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Wei Zhang, Gabriele Villarini
Atmospheric rivers (ARs) exert major socioeconomic repercussions along the US West Coast by inducing heavy rainfall, flooding, strong winds, and storm surge. Despite the significant societal and economic repercussions of these storms, our understanding of the physical drivers responsible for their interannual variability is limited, with different climate modes identified as possible mechanisms. Here we show that the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnections/patterns and the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) exhibit a strong linkage with the total frequency of ARs making landfall over the western United States, much stronger than the other potential climate modes previously considered...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wei-Che Hsieh, Raman Bahal, Shivaji Thadke, Kirti Bhatt, Krzysztof Sobczak, Charles A Thornton, Danith H Ly
Toxic RNAs containing expanded trinucleotide repeats are the cause of many neuromuscular disorders, one being myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). DM1 is triggered by CTG-repeat expansion in the 3'-UTR of the DMPK gene, resulting in toxic-gain of RNA function through sequestration of MBNL1 protein, among others. Herein we report the development of a relatively short MPPNA probe, two triplet-repeats in length, containing terminal pyrene moieties, that is capable of binding rCUG-repeats in a sequence-specific and selective manner...
January 15, 2018: Biochemistry
Reza Yarani, Takehiko Shiraishi, Peter E Nielsen
Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a cellular drug delivery method based on the generation of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to the endosomal membrane and thereby resulting in drug release to the cytoplasm. In our study a series of antisense fluorophore octaarginine peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates were investigated in terms of PCI assisted cellular activity. It is found that tetramethylrhodamine and Alexa Fluor 555 conjugated octaarginine PNA upon irradiation exhibit more than ten-fold increase in antisense activity in the HeLa pLuc705 luciferase splice correction assay...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shaohua Zhang, Xuepeng Cai, Xuenong Luo, Shuai Wang, Aijiang Guo, Junling Hou, Run Wu
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, EC: is an important metalloexopeptidase that catalyze the hydrolysis of amino-terminal leucine residues from polypeptides and proteins. In this study, a full length of cDNA encoding leucine aminopeptidase of Taenia pisiformis (TpLAP) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA-ends using the polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) method. The full-length cDNA of the TpLAP gene is 1823 bp and contains a 1569 bp ORF encoding 533 amino acids with a putative mass of 56.4 kDa...
January 9, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Stefanie Hackenberg, Mario Jekle, Thomas Becker
Mechanical flour modification is frequently associated with a reduced bread volume due to changed structural and functional properties of protein and starch. To clarify the effect of mechanical flour treatment on the protein network formation at the optimum kneading time (Peaktime), dough was produced with various mechanical starch modification (MSM) levels and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope before being characterized by protein network analysis (PNA). Dough produced with high MSM showed a reduced branching rate (-14%), a high end-point rate (+25%) and an increased lacunarity (+139%), indicating a poor network connectivity with network interruptions...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Christos Karathanos, Konstantinos Spanos, George Kouvelos, Athanasios Athanasoulas, Stylianos Koutsias, Miltiadis Matsagkas, Athanasios D Giannoukas
BACKGROUND: To assess the relation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter with the proximal neck anatomy (PNA) hostility and to evaluate its impact on the endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) outcomes with the use of newer generation endografts. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of single institution's recorded data from February 2009 to April 2016. Patients' characteristics, co-morbidities, aortic morphology, perioperative characteristics and outcomes were analyzed...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Gerlinde Doenz, Sebastian Dorn, Narges Aghaallaei, Baubak Bajoghli, Elisabeth Riegel, Michaela Aigner, Holger Bock, Birgit Werner, Thomas Lindhorst, Thomas Czerny
BACKGROUND: The application of antisense molecules, such as morpholino oligonucleotides, is an efficient method of gene inactivation in vivo. We recently introduced phosphonic ester modified peptide nucleic acids (PNA) for in vivo loss-of-function experiments in medaka embryos. Here we tested novel modifications of the PNA backbone to knockdown the medaka tcf3 gene. RESULTS: A single tcf3 gene exists in the medaka genome and its inactivation strongly affected eye development of the embryos, leading to size reduction and anophthalmia in severe cases...
January 9, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Grzegorz Machnik, Estera Skudrzyk, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Witold Szkróbka, Marcin Basiak, Aleksandra Bołdys, Helena Sławska, Bogusław Okopień
In the presented assay, we elaborated a method for distinguishing sequences that are genetically closely related to each other. This is particularly important in a situation where a fine balance of the allele abundance is a point of research interest. We developed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) strand invasion technique for the differentiation between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) and ERVWE1 sequences, both molecularly similar, belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family. We have found that this method may support the PCR technique in screening for minor alleles which, in certain conditions, may be undetected by the standard PCR technique...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Xiu-Tang Zhang, Hong-Tai Chen, Bin Li, Guang-Zeng Liu, Xin-Zheng Liu
Hydrothermal reactions of aromatic terphenyl-4,2'',5'',4'-tetracarboxylic acid (H4tta) and transitional metal cations in the presence of two flexible N-donor ancillary ligands afforded four novel coordination polymers, namely, {[Zn(tta)0.5(m-bimb)]·H2O}n (1), [Ni2(tta)(m-bimb)2(H2O)]n (2), [Ni(H2tta)(o-bimb)·H2O]n (3), and [Cd(tta)0.5(o-bimb)]n (4), from solvothermal reactions in the presence of bis(imidazole) bridging linkers (m-bimb = 1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, and o-bimb = 1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene)...
January 3, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Bicheng Zhu, Jadranka Travas-Sejdic
In this communication, we present an in-depth study of DNA/DNA, DNA/PNA and PNA/PNA hybridisation on a conducting polymer-modified electrode, measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). DNA or PNA nucleic base sequence probes (where DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and PNA for peptide nucleic acid) were covalently attached onto the sensor surface. As PNA is a non-charged variant of DNA, we investigate the effects of the surface charge and surface blocking by the surface confined probe/target nucleic bases complexes onto the kinetics of redox reaction of Fe(CN)63-/4- couple occurring at the electrode/solution interface that provides electrochemical readout for hybridisation...
January 3, 2018: Analyst
Chunyan Cai, Zhenzhong Guo, Yiping Cao, Weiying Zhang, Yong Chen
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), which includes DNA mutations, epigenetic alterations and other forms of tumor-specific abnormalities, is a promising "real-time" biomarker for noninvasive cancer assessment. Tumor DNA is of great value in the process of cancer treatment, including diagnostic and prognostic information before, during treatment and at progression. Here we introduce a peptide nucleic acids probe-gold nanoparticles (PNA-AuNPs) and lead phosphate apoferritin (LPA)-based dual biomarker detection platform, which could be used in a DNA biosensor to quantify ctDNA by detection of tumor-specific mutations and methylation of PIK3CA gene...
2018: Nanotheranostics
Panagiota-Yiolanda Stergiou, Athanasios Foukis, Olga A Gkini, Eleftheria Barouni, Panagiota S Georgoulia, Maria Kanellaki, Athanasios A Koutinas, Maria Papagianni, Emmanuel M Papamichael
The development of sensitive, easy and reliable methods for the determination of Rhizomucor pusillus rennin (MPR) activity, in free and in immobilized form, along with the elucidation of the mechanism of action, represent challenges for the widespread use of the enzyme in industrial cheese production. These could be accomplished by using highly specific and sensitive substrates, as well as direct assay methods. We designed and synthesized novel substrates based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for the MPR by employing computational simulation techniques and peptide synthesis in liquid phase...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Enrica Fabbri, Anna Tamanini, Tiziana Jakova, Jessica Gasparello, Alex Manicardi, Roberto Corradini, Giuseppe Sabbioni, Alessia Finotti, Monica Borgatti, Ilaria Lampronti, Silvia Munari, Maria Cristina Dechecchi, Giulio Cabrini, Roberto Gambari
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are very useful tools for gene regulation at different levels, but in particular in the last years their use for targeting microRNA (anti-miR PNAs) has provided impressive advancements. In this respect, microRNAs related to the repression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which is defective in cystic fibrosis, are of great importance in the development of new type of treatments. In this paper we propose the use of an anti-miR PNA for targeting miR-145, a microRNA reported to suppress CFTR expression...
December 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhen Zheng, Dawn Wong Lit Wan, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Dong Y Yao, Genevieve Iversen, Charlie C Xue, Kelun Wang
We have reported a model that distinguishes pain adaptive individuals (PA) from those who are pain non-adaptive (PNA). The present randomised, cross-over, participant-assessor blinded study aimed to determine the impact of pain adaptability on individuals' response to real and sham acupuncture. Healthy volunteers (nine PA and 13 PNA) were randomly allocated to receive real and sham acupuncture on the left hand and forearm in two separate acupuncture sessions. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were measured at bilateral forearms and right leg before, immediately after and 20 minutes after the end of acupuncture...
December 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Ge-Min Fang, Oliver Seitz
"Label-free" fluorescent probes that avoid additional steps or building blocks for conjugation of fluorescent dyes with oligonucleotides can significantly reduce the time and cost of parallel bioanalysis of a large number of nucleic acid samples. A method for the synthesis of "label-free" bicysteine-modified PNA probes using solid-phase synthesis and procedures for sequence-specific DNA in situ fluorescent labeling is described here. The concept is based on the adjacent alignment of two bicysteine-modified peptide nucleic acids on a DNA target to form a structurally optimized bipartite tetracysteine motif, which induces a sequence-specific fluorogenic reaction with commercially available biarsenic dyes, even in complex media such as cell lysate...
December 24, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Elias Quijano, Raman Bahal, Adele Ricciardi, W Mark Saltzman, Peter M Glazer
Since their invention in 1991, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been used in a myriad of chemical and biological assays. More recently, peptide nucleic acids have also been demonstrated to hold great potential as therapeutic agents because of their physiological stability, affinity for target nucleic acids, and versatility. While recent modifications in their design have further improved their potency, their preclinical development has reached new heights due to their combination with recent advancements in drug delivery...
December 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Dominic Winski, Erich Osterberg, David Ferris, Karl Kreutz, Cameron Wake, Seth Campbell, Robert Hawley, Samuel Roy, Sean Birkel, Douglas Introne, Michael Handley
Future precipitation changes in a warming climate depend regionally upon the response of natural climate modes to anthropogenic forcing. North Pacific hydroclimate is dominated by the Aleutian Low, a semi-permanent wintertime feature characterized by frequent low-pressure conditions that is influenced by tropical Pacific Ocean temperatures through the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. Instrumental records show a recent increase in coastal Alaskan precipitation and Aleutian Low intensification, but are of insufficient length to accurately assess low frequency trends and forcing mechanisms...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bénédicte Ndeboko, Narayan Ramamurthy, Guy Joseph Lemamy, Catherine Jamard, Peter E Nielsen, Lucyna Cova
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are potentially attractive antisense agents against hepatitis B virus (HBV), although poor cellular uptake limits their therapeutic application. In the duck HBV (DHBV) model, we evaluated different cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for delivery to hepatocytes of a PNA-targeting hepadnaviral encapsidation signal (ε). This anti-ε PNA exhibited sequence-specific inhibition of DHBV RT in a cell-free system. Investigation of the best in vivo route of delivery of PNA conjugated to (D-Arg)8 (P1) showed that intraperitoneal injection to ducklings was ineffective, whereas intravenously (i...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Abbas Maleki, Sobhan Ghafourian, Iraj Pakzad, Behzad Badakhsh, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is ‎considered as a dangerous pathogen ‎threaten human health. Now a day, the new drug target is focused. Toxin antitoxin (TA) system recently identified as an antimicrobial drug target. Also, in N. meningitidis iron-uptake system could be an interesting target for drug discovery. METHODS: Therefore, in this study fbpA and mazE genes were chosen as new antimicrobial targets and treated with antisense peptide nucleic ‎acid (PNA)...
December 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Débora Maria Pires Gonçalves Barreira, Túlio Machado Fumian, Marco André Loureiro Tonini, Lays Paula Bondi Volpini, Rodrigo Pratte Santos, Anézia Lima Chaves Ribeiro, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Márcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes E Souza, Patrícia Brasil, Denise Cotrim da Cunha, Marize Pereira Miagostovich, Liliana Cruz Spano
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in all age groups worldwide. Despite the high genetic diversity of noroviruses, most AGE outbreaks are caused by a single norovirus genotype: GII.4. Since 1995, several different variants of norovirus GII.4 have been associated with pandemics, with each variant circulating for 3 to 8 years. The Sydney_2012 variant was first reported in Australia and then in other countries. A new variant, GII.P16-GII.4, was recently described in Japan and South Korea and then in the USA, France, Germany and England...
2017: PloS One
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