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Olfactory Neurogenesis

Christophe Beclin, Philipp Follert, Elke Stappers, Serena Barral, Coré Nathalie, Antoine de Chevigny, Virginie Magnone, Kévin Lebrigand, Ute Bissels, Danny Huylebroeck, Andreas Bosio, Pascal Barbry, Eve Seuntjens, Harold Cremer
During neurogenesis, generation, migration and integration of the correct numbers of each neuron sub-type depends on complex molecular interactions in space and time. MicroRNAs represent a key control level allowing the flexibility and stability needed for this process. Insight into the role of this regulatory pathway in the brain is still limited. We performed a sequential experimental approach using postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis in mice, starting from global expression analyses to the investigation of functional interactions between defined microRNAs and their targets...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Grace O'Neill, Christa Musto, George Gomez
Neuronal development and differentiation is modulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that stimulate endogenous neurogenesis and differentiation to promote adaptive survival of the organism. Studies on bird odor imprinting have shown how sensory stimuli or environmental influences can affect neonatal behavior, presumably by remodeling the developing nervous system. It is unclear whether these changes originate from the sensory neurons themselves or from the brain. Thus, we attempted to address this by using an in vitro system to separate the peripheral neurons from their central connections...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Carine Jaafar, Saad Omais, Sawsan Al Lafi, Nadim El Jamal, Mohammad Noubani, Larissa Skaf, Noël Ghanem
The Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, was shown to regulate distinct aspects of neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain besides its primary role in cell cycle control. It is still unknown, however, whether Rb is required for tissue morphogenesis and the establishment of synaptic connections between adjacent tissues during development. We have investigated here the role of Rb during development of the olfactory system (OS), which heavily relies on reciprocal interactions between the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
September 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Zayna Chaker, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain. The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), adjacent to the lateral ventricles, gives rise to olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and some astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout life. In vitro assays have been widely used to retrospectively identify NSCs. However, cells that behave as stem cells in vitro do not reflect the identity, diversity, and behavior of NSCs in vivo. Novel tools including fluorescence activated cell sorting, lineage-tracing, and clonal analysis have uncovered multiple layers of adult V-SVZ NSC heterogeneity, including proliferation state and regional identity...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Marie Denizet, Laurent Cotter, Pierre-Marie Lledo, Françoise Lazarini
The olfactory bulb (OB) is a highly plastic structure that can change organizational networks depending on environmental inputs in adult mammals. Particularly, in rodents, adult neurogenesis underlies plastic changes in the OB circuitry by continuously adding new interneurons to the network. We addressed the question of whether microglia, the immune cells of the brain, were involved in pruning OB neurons. Using lentiviral labeling of neurons in neonatal or adult mice and confocal analysis, we showed that microglia engulfed parts of neonatal-born and adult-born neurons in the healthy OB...
September 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
J C Morales-Medina, T Iannitti, A Freeman, H K Caldwell
In rodents, the removal of the olfactory bulbs (OB), i.e. olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), results in numerous alterations in neurotransmitter, endocrine and immunologic systems, as well as behavioral changes, similar to those observed in depressed patients. Because the behavioral deficits induced in OBX animals are reversed after repeated administration of antidepressants, this is a model often used to test the effectiveness of putative antidepressant agents. Recent evidence suggests that OBX results in the dysfunction of various cellular processes within the hippocampus, including decrease in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, disruption in long term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 and CA3 subregions and neuronal atrophy in the CA1 subregion, along with downstream markers, all of which are consistent with abnormal neuronal activity in the hippocampus of clinically depressed populations...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Jung-Mi Choi, Sung-Soo Kim, Chan-Il Choi, Hye Lim Cha, Huy-Hyen Oh, Sungho Ghil, Young-Don Lee, Lutz Birnbaumer, Haeyoung Suh-Kim
In mammals, initial detection of olfactory stimuli is mediated by sensory neurons in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein Go is widely expressed in the MOE and VNO of mice. Early studies indicated that Go expression in VNO sensory neurons is critical for directing social and sexual behaviors in female mice [Oboti L, et al. (2014) BMC Biol 12:31]. However, the physiological functions of Go in the MOE have remained poorly defined. Here, we examined the role of Go in the MOE using mice lacking the α subunit of Go Development of the olfactory bulb (OB) was perturbed in mutant mice as a result of reduced neurogenesis and increased cell death...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christina Bachmann, Huong Nguyen, Joachim Rosenbusch, Linh Pham, Tamara Rabe, Megha Patwa, Godwin Sokpor, Rho H Seong, Ruth Ashery-Padan, Ahmed Mansouri, Anastassia Stoykova, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
Neurogenesis is a key developmental event through which neurons are generated from neural stem/progenitor cells. Chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes have been reported to play essential roles in the neurogenesis of the central nervous system. However, whether BAF complexes are required for neuron generation in the olfactory system is unknown. Here, we identified onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, which are specifically present in olfactory neural stem cells (oNSCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), respectively...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Chelsea R Hutch, Colleen C Hegg
The olfactory epithelium actively generates neurons through adulthood, and this neurogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple factors that are not fully defined. Here, we examined the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory epithelium. In vivo proliferation and cell lineage studies were performed in mice (C57BL/6 and cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptor deficient strains) treated with cannabinoids directly (WIN 55,212-2 or 2-arachidonylglycerol ether) or indirectly via inhibition of cannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Diego García-González, Verónica Murcia-Belmonte, Pedro F Esteban, Felipe Ortega, David Díaz, Irene Sánchez-Vera, Rafael Lebrón-Galán, Laura Escobar-Castañondo, Luis Martínez-Millán, Eduardo Weruaga, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Benedikt Berninger, Fernando de Castro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Juan Carlos Rosillo, Maximiliano Torres, Silvia Olivera-Bravo, Gabriela Casanova, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Anabel Sonia Fernández
Adult neurogenesis participates in fish olfaction sensitivity in response to environmental challenges. Therefore, we investigated if several populations of stem/progenitor cells that are retained in the olfactory bulbs (OB) may constitute different neurogenic niches that support growth and functional demands. By electron microscopy and combination cell proliferation and lineage markers, we found that the telencephalic ventricle wall (VW) at OB level of Austrolebias charrua fish presents three neurogenic niches (transitional 1, medial 2 and ventral 3)...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Anika Langenfurth, Song Gu, Verena Bautze, Caiyi Zhang, Julia E Neumann, Ulrich Schüller, Kristin Stock, Susanne A Wolf, Anna-Maria Maier, Giorgia Mastrella, Andrew Pak, Hongwei Cheng, Roland E Kälin, Kenn Holmbeck, Jörg Strotmann, Helmut Kettenmann, Rainer Glass
The subventricular zone (SVZ) provides a constant supply of new neurons to the olfactory bulb (OB). Different studies have investigated the role of olfactory sensory input to neural precursor cell (NPC) turnover in the SVZ but it was not addressed if a reduced demand specifically for periglomerular neurons impacts on NPC-traits in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We here report that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) deficient mice have reduced complexity of the nasal turbinates, decreased sensory innervation of the OB, reduced numbers of olfactory glomeruli and reduced OB-size without alterations in SVZ neurogenesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
James E Schwob, Woochan Jang, Eric H Holbrook, Brian Lin, Daniel B Herrick, Jesse N Peterson, Julie Hewitt Coleman
The capacity of the olfactory epithelium (OE) for life-long neurogenesis and regeneration depends on the persistence of neurocompetent stem cells, which self-renew as well as generating all of the cell types found within the nasal epithelium. This review focuses on the types of stem and progenitor cells in the epithelium and their regulation. Both horizontal basal cells (HBCs) and some among the population of globose basal cells (GBCs) are stem cells, but each of the two types plays vastly different roles. The GBC population includes the basal cells that proliferate in the uninjured OE and is heterogeneous with respect to transcription factor expression...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Barbara S Beltz, Georg Brenneis, Jeanne L Benton
The 1st-generation neural precursors in the crustacean brain are functionally analogous to neural stem cells in mammals. Their slow cycling, migration of their progeny, and differentiation of their descendants into neurons over several weeks are features of the neural precursor lineage in crayfish that also characterize adult neurogenesis in mammals. However, the 1st-generation precursors in crayfish do not self-renew, contrasting with conventional wisdom that proposes the long-term self-renewal of adult neural stem cells...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Carolyn L Pytte
Our understanding of the role of new neurons in learning and encoding new information has been largely based on studies of new neurons in the mammalian dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb - brain regions that may be specialized for learning. Thus the role of new neurons in regions that serve other functions has yet to be fully explored. The song system provides a model for studying new neuron function in brain regions that contribute differently to song learning, song auditory discrimination, and song motor production...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Ameziane Herzine, Anthony Laugeray, Justyne Feat, Arnaud Menuet, Valérie Quesniaux, Olivier Richard, Jacques Pichon, Céline Montécot-Dubourg, Olivier Perche, Stéphane Mortaud
Neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). During this process, newly generated neurons migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb to replace granule cells and periglomerular neurons. This neuronal migration is pivotal not only for neuronal plasticity but also for adapted olfactory based behaviors. Perturbation of this highly controlled system by exogenous chemicals has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jose A Morales-Garcia, Victor Echeverry-Alzate, Sandra Alonso-Gil, Marina Sanz-SanCristobal, Jose A Lopez-Moreno, Carmen Gil, Ana Martinez, Angel Santos, Ana Perez-Castillo
The phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) enzyme is one of the enzymes responsible for controlling intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the immune and central nervous system. We have previously shown that inhibitors of this enzyme are potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents. In addition we also demonstrated that PDE7 inhibition induces endogenous neuroregenerative processes towards a dopaminergic phenotype. Here, we show that PDE7 inhibition controls stem cell expansion in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (SGZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the adult rat brain...
August 19, 2016: Stem Cells
Richard Chawana, Nina Patzke, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Nigel C Bennett, Osama B Mohammed, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Amadi O Ihunwo, John D Pettigrew, Paul R Manger
The current study uses Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry to delineate potential neurogenic zones, migratory pathways and terminal fields associated with adult neurogenesis in the brains of three microchiropterans. As with most mammals studied to date, the canonical subgranular and subventricular neurogenic zones were observed. Distinct labelling of newly born cells and immature neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was observed in all species. A distinct rostral migratory stream, that appears to split around the medial aspect of the caudate nucleus was observed...
August 17, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Nobuaki Matsui, Haruka Akae, Nana Hirashima, Yuki Kido, Satoshi Tanabe, Mayumi Koseki, Yoshiyasu Fukuyama, Masaaki Akagi
Magnolol is the main constituent of Magnolia bark and has been reported to exhibit antidepressant effects in rodent models. Hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor are integrally involved in the action of conventional antidepressants. Here, we investigated the effects of magnolol on depressive behaviours, impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related signal transduction in an olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) mouse model of depression. Mice were submitted to OBX to induce depressive behaviour, which was evaluated in the tail suspension test...
August 11, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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