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Nutrition for fat loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474746/a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-and-analysis-of-the-consequences
#1
REVIEW
J-Matthias Löhr, Nikola Panic, Miroslav Vujasinovic, Caroline S Verbeke
Senior people constitute the fastest growing segment of the population. The elderly are at risk for malnutrition, thought to be caused by reduced food intake or involution of the physiological capacity of the GI tract. Age-related changes are well known in other secretory organs such as liver, kidney, and intestine. The pancreas, representing a metabolically active organ with uptake and breakdown of essential nutritional components, changes its morphology and function with age. During childhood, the volume of the pancreas increases, reaching a plateau between 20-60 years, and declines thereafter...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459026/prevalence-and-risk-of-protein-energy-wasting-assessed-by-subjective-global-assessment-in-older-adults-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-results-from-the-equal-study
#2
Karin Windahl, Gerd Faxén Irving, Tora Almquist, Maarit Korkeila Lidén, Moniek van de Luijtgaarden, Nicholas C Chesnaye, Pauline Voskamp, Peter Stenvinkel, Marian Klinger, Maciej Szymczak, Claudia Torino, Maurizio Postorini, Christiane Drechsler, Fergus J Caskey, Christoph Wanner, Friedo W Dekker, Kitty J Jager, Marie Evans
OBJECTIVES: Prevalence and risk factors for protein-energy wasting (PEW) are poorly studied in the nondialysis, older population with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of PEW in advanced stage CKD patients aged greater than 65 years. Furthermore, we aimed to describe risk factors for PEW in the overall study population and among obese individuals. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. METHODS: The EQUAL study, a European Quality Study on treatment in advanced chronic kidney disease, is a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in six European countries...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454265/supplementation-of-lycopene-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-amyloidogenesis-and-cognitive-impairments-via-mediating-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#3
Jia Wang, Lixia Li, Zhuo Wang, Yifan Cui, Xintong Tan, Tian Yuan, Qian Liu, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
Neuroinflammation is documented to be the major culprit of Alzheimer's disease. Lycopene (LYC), a fat soluble carotenoid, exhibits neuroprotective function in several neurodegenerative disorders. However, the effects of LYC to countering systemic inflammation-induced amyloidogenesis and memory deficiency remain to be elucidated. In current study, 3-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with 0.03% LYC (w/w, mixed into normal chow) for 5 weeks. The mice were then treated by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439674/establishing-a-clinical-phenotype-for-cachexia-in-end-stage-kidney-disease-study-protocol
#4
Joanne Reid, Helen R Noble, Gary Adamson, Andrew Davenport, Ken Farrington, Denis Fouque, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, John Mallett, C McKeaveney, S Porter, David S Seres, Joanne Shields, Adrian Slee, Miles D Witham, Alexander P Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Surveys using traditional measures of nutritional status indicate that muscle wasting is common among persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Up to 75% of adults undergoing maintenance dialysis show some evidence of muscle wasting. ESKD is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and can result in cachexia, with the loss of muscle and fat stores. At present, only limited data are available on the classification of wasting experienced by persons with ESKD...
February 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431471/appetite-suppression-and-altered-food-preferences-coincide-with-changes-in-appetite-mediating-hormones-during-energy-deficit-at-high-altitude-but-are-not-affected-by-protein-intake
#5
J Philip Karl, Renee E Cole, Claire E Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N Radcliffe, Matthew T Kominsky, Nancy E Murphy, John W Carbone, Jennifer C Rood, Andrew J Young, Stefan M Pasiakos
Karl, J. Philip, Renee E. Cole, Claire E. Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N. Radcliffe, Matthew T. Kominsky, Nancy E. Murphy, John W. Carbone, Jennifer C. Rood, Andrew J. Young, and Stefan M. Pasiakos. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anorexia and unintentional body weight loss are common during high altitude (HA) sojourn, but underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized, and the impact of dietary macronutrient composition on appetite regulation at HA is unknown...
February 12, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430648/effect-of-castration-and-carcass-suspension-method-on-the-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-beef-from-male-dairy-cattle
#6
Yingqun Nian, Paul Allen, Sabine M Harrison, Joseph P Kerry
BACKGROUND: The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages, however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by Pelvic suspension (PS). RESULTS: HF Steer beef had higher redness, yellowness, and chroma values, while bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410981/diet-and-microbiota-linked-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
T Requena, M C Martínez-Cuesta, C Peláez
Diet has shaped microbiota profiles through human evolution. Traditional gut microbiomes are described to be driven by high levels of Prevotella. In the present, however, it is consistently described a lower microbial richness in urban industrialized populations compared with individuals living in rural settings, Bacteroides being predominant among urban-industrial gut microbiomes. Components of diet are highly influential in shaping the gut microbiota, being fiber, fat, proteins, polyphenols and micronutrients differentially metabolized by generalist and specialized microorganisms alone or through the phenomenon of cross-feeding...
February 7, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398571/turning-the-waiting-room-into-a-classroom-weekly-classes-using-a-vegan-or-a-portion-controlled-eating-plan-improve-diabetes-control-in-a-randomized-translational-study
#8
Neal D Barnard, Susan M Levin, Lise Gloede, Rosendo Flores
BACKGROUND: In research settings, plant-based (vegan) eating plans improve diabetes management, typically reducing weight, glycemia, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations to a greater extent than has been shown with portion-controlled eating plans. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to test whether similar benefits could be found using weekly nutrition classes in a typical endocrinology practice, hypothesizing that a vegan eating plan would improve glycemic control, weight, lipid concentrations, blood pressure, and renal function and would do so more effectively than a portion-controlled eating plan...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395371/aspen-and-espen-a-postacute-care-comparison-of-the-basic-definition-of-malnutrition-from-the-american-society-of-parenteral-and-enteral-nutrition-and-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-with-the-european-society-for-clinical-nutrition-and-metabolism-definition
#9
Dolores Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ester Marco, Natalia Ronquillo-Moreno, Liev Maciel-Bravo, Abel Gonzales-Carhuancho, Xavier Duran, Anna Guillén-Solà, Olga Vázquez-Ibar, Ferran Escalada, Josep M Muniesa
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition by applying the ASPEN/AND definition and the ESPEN consensus definition in a postacute-care population, and secondly, to determine the metrological properties of the set of six clinical characteristics that constitute the ASPEN/AND basic diagnosis, compared to the ESPEN consensus, based mostly on objective anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Prospective study of 84 consecutive deconditioned older inpatients (85...
January 25, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389547/nutritional-composition-in-the-chia-seed-and-its-processing-properties-on-restructured-ham-like-products
#10
Yi Ding, Hui-Wen Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Deng-Jye Yang, Yu-Shan Yu, Jr-Wei Chen, Sheng-Yao Wang, Yi-Chen Chen
Low-fat meat products always have harder texture, lower juiciness, and worse flavor. Due to their higher water-holding, water absorption, and organic molecule absorption, chia seeds (CHIA) have been applied in powders, nutrition bars, breads, and cookies. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: (1) analyze the nutritional compositions in CHIA; and (2) look for the possible application of CHIA on restructured ham-like products. CHIA has high amounts of α-linolenic acid, crude polysaccharides, and also contains essential amino acids, minerals, and polyphenols...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349902/association-between-pre-sarcopenia-sarcopenia-and-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#11
Tatiana Bering, Kiara G D Diniz, Marta Paula P Coelho, Diego A Vieira, Maria Marta S Soares, Adriana M Kakehasi, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Rosângela Teixeira, Dulciene M M Queiroz, Gifone A Rocha, Luciana D Silva
BACKGROUND: Preserved skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of healthy bone. Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, considered a predictor of BMD, have been demonstrated in patients with cirrhosis, but they are poorly studied in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD and its association with body composition, muscle strength, and nutritional status in CHC. METHODS: One hundred and four subjects [mean age, 50...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325772/the-association-of-snp276g-t-at-adiponectin-gene-with-insulin-resistance-and-circulating-adiponectin-in-response-to-two-different-hypocaloric-diets
#12
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, R Aller, A Ortola, E Gómez, J J Lopez
BACKGROUND: Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism and dietary intake on total adiponectin levels and insulin resistance after two hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Caucasian population of 284 obese patients was enrolled in a randomized clinical trial with two hypocaloric diets (I: moderate carbohydrates vs II: low fat)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324061/the-prediction-of-deterioration-of-nutritional-status-during-chemoradiation-therapy-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#13
Sofia C M Rietveld, Jill E Witvliet-van Nierop, Karen Ottens-Oussoren, Donald L van der Peet, Marian A E de van der Schueren
Patients with esophageal cancer are at high risk of developing malnutrition during neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT), which in turn is associated with postoperative morbidity. The aim of the study is to explore whether parameters of a complete pre-treatment nutritional status may predict deterioration of nutritional status during CRT in patients with esophageal cancer. In this prospective cohort study, 101 patients with esophageal cancer treated with CRT were included. Data of patient characteristics, tumor classification, performance score, %weight change, body mass index, fat (free) mass index, phase angle, handgrip strength, energy- and protein intake, and use of (additional) dietary supplements were collected...
February 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305245/home-parenteral-nutrition-increases-fat-free-mass-in-patients-with-incurable-gastrointestinal-cancer-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Sine Roelsgaard Obling, Benedicte Vibjerg Wilson, Per Pfeiffer, Jens Kjeldsen
OBJECTIVE: Preventing loss of muscle mass and function is an enduring challenge in malnourished patients with incurable cancer. The benefit of supplemental home parenteral nutrition has not been firmly established. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of supplemental home parenteral nutrition, the primary endpoint being fat free mass (FFM) and secondary: muscle function, quality of life and overall survival. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a single centre open-label randomised controlled trial, patients with incurable gastrointestinal cancer, nutritionally at risk, were randomly assigned to either; a) best practice nutritional care and dietetic counselling (non-sHPN) or b) dietetic counselling and supplemental home parenteral nutrition (sHPN group)...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290352/a-shift-toward-a-high-fat-diet-in-the-current-metabolic-paradigm-a-new-perspective
#15
Hunter S Waldman, Benjamin M Krings, JohnEric W Smith, Matthew J McAllister
OBJECTIVE: Investigations into the relationship between dietary carbohydrate restriction and health are mixed. Current guidelines for nutrition promote low-fat foods and higher carbohydrate consumption for optimal health and weight loss. However, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets are revealing both intra- and extracellular adaptations that have been shown to elicit favorable cardiometabolic changes associated with obesity. Moreover, dietary fat is associated with higher satiety levels from the hormones adiponectin, leptin, and cholecystokinin...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233719/a-randomized-study-of-dietary-composition-during-weight-loss-maintenance-rationale-study-design-intervention-and-assessment
#16
Cara B Ebbeling, Gloria L Klein, Patricia K Luoto, Julia M W Wong, Lisa Bielak, Ralph G Eddy, Sarah K Steltz, Courtenay Devlin, Megan Sandman, Bridget Hron, Kim Shimy, Steven B Heymsfield, Robert R Wolfe, William W Wong, Henry A Feldman, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: While many people with overweight or obesity can lose weight temporarily, most have difficulty maintaining weight loss over the long term. Studies of dietary composition typically focus on weight loss, rather than weight-loss maintenance, and rely on nutrition education and dietary counseling, rather than controlled feeding protocols. Variation in initial weight loss and insufficient differentiation among treatments confound interpretation of results and compromise conclusions regarding the weight-independent effects of dietary composition...
December 9, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226282/feasibility-of-conducting-a-6-month-long-home-based-exercise-program-with-protein-supplementation-in-elderly-community-dwelling-individuals-with-heart-failure
#17
Masil George, Gohar Azhar, Amanda Pangle, Eric Peeler, Amanda Dawson, Robert Coker, Kellie S Coleman, Amy Schrader, Jeanne Wei
Objective: Cardiac cachexia is a condition associated with heart failure, particularly in the elderly, and is characterized by loss of muscle mass with or without the loss of fat mass. Approximately 15% of elderly heart failure patients will eventually develop cardiac cachexia; such a diagnosis is closely associated with high morbidity and increased mortality. While the mechanism(s) involved in the progression of cardiac cachexia is incompletely established, certain factors appear to be contributory...
2017: Journal of Physiotherapy & Physical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224857/nutritional-depletion-of-total-mixed-rations-by-european-starlings-projected-effects-on-dairy-cow-performance-and-potential-intervention-strategies-to-mitigate-damage
#18
J C Carlson, R S Stahl, S T DeLiberto, J J Wagner, T E Engle, R M Engeman, C S Olson, J W Ellis, S J Werner
European starlings are an invasive bird species in North America that are known to cause damage to commercial dairies through the consumption of total mixed rations (TMR) destined for dairy cows. We hypothesized that large foraging flocks of starlings alter the physical composition of TMR, and that this change may be significant enough to affect milk production. To better determine if production losses could potentially occur in commercial dairies as a consequence of feed consumption by foraging flocks of starlings, we conducted controlled feeding experiments using a TMR sourced from a commercial dairy that is chronically plagued with seasonal starling damage...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222892/benefit-of-oral-nutritional-supplements-for-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-during-remission-induction-chemotherapy-a-quasi-experimental-study
#19
Rui Liang, Gai-Yun Chen, San-Xian Fu, Jie Zhong, Yan Ma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) on children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We included 127 paediatric patients who were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and undergoing remission- induction chemotherapy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Children from two paediatric wards who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218417/intensive-dietary-intervention-promoting-the-mediterranean-diet-in-people-with-high-cardiometabolic-risk-a-non-randomized-study
#20
M Grimaldi, O Ciano, M Manzo, M Rispoli, M Guglielmi, A Limardi, P Calatola, M Lucibello, S Pardo, B Capaldo, G Riccardi
AIMS: Mediterranean diet (MD) is acknowledged to exert a number of beneficial health effects. We assessed the efficacy and the durability of a 3-month intensive dietary intervention aimed at implementing the MD on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects at high risk. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen subjects participated in the study (71 assigned to the intensive intervention and 45 to the conventional intervention). The intensive intervention consisted of 12 weekly group educational meetings and a free-of-charge supply of meals prepared according to the MD model...
December 7, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
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