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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334954/the-science-and-politics-of-naming-reforming-anatomical-nomenclature-ca-1886-1955
#1
Tatjana Buklijas
Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331937/whey-protein-and-albumin-effects-upon-urinary-risk-factors-for-stone-formation
#2
Camila Mithie Hattori, Hans-Göran Tiselius, Ita Pfeferman Heilberg
Protein supplements are consumed for an expected increase in muscle mass and improved exercise performance, but as their impact on lithogenic parameters are unknown, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Whey protein (WP) and Albumin upon the risk factors for nephrolithiasis. WP or Albumin supplements (one scoop/day) were administered for 3 days to 18 healthy volunteers, with 1-week washout period between them. Serum and 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and after completing each intervention. All participants were asked to replicate their baseline diet during the subsequent urine collection...
March 22, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328632/use-of-processed-nerve-allografts-to-repair-nerve-injuries-greater-than-25-mm-in-the-hand
#3
Brian Rinker, Jozef Zoldos, Renata V Weber, Jason Ko, Wesley Thayer, Jeffrey Greenberg, Fraser J Leversedge, Bauback Safa, Gregory Buncke
Processed nerve allografts (PNAs) have been demonstrated to have improved clinical results compared with hollow conduits for reconstruction of digital nerve gaps less than 25 mm; however, the use of PNAs for longer gaps warrants further clinical investigation. Long nerve gaps have been traditionally hard to study because of low incidence. The advent of the RANGER registry, a large, institutional review board-approved, active database for PNA (Avance Nerve Graft; AxoGen, Inc, Alachua, FL) has allowed evaluation of lower incidence subsets...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306520/assessment-of-real-time-pcr-method-for-detection-of-egfr-mutation-using-both-supernatant-and-cell-pellet-of-malignant-pleural-effusion-samples-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#4
Saeam Shin, Juwon Kim, Yoonjung Kim, Sun-Mi Cho, Kyung-A Lee
BACKGROUND: EGFR mutation is an emerging biomarker for treatment selection in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, optimal mutation detection is hindered by complications associated with the biopsy procedure, tumor heterogeneity and limited sensitivity of test methodology. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of real-time PCR using malignant pleural effusion samples. METHODS: A total of 77 pleural fluid samples from 77 NSCLC patients were tested using the cobas EGFR mutation test (Roche Molecular Systems)...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301169/conformational-dynamics-of-cyanocobalamin-and-its-conjugates-with-peptide-nucleic-acids
#5
Tomasz Pieńko, Aleksandra J Wierzba, Monika Wojciechowska, Dorota Gryko, Joanna Trylska
Vitamin B12 also called cobalamin (Cbl) is an important enzymatic co-factor taken up by mammalian and also by many bacterial cells. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic DNA analogue that has the ability to bind in a complementary manner to natural nucleic acids. Provided that PNA is efficiently delivered to cells, it could act as a steric blocker of functional DNA or RNA and regulate gene expression at the level of transcription or translation. Recently, Cbl has been examined as a transporter of various molecules to cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297442/correlation-of-quantitative-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-with-microvascular-density-in-necrotic-partial-necrotic-and-viable-liver-tumors-in-a-rabbit-model
#6
Jungwon Moon, Jae-Hun Kim, Dongil Choi, Jehoon Yang, Min Woo Lee, Yoon-La Choi, Hyunchul Rhim Md
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with microvessel density (MVD) in necrotic, partial necrotic, and viable tumors using a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. Nine rabbits were used for this study. The complete necrotic area (CNA), partial necrotic area (PNA), and viable tumor area (VTA) of liver tumors were experimentally induced by radiofrequency ablation (RFA). DCE-MRI data were processed based on the extended Kety model to estimate Ktrans,ve and vp parameters...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296352/the-role-of-inoculum-and-reactor-configuration-for-microbial-community-composition-and-dynamics-in-mainstream-partial-nitritation-anammox-reactors
#7
Shelesh Agrawal, Søren M Karst, Eva M Gilbert, Harald Horn, Per H Nielsen, Susanne Lackner
Implementation of partial nitritation anammox (PNA) in the mainstream (municipal wastewater treatment) is still under investigation. Microbial community structure and reactor type can influence the performance of PNA reactor; yet, little is known about the role of the community composition of the inoculum and the reactor configuration under mainstream conditions. Therefore, this study investigated the community structure of inocula of different origin and their consecutive community dynamics in four different lab-scale PNA reactors with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
March 10, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289226/pacific-north-american-circulation-pattern-links-external-forcing-and-north-american-hydroclimatic-change-over-the-past-millennium
#8
Zhongfang Liu, Yanlin Tang, Zhimin Jian, Christopher J Poulsen, Jeffrey M Welker, Gabriel J Bowen
Land and sea surface temperatures, precipitation, and storm tracks in North America and the North Pacific are controlled to a large degree by atmospheric variability associated with the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern. The modern instrumental record indicates a trend toward a positive PNA phase in recent decades, which has led to accelerated warming and snowpack decline in northwestern North America. The brevity of the instrumental record, however, limits our understanding of long-term PNA variability and its directional or cyclic patterns...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274930/nitric-oxide-reduces-paracellular-resistance-in-rat-thick-ascending-limbs-by-increasing-na-and-cl-permeabilities
#9
Casandra Margarita Monzon, Rossana Occhipinti, Omar Pedro Pignataro, Jeffrey L Garvin
About 50% of the Na+ reabsorbed in thick ascending limbs traverses the paracellular pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) reduces the permselectivity of this pathway via cGMP, but its effects on absolute Na(+) (PNa(+)) and Cl(-) (PCl(-)) permeabilities are unknown. To address this, we measured the effect L-arginine (0.5mmol/L; NO synthase substrate) and cGMP (0.5mmol/L) on PNa(+) and PCl(-) calculated from transepithelial resistance (Rt) and PNa(+)/PCl(-) Rt was 7722±1554 ohm-cm in the control period and 6318±1757 ohm-cm after L-arginine treatment (p<0...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271709/comparative-analysis-of-recombinant-cytochrome-p450-cyp9a61-from-cydia-pomonella-expressed-in-escherichia-coli-and-pichia-pastoris
#10
Xue-Qing Yang, Wei Wang, Xiao-Ling Tan, Xiao-Qi Wang, Hui Dong
On the basis of prior work, cytochrome P450 CYP9A61 was found to be enriched in fat bodies and during feeding stages, and transcription was induced by λ-cyhalothrin in Cydia pomonella. In this study, recombinant CYP9A61 was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, and its biochemical properties were investigated. Substrate saturation curves and biochemical properties revealed that, in the presence of glycosylation, the yeast-secreted CYP9A61 exhibited a higher affinity for the substrate p-nitroanisole and was found to be more stable at certain pHs and temperatures than bacterially produced CYP9A61...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266778/hematoxylin-and-eosin-staining-identifies-medium-to-large-bacterial-aggregates-with-a-reliable-specificity-a-comparative-analysis-of-follicular-bacterial-aggregates-in-axillary-biopsies-using-pna-fish-and-hematoxylin-and-eosin-staining
#11
H C Ring, P Theut Riis, L Bay, K Kallenbach, T Bjarnsholt, G B Jemec
BACKGROUND: Although Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) - Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) is the reference tool in the study of bacterial aggregates/biofilms, it may also be rather time-consuming. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity between bacterial aggregates identified by Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining versus bacterial aggregates in corresponding PNA-FISH samples. METHOD: Axillary biopsies were obtained in 24 healthy controls...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266532/a-potential-large-and-persistent-black-carbon-forcing-over-northern-pacific-inferred-from-satellite-observations
#12
Zhongshu Li, Junfeng Liu, Denise L Mauzerall, Xiaoyuan Li, Songmiao Fan, Larry W Horowitz, Cenlin He, Kan Yi, Shu Tao
Black carbon (BC) aerosol strongly absorbs solar radiation, which warms climate. However, accurate estimation of BC's climate effect is limited by the uncertainties of its spatiotemporal distribution, especially over remote oceanic areas. The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observation (HIPPO) program from 2009 to 2011 intercepted multiple snapshots of BC profiles over Pacific in various seasons, and revealed a 2 to 5 times overestimate of BC by current global models. In this study, we compared the measurements from aircraft campaigns and satellites, and found a robust association between BC concentrations and satellite-retrieved CO, tropospheric NO2, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) (R(2) > 0...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264747/oocyte-morphology-and-embryo-morphokinetics-in-an-intra-cytoplasmic-sperm-injection-programme-is-there-a-relationship
#13
Azita Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Sareh Ashourzadeh
The aim was to investigate the relationship between the morphological parameters of metaphase II (MII) oocytes with morphokinetic variables of embryos following an intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure. Morphokinetic behaviour and abnormal cleavage patterns of 334 zygotes were analyzed using time-lapse monitoring (TLM). In addition, oocyte morphology was assessed in relation to embryo morphokinetic (absolute time point, including time to second polar body (PB) extrusion (ESPB), pronuclei (PN) appearance (PNA), PN fading (PNF), time to 2-cells (t2), 3c (t3), 4c (t4), 5c (t5), 6c (t6), 7c (t7), 8c (t8) and relative timing parameters (S1, S2, CC2 and CC3)...
March 7, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257285/population-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-chinese-pediatric-patients%C3%A2
#14
Taotao Liu, Chen Deng, Daohai Cheng, Tianyan Zhou, Hua Lu, Wenxing Wei, Wei Lu
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model for vancomycin and to detect the significant covariates that influence the PopPKs to facilitate individualized therapy for Chinese pediatric patients. METHODS: Patients ≤ 10 years old who received vancomycin for ≥ 72 hours between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach (-NONMEM). A one-compartment model with first-order elimination was chosen to depict the data...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253574/-reverse-of-the-resistance-to-paclitaxel-of-the-heparin-binding-epidermal-growth-factor-like-growth-factor-inhibitor-in-ovarian-cancer
#15
X H Tang, M S Lu, S Deng, M Li
Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of CRM197, the heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibitor, on the reverse of the resistance of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel. Methods: (1)The effect of CRM197 on the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780/Taxol was tested by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Western blot was used to detect the effect of CRM197 on the expression of HB-EGF, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and plasma membrane glycoprotein (P-gp) protein in A2780 and A2780/Taxol cells...
February 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247181/detection-of-pik3ca-mutations-in-plasma-dna-of-colorectal-cancer-patients-by-an-ultra-sensitive-pna-mediated-pcr
#16
Qian Zeng, Li Xie, Na Zhou, Min Liu, Xianrang Song
BACKGROUND: Mutant Phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) has been shown to be associated with the occurrence, development and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its detection has been limited because of complicated procedures and the low sensitivity of the present approaches. METHODS: We established an ultra-sensitive peptide nucleic acid-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PNA-PCR) assay to detect PIK3CA gene mutation in exon 9 and exon 20 with cell-free DNA (cfDNA)...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238440/the-proteolytic-system-of-pineapple-stems-revisited-purification-and-characterization-of-multiple-catalytically-active-forms
#17
André Matagne, Laetitia Bolle, Rachida El Mahyaoui, Danielle Baeyens-Volant, Mohamed Azarkan
Crude pineapple proteases extract (aka stem bromelain; EC 3.4.22.4) is an important proteolytic mixture that contains enzymes belonging to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. Numerous studies have been reported aiming at the fractionation and characterization of the many molecular species present in the extract, but more efforts are still required to obtain sufficient quantities of the various purified protease forms for detailed physicochemical, enzymatic and structural characterization. In this work, we describe an efficient strategy towards the purification of at least eight enzymatic forms...
February 23, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216437/extracellular-eosinophilic-traps-in-association-with-staphylococcus-aureus-at-the-site-of-epithelial-barrier-defects-in-patients-with-severe-airway-inflammation
#18
Elien Gevaert, Nan Zhang, Olga Krysko, Feng Lan, Gabriële Holtappels, Natalie De Ruyck, Hans Nauwynck, Shida Yousefi, Hans-Uwe Simon, Claus Bachert
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is characterized by TH2-biased eosinophilic inflammation. Eosinophils have been shown to generate so-called extracellular eosinophilic traps (EETs) under similar pathologic conditions. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate a possible link between EET formation and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, an organism frequently colonizing the upper airways, at the human mucosal site of the disease. METHODS: Tissue slides were investigated for the presence of EETs and S aureus by using immunofluorescent staining and the PNA-Fish assay, respectively...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215876/in-vitro-lectin-binding-to-the-outer-surface-of-spirocerca-lupi-at-different-life-stages
#19
I Aroch, I Arogeti, A Marcovics, Y Spiegel, E Lavy
Spirocerca lupi is the esophageal nematode of dogs. Early, transient eosinophilia occurs in experimentally infected dogs, but is absent in advanced cases, suggesting that the nematode evades the dog's immune system. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of plant or animal origin, binding different saccharides, with varying specificities and avidities, used to characterize surface haptens in plant and animal parasitic helminths. This study investigated the in vitro binding of six lectins (Concanavalin A [ConA], wheat germ agglutinin [WGA], peanut agglutinin [PNA], soybean agglutinin [SBA], Dolichus biflorus agglutinin [DBA] and Ulex earopaeus agglutinin I [UEA]) to the surface of S...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213139/antimycobacterial-antimicrobial-activity-experimental-ft-ir-ft-raman-nmr-uv-vis-dsc-and-dft-transition-state-chemical-reactivity-nbo-nlo
#20
Poonam Rawat, R N Singh, Alok Ranjan, Sartaj Ahmad, Rajat Saxena
As part of a study of pyrrole hydrazone, we have investigated quantum chemical calculations, molecular geometry, relative energy, vibrational properties and antimycobacterial/antimicrobial activity of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinyl hydrazone (PCINH), by applying the density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree Fock (HF). Good reproduction of experimental values is obtained and with small percentage error in majority of the cases in comparison to theoretical result (DFT). The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well...
February 11, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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