station of the vomeronasal system. Recent evidence indicates adult neurogenesis in the AOB is involved in sex behaviour; however, the mechanisms underlying this function are unknown. By using Semaphorin 7A knockout (Sema7A ko) mice, which show a reduced number of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neurons, small testicles and subfertility, and wild-type males castrated during adulthood, we demonstrate that the level of circulating testosterone regulates the sex-specific control of AOB neurogenesis and the vomeronasal system activation, which influences opposite-sex cue preference/attraction in mice...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767083/mir-200-family-controls-late-steps-of-postnatal-forebrain-neurogenesis-via-zeb2-inhibition
#10
Christophe Beclin, Philipp Follert, Elke Stappers, Serena Barral, Coré Nathalie, Antoine de Chevigny, Virginie Magnone, Kévin Lebrigand, Ute Bissels, Danny Huylebroeck, Andreas Bosio, Pascal Barbry, Eve Seuntjens, Harold Cremer
During neurogenesis, generation, migration and integration of the correct numbers of each neuron sub-type depends on complex molecular interactions in space and time. MicroRNAs represent a key control level allowing the flexibility and stability needed for this process. Insight into the role of this regulatory pathway in the brain is still limited. We performed a sequential experimental approach using postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis in mice, starting from global expression analyses to the investigation of functional interactions between defined microRNAs and their targets...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714890/chronic-odorant-exposure-upregulates-acquisition-of-functional-properties-in-cultured-embryonic-chick-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#11
Grace O'Neill, Christa Musto, George Gomez
Neuronal development and differentiation is modulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that stimulate endogenous neurogenesis and differentiation to promote adaptive survival of the organism. Studies on bird odor imprinting have shown how sensory stimuli or environmental influences can affect neonatal behavior, presumably by remodeling the developing nervous system. It is unclear whether these changes originate from the sensory neurons themselves or from the brain. Thus, we attempted to address this by using an in vitro system to separate the peripheral neurons from their central connections...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667971/role-of-rb-during-neurogenesis-and-axonal-guidance-in-the-developing-olfactory-system
#12
Carine Jaafar, Saad Omais, Sawsan Al Lafi, Nadim El Jamal, Mohammad Noubani, Larissa Skaf, Noël Ghanem
The Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, was shown to regulate distinct aspects of neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain besides its primary role in cell cycle control. It is still unknown, however, whether Rb is required for tissue morphogenesis and the establishment of synaptic connections between adjacent tissues during development. We have investigated here the role of Rb during development of the olfactory system (OS), which heavily relies on reciprocal interactions between the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664851/amyloid-%C3%AE-precursor-protein-regulates-neuron-survival-and-maturation-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#13
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647730/a-mosaic-world-puzzles-revealed-by-adult-neural-stem-cell-heterogeneity
#14
REVIEW
Zayna Chaker, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain. The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), adjacent to the lateral ventricles, gives rise to olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and some astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout life. In vitro assays have been widely used to retrospectively identify NSCs. However, cells that behave as stem cells in vitro do not reflect the identity, diversity, and behavior of NSCs in vivo. Novel tools including fluorescence activated cell sorting, lineage-tracing, and clonal analysis have uncovered multiple layers of adult V-SVZ NSC heterogeneity, including proliferation state and regional identity...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640898/sensory-deprivation-increases-phagocytosis-of-adult-born-neurons-by-activated-microglia-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#15
Marie Denizet, Laurent Cotter, Pierre-Marie Lledo, Françoise Lazarini
The olfactory bulb (OB) is a highly plastic structure that can change organizational networks depending on environmental inputs in adult mammals. Particularly, in rodents, adult neurogenesis underlies plastic changes in the OB circuitry by continuously adding new interneurons to the network. We addressed the question of whether microglia, the immune cells of the brain, were involved in pruning OB neurons. Using lentiviral labeling of neurons in neonatal or adult mice and confocal analysis, we showed that microglia engulfed parts of neonatal-born and adult-born neurons in the healthy OB...
September 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633561/the-olfactory-bulbectomized-rat-as-a-model-of-depression-the-hippocampal-pathway
#16
J C Morales-Medina, T Iannitti, A Freeman, H K Caldwell
In rodents, the removal of the olfactory bulbs (OB), i.e. olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), results in numerous alterations in neurotransmitter, endocrine and immunologic systems, as well as behavioral changes, similar to those observed in depressed patients. Because the behavioral deficits induced in OBX animals are reversed after repeated administration of antidepressants, this is a model often used to test the effectiveness of putative antidepressant agents. Recent evidence suggests that OBX results in the dysfunction of various cellular processes within the hippocampus, including decrease in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, disruption in long term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 and CA3 subregions and neuronal atrophy in the CA1 subregion, along with downstream markers, all of which are consistent with abnormal neuronal activity in the hippocampus of clinically depressed populations...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625425/development-of-the-main-olfactory-system-and-main-olfactory-epithelium-dependent-male-mating-behavior-are-altered-in-go-deficient-mice
#17
Jung-Mi Choi, Sung-Soo Kim, Chan-Il Choi, Hye Lim Cha, Huy-Hyen Oh, Sungho Ghil, Young-Don Lee, Lutz Birnbaumer, Haeyoung Suh-Kim
In mammals, initial detection of olfactory stimuli is mediated by sensory neurons in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein Go is widely expressed in the MOE and VNO of mice. Early studies indicated that Go expression in VNO sensory neurons is critical for directing social and sexual behaviors in female mice [Oboti L, et al. (2014) BMC Biol 12:31]. However, the physiological functions of Go in the MOE have remained poorly defined. Here, we examined the role of Go in the MOE using mice lacking the α subunit of Go Development of the olfactory bulb (OB) was perturbed in mutant mice as a result of reduced neurogenesis and increased cell death...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611684/mswi-snf-baf-complexes-are-indispensable-for-the-neurogenesis-and-development-of-embryonic-olfactory-epithelium
#18
Christina Bachmann, Huong Nguyen, Joachim Rosenbusch, Linh Pham, Tamara Rabe, Megha Patwa, Godwin Sokpor, Rho H Seong, Ruth Ashery-Padan, Ahmed Mansouri, Anastassia Stoykova, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
Neurogenesis is a key developmental event through which neurons are generated from neural stem/progenitor cells. Chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes have been reported to play essential roles in the neurogenesis of the central nervous system. However, whether BAF complexes are required for neuron generation in the olfactory system is unknown. Here, we identified onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, which are specifically present in olfactory neural stem cells (oNSCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), respectively...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606334/cannabinoid-receptor-signaling-induces-proliferation-but-not-neurogenesis-in-the-mouse-olfactory-epithelium
#19
Chelsea R Hutch, Colleen C Hegg
The olfactory epithelium actively generates neurons through adulthood, and this neurogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple factors that are not fully defined. Here, we examined the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory epithelium. In vivo proliferation and cell lineage studies were performed in mice (C57BL/6 and cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptor deficient strains) treated with cannabinoids directly (WIN 55,212-2 or 2-arachidonylglycerol ether) or indirectly via inhibition of cannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600917/erratum-to-anosmin-1-over-expression-increases-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-and-neuroblast-migration-to-the-olfactory-bulb
#20
Diego García-González, Verónica Murcia-Belmonte, Pedro F Esteban, Felipe Ortega, David Díaz, Irene Sánchez-Vera, Rafael Lebrón-Galán, Laura Escobar-Castañondo, Luis Martínez-Millán, Eduardo Weruaga, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Benedikt Berninger, Fernando de Castro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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