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Olfactory Neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321633/olfactory-memory-is-enhanced-in-mice-exposed-to-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-modulation-of-subventricular-zone-neurogenesis
#1
Alessia Mastrodonato, Saviana Antonella Barbati, Lucia Leone, Claudia Colussi, Katia Gironi, Marco Rinaudo, Roberto Piacentini, Christine A Denny, Claudio Grassi
Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEF) influences the expression of key target genes controlling adult neurogenesis and modulates hippocampus-dependent memory. Here, we assayed whether ELFEF stimulation affects olfactory memory by modulating neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that 30 days after the completion of an ELFEF stimulation protocol (1 mT; 50 Hz; 3.5 h/day for 12 days), mice showed enhanced olfactory memory and increased SVZ neurogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313978/olfactory-receptor-neuronal-dendrites-become-mostly-intra-sustentacularly-enwrapped-upon-maturity
#2
Fengyi Liang
The mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) sustains persistent neurogenesis even in the adult. Sustentacular cells therein play both epithelial and neuroglial roles, although their relation with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their function in ORN maturation remain insufficiently understood. Sustentacular wrapping of ORN dendrites has been long known but always considered a minor presence, as opposed to the supposedly unwrapped majority of ORN dendrites at inter-sustentacular borderlines. Using immunofluorescence, confocal and immuno-electron microscopy, the current study examined cytoarchitectonic organization and maturation of ORN dendrites at the rat OE apical layer...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251592/the-role-of-microglia-and-their-cx3cr1-signaling-in-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#3
Ronen Reshef, Elena Kudryavitskaya, Haran Shani-Narkiss, Batya Isaacson, Neta Rimmerman, Adi Mizrahi, Raz Yirmiya
Microglia play important roles in perinatal neuro- and synapto-genesis. To test the role of microglia in these processes during adulthood, we examined the effects of microglia depletion, via treatment of mice with the CSF-1 receptor antagonist PLX5622, and abrogated neuronal-microglial communication in CX3C receptor-1 deficient (Cx3cr1-/-) mice. Microglia depletion significantly lowered spine density in young (developing) but not mature adult-born-granule-cells (abGCs) in the olfactory bulb. Two-photon time-lapse imaging indicated that microglia depletion reduced spine formation and elimination...
December 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239337/globose-basal-cells-for-spinal-cord-regeneration
#4
Durai Murugan Muniswami, Indirani Kanakasabapathy, George Tharion
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with loss of motor and sensory functions below the injury level. Cell based therapies are experimented in pre-clinical studies around the world. Neural stem cells are located intra-cranially in subventricular zone and hippocampus which are highly invasive sources. The olfactory epithelium is a neurogenic tissue where neurogenesis takes place throughout the adult life by a population of stem/progenitor cells. Easily accessible olfactory neuroepithelial stem/progenitor cells are an attractive cell source for transplantation in SCI...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234276/functional-reintegration-of-sensory-neurons-and-transitional-dendritic-reduction-of-mitral-tufted-cells-during-injury-induced-recovery-of-the-larval-xenopus-olfactory-circuit
#5
Sara J Hawkins, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Offner, Katarina Dittrich, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228390/altered-brain-morphology-after-focal-radiation-reveals-impact-of-off-target-effects-implications-for-white-matter-development-and-neurogenesis
#6
Kiran G Beera, Yu-Qing Li, Jun Dazai, James Stewart, Shannon Egan, Mashal Ahmed, C Shun Wong, David A Jaffray, Brian J Nieman
Background: Children with brain tumors treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) often exhibit cognitive late effects, commonly associated with reduced white matter (WM) volume and decreased neurogenesis. The impact of radiation damage in particular regions or tissues on brain development as a whole has not been elucidated. Methods: We delivered whole-brain or focal radiation (8 Gy single dose) to infant mice. Focal treatments targeted white matter (anterior commissure), neuronal (olfactory bulbs), or neurogenic (subventricular zone) regions...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205884/potential-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-telencephalon-and-cerebellar-cortex-of-the-nile-crocodile-revealed-with-doublecortin-immunohistochemistry
#7
Ayanda Ngwenya, Nina Patzke, Suzana Herculano-Houzel, Paul R Manger
The brain of the crocodile is known to gain in mass allometrically throughout life, and the addition of neurons (as well as non-neurons) appears to play a significant role in this increasing brain mass. We used immunohistochemistry in the brains of 12 Nile crocodiles ranging between 350 g and 86 kg in body mass and 1.99 g to 7.9 g in brain mass to identify the regions of the brain in which neurons immunopositive for doublecortin, a marker for potential adult neurogenesis, are found. Similar to other reptiles, potential newly born neurons, those immunopositive for doublecortin, were found throughout the telencephalon, the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and the olfactory tract, and in the cerebellar cortex; however, no doublecortin immunopositive neurons were observed in the diencephalon or brainstem...
December 2, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180821/specific-features-of-svz-neurogenesis-after-cortical-ischemia-a-longitudinal-study
#8
S Palma-Tortosa, A García-Culebras, A Moraga, O Hurtado, A Perez-Ruiz, V Durán-Laforet, J de la Parra, M I Cuartero, J M Pradillo, M A Moro, I Lizasoain
Stroke is a devastating disease with an increasing prevalence. Part of the current development in stroke therapy is focused in the chronic phase, where neurorepair mechanisms such as neurogenesis, are involved. In the adult brain, one of the regions where neurogenesis takes place is the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Given the possibility to develop pharmacological therapies to stimulate this process, we have performed a longitudinal analysis of neurogenesis in a model of cortical ischemia in mice...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174332/injury-induces-endogenous-reprogramming-and-dedifferentiation-of-neuronal-progenitors-to-multipotency
#9
Brian Lin, Julie H Coleman, Jesse N Peterson, Matthew J Zunitch, Woochan Jang, Daniel B Herrick, James E Schwob
Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium is often depicted as a unidirectional pathway during homeostasis and repair. We challenge the unidirectionality of this model by showing that epithelial injury unlocks the potential for Ascl1+ progenitors and Neurog1+ specified neuronal precursors to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem/progenitor cells that contribute significantly to tissue regeneration in the murine olfactory epithelium (OE). We characterize these dedifferentiating cells using several lineage-tracing strains and single-cell mRNA-seq, and we show that Sox2 is required for initiating dedifferentiation and that inhibition of Ezh2 promotes multipotent progenitor expansion...
November 20, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166615/olfactory-experience-and-developmental-stage-dependent-control-of-cpeb4-regulates-c-fos-mrna-translation-for-granule-cell-survival
#10
Ching-San Tseng, Hsu-Wen Chao, Hsien-Sung Huang, Yi-Shuian Huang
Mammalian olfactory bulbs (OBs) require continuous replenishment of interneurons (mainly granule cells [GCs]) to support local circuits throughout life. Two spatiotemporally distinct waves of postnatal neurogenesis contribute to expanding and maintaining the GC pool. Although neonate-born GCs have a higher survival rate than adult-born GCs, the molecular mechanism underlying this survival remains unclear. Here, we find that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 4 (CPEB4) acts as a survival factor exclusively for early postnatal GCs...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136113/the-laminar-organization-of-piriform-cortex-follows-a-selective-developmental-and-migratory-program-established-by-cell-lineage
#11
Eduardo Martin-Lopez, Kimiko Ishiguro, Charles A Greer
Piriform cortex (PC) is a 3-layer paleocortex receiving primary afferent input from the olfactory bulb. The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding the synaptic, cellular and functional organization of PC, but PC embryogenesis continues to be enigmatic. Here, using birthdating strategies and clonal analyses, we probed the early development and laminar specificity of neurogenesis/gliogenesis as it relates to the organization of the PC. Our data demonstrate a temporal sequence of laminar-specific neurogenesis following the canonical "inside-out" pattern, with the notable exception of PC Layer II which exhibited an inverse "outside-in" temporal neurogenic pattern...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134420/co-localization-and-interaction-of-pax5-with-iba1-in-brain-of-mice
#12
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax5, a B-cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) and redox-sensitive transcription factor, is expressed in the immune-privileged brain, B-lymphocytes, lymph nodes and spleen. PAX5-mediated immune pathway has also been described in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme. However, the status of Pax5 and its role in brain immunity are not yet elucidated. In silico analysis of Pax5 interacting proteins predicts its interaction with proteins of cell proliferation, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, neurogenesis and several cell signalling pathways...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109674/adult-neurogenesis-in-sheep-characterization-and-contribution-to-reproduction-and-behavior
#13
REVIEW
Frederic Lévy, Martine Batailler, Maryse Meurisse, Martine Migaud
Sheep have many advantages to study neurogenesis in comparison to the well-known rodent models. Their development and life expectancy are relatively long and they possess a gyrencephalic brain. Sheep are also seasonal breeders, a characteristic that allows studying the involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of seasonal reproduction. Sheep are also able to individually recognize their conspecifics and develop selective and lasting bonds. Adult olfactory neurogenesis could be adapted to social behavior by supporting recognition of conspecifics...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107945/neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-induced-by-paced-mating-in-the-female-rat-is-opioid-dependent
#14
Marianela Santoyo-Zedillo, Wendy Portillo, Raúl G Paredes
The possibility to control the rate of sexual stimulation that the female rat receives during a mating encounter (pacing) increases the number of newborn neurons that reach the granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). If females mate repeatedly, the increase in the number of neurons is observed in other regions of the AOB and in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). It has also been shown that paced mating induces a reward state mediated by opioids. There is also evidence that opioids modulate neurogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107942/differential-expression-of-micrornas-among-cell-populations-in-the-regenerating-adult-mouse-olfactory-epithelium
#15
Sarah Kurtenbach, Wen Ding, Garrett M Goss, Joshua M Hare, Bradley J Goldstein, Lina A Shehadeh
Despite a robust capacity for adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory sensory losses are common. Identification of mechanisms regulating adult OE neurogenesis is, therefore, of interest. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are broadly important in regulating vertebrate neurodevelopment, and are required in embryonic olfactory differentiation. We report here that a panel of miRNAs is differentially expressed by either progenitor or progeny cells in the regenerating mouse OE. Progenitor cells were purified from lesioned OE based on c-Kit expression, and miRNA expression was assayed in c-Kit (+) and c-Kit (-) cell populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031735/the-temporal-expression-profile-of-a-nos3-related-natural-antisense-rna-in-the-brain-suggests-a-possible-role-in-neurogenesis
#16
Gabriela G Chavez, Gabriella Taylor, Jekaterina Garaliene, Guy P Richardson, Sergei A Korneev
Experimental work over the past several years has revealed an unexpected abundance of long natural antisense transcripts (NATs) in eukaryotic species. In light of the proposed role of such RNA molecules in the regulation of gene expression in the brain, attention is now focused on specific examples of neuronal NATs. Of particular interest are NATs that are complementary to mRNAs encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for production of the important gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO)...
October 12, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973792/rostro-caudal-maturation-of-glial-cells-in-the-accessory-olfactory-system-during-development-involvement-in-outgrowth-of-gnrh-neurites
#17
Sarah Geller, Didier Lomet, Alain Caraty, Yves Tillet, Anne Duittoz, Pascal Vaudin
During mammalian embryonic development, GnRH neurones differentiate from the nasal placode and migrate through the nasal septum towards the forebrain. We previously showed that a category of glial cells, the olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), forms the microenvironment of migrating GnRH neurones. Here, to characterize the quantitative and qualitative importance of this glial, we investigated the spatiotemporal maturation of glial cells in situ and the role of maturing glia in GnRH neurones development ex vivo...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966131/ras-grf2-regulates-nestin-positive-stem-cell-density-and-onset-of-differentiation-during-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus
#18
Carmela Gómez, David Jimeno, Alberto Fernández-Medarde, Rósula García-Navas, Nuria Calzada, Eugenio Santos
Various parameters of neurogenesis were analyzed in parallel in the two neurogenic areas (the Dentate Gyrus[DG] and the Subventricular Zone[SVZ]/Rostral Migratory Stream[RMS]/Main Olfactory Bulb[MOB] neurogenic system) of adult WT and KO mouse strains for the Ras-GRF1/2 genes (Ras-GRF1-KO, Ras-GRF2-KO, Ras-GRF1/2-DKO). Significantly reduced numbers of doublecortin[DCX]-positive cells were specifically observed in the DG, but not the SVZ/RMS/MOB neurogenic region, of Ras-GRF2-KO and Ras-GRF1/2-DKO mice indicating that this novel Ras-GRF2-dependent phenotype is spatially restricted to a specific neurogenic area...
September 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941407/targeted-neurogenesis-pathway-based-gene-analysis-identifies-adora2a-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Emrin Horgusluoglu-Moloch, Kwangsik Nho, Shannon L Risacher, Sungeun Kim, Tatiana Foroud, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Simon Lovestone, Andrew Simmons, Michael W Weiner, Andrew J Saykin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients display hippocampal atrophy, memory impairment, and cognitive decline. New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in 2 regions of the brain implicated in AD, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb. Disruption of this process contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including AD, and many of the molecular players in AD are also modulators of adult neurogenesis. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis in AD have been underexplored...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918258/olfactory-function-in-an-excitotoxic-model-for-secondary-neuronal-degeneration-role-of-dopaminergic-interneurons
#20
Concepció Marin, Sara Laxe, Cristobal Langdon, Joan Berenguer, Eduardo Lehrer, Franklin Mariño-Sánchez, Isam Alobid, Montserrat Bernabeu, Joaquim Mullol
Secondary neuronal degeneration (SND) occurring in Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists in downstream destructive events affecting cells that were not or only marginally affected by the initial wound, further increasing the effects of the primary injury. Glutamate excitotoxicity is hypothesized to play an important role in SND. TBI is a common cause of olfactory dysfunction that may be spontaneous and partially recovered. The role of the glutamate excitotoxicity in the TBI-induced olfactory dysfunction is still unknown...
November 19, 2017: Neuroscience
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