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Olfactory Neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720887/olfactory-bulb-plasticity-ensures-proper-olfaction-after-severe-impairment-in-postnatal-neurogenesis
#1
D Díaz, R Muñoz-Castañeda, C Ávila-Zarza, J Carretero, J R Alonso, E Weruaga
The olfactory bulb (OB) neurons establish a complex network that ensures the correct processing of the olfactory inputs. Moreover, the OB presents a lifelong addition of new neurons into its existing circuitry. This neurogenesis is considered essential for the OB function. However, its functional impact on physiology and behavior is still unclear. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of OB plasticity that underlie bulbar physiology in relation to severe damage of neurogenesis. The neurogenesis of young mice was altered by ionizing radiation...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719644/isolation-of-putative-stem-cells-present-in-human-adult-olfactory-mucosa
#2
Tamara Tanos, Alberto Maria Saibene, Carlotta Pipolo, Paolo Battaglia, Giovanni Felisati, Alicia Rubio
The olfactory mucosa (OM) has the unique characteristic of performing an almost continuous and lifelong neurogenesis in response to external injuries, due to the presence of olfactory stem cells that guarantee the maintenance of the olfactory function. The easy accessibility of the OM in humans makes these stem cells feasible candidates for the development of regenerative therapies. In this report we present a detailed characterization of a patient-derived OM, together with a description of cell cultures obtained from the OM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#3
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717156/patterned-arrangements-of-olfactory-receptor-gene-expression-in-zebrafish-are-established-by-radial-movement-of-specified-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#4
Xalid Bayramli, Yiğit Kocagöz, Uğurcan Sakizli, Stefan H Fuss
Spatial restriction of olfactory receptor (OR) gene expression in peripheral sense organs is a common phenomenon across species, suggesting that zonal OR expression somehow contributes to olfactory function. In zebrafish OR expression patterns reminiscent of zones occur as concentric domains with preferred diameters for different ORs. However, the function and the developmental origin of the pattern are unknown. Here we investigate olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish olfactory epithelium (OE) to understand how the zonally organized OR pattern is established and maintained during the lifetime of the animal...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696292/acute-inflammation-regulates-neuroregeneration-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-olfactory-epithelium
#5
Mengfei Chen, Randall R Reed, Andrew P Lane
Adult neural stem cells/progenitor cells residing in the basal layer of the olfactory epithelium are capable of reconstituting the neuroepithelium even after severe damage. The molecular events underlying this regenerative capacity remain elusive. Here we show that the repair of neuroepithelium after lesioning is accompanied by an acute, but self-limited, inflammatory process. Attenuation of inflammatory cell recruitment and cytokine production by dexamethasone impairs proliferation of progenitor horizontal basal cells (HBCs) and subsequent neuronal differentiation...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695538/fgf9-y162c-mutation-alters-information-processing-and-social-memory-in-mice
#6
Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Oliver Puk, Tobias Stoeger, Ali Önder Yildirim, Alexander Bohla, Oliver Eickelberg, Wolfgang Hans, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Thomas Klopstock, Ildikó Rácz, Andreas Zimmer, Martin Klingenspor, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Wolfgang Wurst, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jochen Graw, Sabine M Hölter
In neuropsychiatric diseases, such as major depression and anxiety, pathogenic vulnerability is partially dictated by a genetic predisposition. The search continues to define this genetic susceptibility and establish new genetic elements as potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) could be interesting in this regard. This family of signaling molecules plays important roles in development while also functioning within the adult. This includes effects on aspects of brain function such as neurogenesis and synapse formation...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683812/mechano-growth-factor-a-splice-variant-of-igf-1-promotes-neurogenesis-in-the-aging-mouse-brain
#7
Jason J Tang, Jewel L Podratz, Miranda Lange, Heidi J Scrable, Mi-Hyeon Jang, Anthony J Windebank
Mechano growth factor (MGF) is a splice variant of IGF-1 first described in skeletal muscle. MGF induces muscle cell proliferation in response to muscle stress and injury. In control mice we found endogenous expression of MGF in neurogenic areas of the brain and these levels declined with age. To better understand the role of MGF in the brain, we used transgenic mice that constitutively overexpressed MGF from birth. MGF overexpression significantly increased the number of BrdU+ proliferative cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVG)...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656980/neurovascular-egfl7-regulates-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-and-thereby-affects-olfactory-perception
#8
Frank Bicker, Verica Vasic, Guilherme Horta, Felipe Ortega, Hendrik Nolte, Atria Kavyanifar, Stefanie Keller, Nevenka Dudvarski Stankovic, Patrick N Harter, Rui Benedito, Beat Lutz, Tobias Bäuerle, Jens Hartwig, Jan Baumgart, Marcus Krüger, Konstantin Radyushkin, Lavinia Alberi, Benedikt Berninger, Mirko H H Schmidt
Adult neural stem cells reside in a specialized niche in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Throughout life they give rise to adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB), thus contributing to neural plasticity and pattern discrimination. Here, we show that the neurovascular protein EGFL7 is secreted by endothelial cells and neural stem cells (NSCs) of the SVZ to shape the vascular stem-cell niche. Loss of EGFL7 causes an accumulation of activated NSCs, which display enhanced activity and re-entry into the cell cycle...
June 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652619/testing-hypotheses-of-developmental-constraints-on-mammalian-brain-partition-evolution-using-marsupials
#9
Alison Carlisle, Lynne Selwood, Lyn A Hinds, Norman Saunders, Mark Habgood, Karine Mardon, Vera Weisbecker
There is considerable debate about whether the partition volumes of the mammalian brain (e.g. cerebrum, cerebellum) evolve according to functional selection, or whether developmental constraints of conserved neurogenetic scheduling cause predictable partition scaling with brain size. Here we provide the first investigation of developmental constraints on partition volume growth, derived from contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography of hydrogel-stabilized brains from three marsupial species. ANCOVAs of partition vs...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645892/meis1-effects-on-motor-phenotypes-and-the-sensorimotor-system-in-mice
#10
Aaro V Salminen, Lillian Garrett, Barbara Schormair, Jan Rozman, Florian Giesert, Kristina M Niedermeier, Lore Becker, Birgit Rathkolb, Ildikó Rácz, Martin Klingenspor, Thomas Klopstock, Eckhard Wolf, Andreas Zimmer, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Miguel Torres, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Wolfgang Wurst, Sabine M Hölter, Juliane Winkelmann
MEIS1 is a developmental transcription factor linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS) in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and with significant impact on the quality-of-life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the most potential system for modeling RLS in animals...
June 23, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634745/prolactin-function-and-putative-expression-in-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Erika Alejandra Cabrera-Reyes, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Nadia Alejandra Rivero-Segura, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Marco Cerbón
INTRODUCTION: Prolactin is a peptide hormone mainly synthetized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, but also by extrapituitary tissues, such as mammary gland, decidua, prostate, skin, and possibly the brain. Similarly, prolactin receptor is expressed in the pituitary gland, many peripheral tissues, and in contrast to prolactin, its receptor has been consistently detected in several brain regions, such as cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, among others...
August 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619719/hypothalamic-regulation-of-regionally-distinct-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-neurogenesis
#12
Alex Paul, Zayna Chaker, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain generate neurons throughout life. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) exhibit a regional identity and, depending on their location, generate distinct olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes. Here, we show that the hypothalamus, a brain area regulating physiological states, provides long-range regionalized input to the V-SVZ niche and can regulate specific NSC subpopulations. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons selectively innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and promote the proliferation of Nkx2...
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516108/what-is-car-doing-in-the-middle-of-the-adult-neurogenic-road
#13
COMMENT
Sara Salinas, Felix Junyent, Nathalie Coré, Harold Cremer, Eric J Kremer
The molecular and cellular basis of adult neurogenesis has attracted considerable attention for fundamental and clinical applications because neural stem cells and newborn neurons may, one day, be harnessed to replace neurons and allow cognitive improvement in the diseased brain. In rodents, neural progenitors are located in the dentate gyrus and the sub/periventricular zone. In the dentate gyrus the generation of newborn neurons is associated with plasticity, including regulation of memory. The role of subventricular zone neural precursors that migrate to the olfactory bulb is less characterized...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499977/human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-the-olfactory-epithelium-express-the-trkb-receptor-and-migrate-in-response-to-bdnf
#14
Leonardo Ortiz-López, Jorge Julio González-Olvera, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Maria García-Anaya, Ana Karen Carapia-Hernández, Julio César Velázquez-Escobar, Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez
Neurogenesis constitutively occurs in the olfactory epithelium of mammals, including humans. The fact that new neurons in the adult olfactory epithelium derive from resident neural stem/progenitor cells suggests a potential use for these cells in studies of neural diseases, as well as in neuronal cell replacement therapies. In this regard, some studies have proposed that the human olfactory epithelium is a source of neural stem/progenitor cells for autologous transplantation. Although these potential applications are interesting, it is important to understand the cell biology and/or whether human neural stem/progenitor cells in the olfactory epithelium sense external signals, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), that is also found in other pro-neurogenic microenvironments...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477134/a-patient-specific-stem-cell-model-to-investigate-the-neurological-phenotype-observed-in-ataxia-telangiectasia
#15
Romal Stewart, Gautam Wali, Chris Perry, Martin F Lavin, Francois Féron, Alan Mackay-Sim, Ratneswary Sutharsan
The molecular pathogenesis of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is not yet fully understood, and a versatile cellular model is required for in vitro studies. The occurrence of continuous neurogenesis and easy access make the multipotent adult stem cells from the olfactory mucosa within the nasal cavity a potential cellular model. We describe an efficient method to establish neuron-like cells from olfactory mucosa biopsies derived from A-T patients for the purpose of studying the cellular and molecular aspects of this debilitating disease...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476689/pax6-interacts-with-iba1-and-shows-age-associated-alterations-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#16
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax6, a transcriptional regulator and multifunctional protein, has been found critical for neurogenesis, neuro-degeneration, mental retardation, neuroendocrine tumors, glioblastoma and astrocytomas. The age-associated alteration in the expression of Pax6 in neuron and glia has also been observed in the immunologically privileged brain. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may modulate brain immunity by activation of microglia either directly interacting with genes or proteins of microglia or indirectly though inflammation associated with neurodegeneration...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438578/global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-leads-to-amnesia-due-to-selective-neuronal-death-followed-by-astroglial-scar-formation-in-the-ca1-layer
#17
Kevin Sadelli, Jean-Claude Stamegna, Stéphane D Girard, Nathalie Baril, Guy Escoffier, Maïna Brus, Antoine D Véron, Michel Khrestchatisky, François S Roman
Global Cerebral Ischemia (GCI) occurs following cardiac arrest or neonatal asphyxia and leads to harmful neurological consequences. In most cases, patients who survive cardiac arrest develop severe cognitive and motor impairments. This study focused on learning and memory deficits associated with brain neuroanatomical reorganization that appears after GCI. The four-vessel occlusion (4VO) model was performed to produce a transient GCI. Hippocampal lesions in ischemic rats were visualized using anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (aMRI)...
April 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433461/severely-impaired-adult-brain-neurogenesis-in-cyclin-d2-knock-out-mice-produces-very-limited-phenotypic-changes
#18
REVIEW
Robert K Filipkowski, Leszek Kaczmarek
The discovery of new neurons being produced in the brains of adult mammals (adult brain neurogenesis) began a quest to determine the function(s) of these cells. Major hypotheses in the field have assumed that these neurons play pivotal role, in particular, in learning and memory phenomena, mood control, and epileptogenesis. In our studies summarized herein, we used cyclin D2 knockout (KO) mice, as we have shown that cyclin D2 is the key factor in adult brain neurogenesis and thus its lack produces profound impairment of the process...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425952/antioxidant-and-anti-senescence-effect-of-metformin-on-mouse-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-moecs-may-be-associated-with-increased-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-an-ex-vivo-study
#19
Agnieszka Śmieszek, Zuzanna Stręk, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jakub Grzesiak, Christine Weiss, Krzysztof Marycz
Metformin, the popular anti-diabetic drug was shown to exert multiple biological effects. The most recent metformin gained attention as an agent that mobilizes endogenous progenitor cells and enhances regenerative potential of organisms, for example by promoting neurogenesis. In the present study, we examined the role of metformin on mouse olfactory ensheathing cells (mOECs) derived from animals receiving metformin for eight weeks at a concentration equal to 2.8 mg/day. The mOECs expanded ex vivo were characterized in terms of their cellular phenotype, morphology, proliferative activity, viability and accumulation of oxidative stress factors...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336683/let-7-regulates-radial-migration-of-new-born-neurons-through-positive-regulation-of-autophagy
#20
Rebecca Petri, Karolina Pircs, Marie E Jönsson, Malin Åkerblom, Per Ludvik Brattås, Thies Klussendorf, Johan Jakobsson
During adult neurogenesis, newly formed olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons migrate radially to integrate into specific layers of the OB Despite the importance of this process, the intracellular mechanisms that regulate radial migration remain poorly understood. Here, we find that microRNA (miRNA) let-7 regulates radial migration by modulating autophagy in new-born neurons. Using Argonaute2 immunoprecipitation, we performed global profiling of miRNAs in adult-born OB neurons and identified let-7 as a highly abundant miRNA family...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
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