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Olfactory Neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779889/epithelial-sodium-channel-regulates-adult-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-a-flow-dependent-manner
#1
David Petrik, Michael H Myoga, Sofia Grade, Niklas J Gerkau, Melanie Pusch, Christine R Rose, Benedikt Grothe, Magdalena Götz
One hallmark of adult neurogenesis is its adaptability to environmental influences. Here, we uncovered the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as a key regulator of adult neurogenesis as its deletion in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny in the murine subependymal zone (SEZ) strongly impairs their proliferation and neurogenic output in the olfactory bulb. Importantly, alteration of fluid flow promotes proliferation of SEZ cells in an ENaC-dependent manner, eliciting sodium and calcium signals that regulate proliferation via calcium-release-activated channels and phosphorylation of ERK...
May 9, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#2
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752725/identification-of-neun-immunopositive-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-subventricular-zone
#3
Kengo Saito, Taro Koike, Fumiaki Kawashima, Hirofumi Kurata, Taku Shibuya, Takemasa Satoh, Yoshio Hata, Hisao Yamada, Tetsuji Mori
In the adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ), there are neural stem cells (NSCs) and the specialized neurogenic niche is critical to maintain their stemness. . To date, many cellular and non-cellular factors that compose the neurogenic niche and markers to identify subpopulations of Type A cells have been confirmed. In particular, neurotransmitters regulate adult neurogenesis and mature neurons in the SVZ have been only partially analyzed. Moreover, Type A cells, descendants of NSCs, are highly heterogeneous and more molecular markers are still needed to identify them...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748916/zbtb20-regulates-developmental-neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-and-gliogenesis-after-adult-brain-injury
#4
Thorsten R Doeppner, Josephine Herz, Mathias Bähr, Anton B Tonchev, Anastassia Stoykova
The transcription factor (TF) Zbtb20 is important for the hippocampal specification and the regulation of neurogenesis of neocortical projection neurons. Herein, we show a critical involvement of the TF Zbtb20 in the neurogenesis of both projection neurons and interneurons of the olfactory bulb during embryonic stages. Our data indicate that the lack of Zbtb20 significantly diminishes the generation of a set of early-born Tbr2+ neurons during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Zbtb20 regulates the transition between neurogenesis to gliogenesis in cortical radial glial progenitor cells at the perinatal (E18...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739871/canonical-notch-signaling-directs-the-fate-of-differentiating-neurocompetent-progenitors-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#5
Daniel B Herrick, Zhen Guo, Woochan Jang, Nikolai Schnittke, James E Schwob
The adult olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capacity to regenerate fully both neurosensory and non-neuronal cell types after severe epithelial injury. Life-long persistence of two stem cell populations supports OE regeneration when damaged: the horizontal basal cells (HBCs) -- dormant and held in reserve, and globose basal cells (GBCs) -- a heterogeneous population most of which are actively dividing. Both populations regenerate all cell types of the OE after injury, but the mechanisms underlying neuronal vs...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731675/odor-enrichment-increases-hippocampal-neuron-numbers-in-mouse
#6
Zoltán Rusznák, Gulgun Sengul, George Paxinos, Woojin Scott Kim, YuHong Fu
The hippocampus and olfactory bulb incorporate new neurons migrating from neurogenic regions in the brain. Hippocampal atrophy is evident in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis is an early pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by olfactory stimuli through the neural pathway of olfaction-related memory. In this study, we exposed mice to novel pleasant odors for three weeks and then assessed the number of neurons, non-neuronal cells (mainly glia) and proliferating cells in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, using the isotropic fractionator method...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725769/long-interspersed-nuclear-elements-lines-in-brain-and-non-brain-tissues-of-the-rat
#7
Gianfranco Giorgi, Marco Virgili, Barbara Monti, Brunella Del Re
Long INterspersed Element-1 (L1) is a transposable element that can insert copies of itself in new genomic locations causing genomic instability. In somatic cells, L1 retrotransposition activity is usually repressed but somatic L1 retrotransposition has recently been observed during neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluate whether L1 elements are differentially active in rat tissues during postnatal development. To this purpose, we quantified L1 in genomic DNA extracted from the olfactory bulb (OB), cerebellum (CE), cortex (CO) and heart (H)...
May 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717132/potential-role-of-cbx7-in-regulating-pluripotency-of-adult-human-pluripotent-like-olfactory-stem-cells-in-stroke-model
#8
Jia-Rong Fan, Hsu-Tung Lee, Wei Lee, Chen-Huan Lin, Chun Y Hsu, Chia-Hung Hsieh, Woei-Cherng Shyu
The adult olfactory mucosa, a highly regenerative tissue with unique life-long neurogenesis ability, is thought to harbor a naïve yet tightly controlled stem cell population. It will provide unique benefits in various stem cell-based therapies, such as stroke treatment. Here, we identified a subpopulation of adult pluripotent-like olfactory stem cells (APOSCs), which were modulated by an epigenetic repressor of CBX7. APOSCs form a floating sphere, express pluripotency markers Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2, and SSEA-4 and show alkaline phosphatase activity...
May 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686651/sex-steroids-and-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-ventricular-subventricular-zone
#9
REVIEW
Giovanna Ponti, Alice Farinetti, Marilena Marraudino, GianCarlo Panzica, Stefano Gotti
The forebrain ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) continuously generates new neurons throughout life. Neural stem cells (type B1 cells) along the lateral ventricle become activated, self-renew, and give rise to proliferating precursors which progress along the neurogenic lineage from intermediate progenitors (type C cells) to neuroblasts (type A cells). Neuroblasts proliferate and migrate into the olfactory bulb and differentiate into different interneuronal types. Multiple factors regulate each step of this process...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680253/longitudinal-study-of-irradiation-induced-brain-microstructural-alterations-with-s-index-a-diffusion-mri-biomarker-and-mr-spectroscopy
#10
Elodie Anne Pérès, Olivier Etienne, Antoine Grigis, Fawzi Boumezbeur, François Dominique Boussin, Denis Le Bihan
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of brain tumors, but it may lead to severe cognitive impairments. Previous studies have shown that ionizing irradiation induces demyelination, blood-brain barrier alterations, and impaired neurogenesis in animal models. Hence, noninvasive and sensitive biomarkers of irradiation injury are needed to investigate these effects in patients and improve radiation therapy protocols. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The heads of 3-month-old male C57BL/6RJ mice (15 control mice and 15 irradiated mice) were exposed to radiation doses of 3 fractions of 5 Gy from a 60 Co source with a medical irradiator...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676260/embryonic-and-postnatal-neurogenesis-produce-functionally-distinct-subclasses-of-dopaminergic-neuron
#11
Elisa Galliano, Eleonora Franzoni, Marine Breton, Annisa N Chand, Darren J Byrne, Venkatesh N Murthy, Matthew Grubb
Most neurogenesis in the mammalian brain is completed embryonically, but in certain areas the production of neurons continues throughout postnatal life. The functional properties of mature postnatally-generated neurons often match those of their embryonically-produced counterparts. However, we show here that in the olfactory bulb (OB), embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis produce functionally distinct subpopulations of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We define two subclasses of OB DA neuron by the presence or absence of a key subcellular specialisation: the axon initial segment (AIS)...
April 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675572/baicalin-modulates-appl2-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-cascade-promotes-neurogenesis-and-attenuates-emotional-and-olfactory-dysfunctions-in-chronic-corticosterone-induced-depression
#12
Chong Gao, Qiaohui Du, Wenting Li, Ruixia Deng, Qi Wang, Aimin Xu, Jiangang Shen
Olfactory dysfunction is often accompanied with anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in depressive patients. Impaired neurogenesis in hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ)-olfactory bulb (OB) contribute to anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors and olfactory dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction remain unclear. Our previous study indicates that adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 2 (APPL2), could affect the activity and sensitivity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mediate impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, which contribute the development of depression...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663684/adult-neurogenesis-in-the-central-olfactory-pathway-of-dendrobranchiate-and-caridean-shrimps-new-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-deutocerebral-proliferative-system-in-reptant-decapods
#13
Christin Wittfoth, Steffen Harzsch
Persistent neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway characterizes many reptant decapods such as lobsters, crayfish and crabs. In these animals, the deutocerebral proliferative system generates new neurons which integrate into the neuronal network of the first order processing neuropil of the olfactory system, the deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (also called olfactory lobes). However, differences concerning the phenotype and the mechanisms that drive adult neurogenesis were reported in crayfish versus spiny lobsters...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661885/the-long-non-coding-rna-paupar-promotes-kap1-dependent-chromatin-changes-and-regulates-olfactory-bulb-neurogenesis
#14
Ioanna Pavlaki, Farah Alammari, Bin Sun, Neil Clark, Tamara Sirey, Sheena Lee, Dan J Woodcock, Chris P Ponting, Francis G Szele, Keith W Vance
Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed during central nervous system (CNS) development, yet their in vivo roles and mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Paupar , a CNS-expressed lncRNA, controls neuroblastoma cell growth by binding and modulating the activity of transcriptional regulatory elements in a genome-wide manner. We show here that the Paupar lncRNA directly binds KAP1, an essential epigenetic regulatory protein, and thereby regulates the expression of shared target genes important for proliferation and neuronal differentiation...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593485/-till-death-do-us-part-a-potential-irreversible-link-between-aberrant-cell-cycle-control-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-adult-olfactory-bulb
#15
REVIEW
Saad Omais, Carine Jaafar, Noël Ghanem
Adult neurogenesis (AN) is an ongoing developmental process that generates newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) and the hippocampus (Hi) throughout life and significantly contributes to brain plasticity. Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (aNSPCs) are relatively limited in number and fate and are spatially restricted to the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ). During AN, the distinct roles played by cell cycle proteins extend beyond cell cycle control and constitute key regulatory mechanisms involved in neuronal maturation and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577883/the-cellular-prion-protein-promotes-olfactory-sensory-neuron-survival-and-axon-targeting-during-adult-neurogenesis
#16
Lindsay E Parrie, Jenna Ae Crowell, Glenn C Telling, Richard A Bessen
The cellular prion protein (PrPC ) has been associated with diverse biological processes including cell signaling, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection, but its physiological function(s) remain ambiguous. Here we determine the role of PrPC in adult neurogenesis using the olfactory system model in transgenic mice. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) within the olfactory sensory epithelium (OSE) undergo neurogenesis, integration, and turnover even into adulthood. The neurogenic processes of proliferation, differentiation/maturation, and axon targeting were evaluated in wild type, PrP-overexpressing, and PrP-null transgenic mice...
March 22, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537336/the-prokineticins-neuromodulators-and-mediators-of-inflammation-and-myeloid-cell-dependent-angiogenesis
#17
Lucia Negri, Napoleone Ferrara
The mammalian prokineticins family comprises two conserved proteins, EG-VEGF/PROK1 and Bv8/PROK2, and their two highly related G protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. This signaling system has been linked to several important biological functions, including gastrointestinal tract motility, regulation of circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression, hematopoiesis, and nociception. Mutations in PKR2 or Bv8/PROK2 have been associated with Kallmann syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defective olfactory bulb neurogenesis, impaired development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, and infertility...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533179/adult-born-neurons-facilitate-olfactory-bulb-pattern-separation-during-task-engagement
#18
Wankun L Li, Monica W Chu, An Wu, Yusuke Suzuki, Itaru Imayoshi, Takaki Komiyama
The rodent olfactory bulb incorporates thousands of newly generated inhibitory neurons daily throughout adulthood, but the role of adult neurogenesis in olfactory processing is not fully understood. Here we adopted a genetic method to inducibly suppress adult neurogenesis and investigated its effect on behavior and bulbar activity. Mice without young adult-born neurons (ABNs) showed normal ability in discriminating very different odorants but were impaired in fine discrimination. Furthermore, two-photon calcium imaging of mitral cells (MCs) revealed that the ensemble odor representations of similar odorants were more ambiguous in the ablation animals...
March 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530528/regulation-by-commensal-bacteria-of-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-of-adult-mouse-brain
#19
Naoki Sawada, Takenori Kotani, Tasuku Konno, Jajar Setiawan, Yuka Nishigaito, Yasuyuki Saito, Yoji Murata, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Takashi Matozaki
In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells are continuously replaced by adult-born neurons, which are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of such neuronal cell turnover in the adult mouse brain. Administration of mixture of antibiotics to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice markedly attenuated the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the SVZ cells. The treatment with antibiotics also reduced newly generated BrdU-positive neurons in the mouse OB...
April 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523932/acute-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-impairs-adult-neurogenesis-in-mice-prominence-in-males-and-protective-effect-of-pioglitazone
#20
Jacki L Coburn, Toby B Cole, Khoi T Dao, Lucio G Costa
Adult neurogenesis is the process by which neural stem cells give rise to new functional neurons in specific regions of the adult brain, a process that occurs throughout life. Significantly, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders present suppressed neurogenesis, activated microglia, and neuroinflammation. Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to adversely affect the central nervous system. As the cardinal effects of air pollution exposure are microglial activation, and ensuing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, we investigated whether acute exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) would inhibit adult neurogenesis in mice...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
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