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Nutrition for fat loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344558/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-and-orexinergic-system-on-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Antonio Lonigro, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Gaetano Corso, Antonietta Messina, Andrea Viggiano, Antonio I Triggiani, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli
Adipose tissue, defined as white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a biological caloric reservoir; in response to over-nutrition it expands and, in response to energy deficit, it releases lipids. The WAT primarily stores energy as triglycerides, whereas BAT dissipates chemical energy as heat. In mammals, the BAT is a key site for heat production and an attractive target to promote weight loss. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) exerts a direct control at the cellular and molecular levels in adiposity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330732/racial-ethnic-differences-in-weight-loss-strategies-among-us-adults-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2007-2012
#2
Becky Marquez, Rosenda Murillo
BACKGROUND: Dieting, exercising, and seeking professional help have been associated with intentional weight loss among adults. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the use of diet (eg, ate less, ate less fat, or switched to low-calorie foods), exercise, diet and exercise, and professional help (eg, weight-loss program or prescribed diet pills) for weight loss among non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic blacks. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329121/very-low-calorie-diets-for-weight-loss-in-obese-older-adults-a-randomized-trial
#3
Cilla J Haywood, Luke A Prendergast, Katrina Purcell, Lauren Le Fevre, Wen Kwang Lim, Mary Galea, Joseph Proietto
Background: Obesity contributes to disability in older adults, and this is offset by weight loss and exercise. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCDs) achieve rapid weight loss; however, these have not been rigorously evaluated in older people. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted from August 2012 through December 2015. The intervention was 12 weeks of thrice weekly exercise combined with either healthy eating advice (Ex/HE), hypocaloric diet (Ex/Diet), or VLCD (Ex/VLCD)...
February 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303381/differences-in-dietary-intake-during-chemotherapy-in-breast-cancer-patients-compared-to-women-without-cancer
#4
Y C de Vries, M M G A van den Berg, J H M de Vries, S Boesveldt, J Th C M de Kruif, N Buist, A Haringhuizen, M Los, D W Sommeijer, J H N Timmer-Bonte, H W M van Laarhoven, M Visser, E Kampman, R M Winkels
PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and determined the association between symptoms and energy and macronutrient intake. METHODS: This study included 117 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients scheduled for chemotherapy and 88 women without cancer...
March 16, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271424/a-randomized-controlled-multisite-study-of-behavioral-interventions-for-veterans-with-mental-illness-and-antipsychotic-medication-associated-obesity
#5
Zachary D Erickson, Crystal L Kwan, Hollie A Gelberg, Irina Y Arnold, Valery Chamberlin, Jennifer A Rosen, Chandresh Shah, Charles T Nguyen, Gerhard Hellemann, Dixie R Aragaki, Charles F Kunkel, Melissa M Lewis, Neena Sachinvala, Patrick A Sonza, Joseph M Pierre, Donna Ames
BACKGROUND: Weight gain and other metabolic sequelae of antipsychotic medications can lead to medication non-adherence, reduced quality of life, increased costs, and premature mortality. Of the approaches to address this, behavioral interventions are less invasive, cost less, and can result in sustained long-term benefits. OBJECTIVE: We investigated behavioral weight management interventions for veterans with mental illness across four medical centers within the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System...
March 7, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258472/prevalence-of-renal-uric-acid-stones-in-the-adult
#6
Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Montanari
The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted...
March 3, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256636/elevated-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-in-obese-insulin-resistant-states-is-normalised-by-the-synthetic-retinoid-fenretinide-in-mice
#7
Nicola Morrice, George D Mcilroy, Seshu R Tammireddy, Jennifer Reekie, Kirsty D Shearer, Mary K Doherty, Mirela Delibegović, Phillip D Whitfield, Nimesh Mody
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important beneficial regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis but its levels are also abnormally increased in insulin-resistant states in rodents and humans. The synthetic retinoid Fenretinide inhibits obesity and improves glucose homeostasis in mice and has pleotropic effects on cellular pathways. To identify Fenretinide target genes, we performed unbiased RNA-seq analysis in liver from mice fed high-fat diet ± Fenretinide. Strikingly, Fgf21 was the most downregulated hepatic gene...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253030/case-study-the-effect-of-32-weeks-of-figure-contest-preparation-on-a-self-proclaimed-drug-free-female-s-lean-body-and-bone-mass
#8
John Petrizzo, Frederick J DiMenna, Kimberly Martins, John Wygand, Robert M Otto
To achieve the criterion appearance prior to competing in a physique competition, athletes undergo preparatory regimens involving high-volume intense resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake. As the popularity of "drug-free" competition increases, more athletes are facing this challenge without the recuperative advantage provided by performance-enhancing drugs. Consequently, the likelihood of loss of lean body and/or bone mass is increased. The purpose of this investigation was to monitor changes in body composition for a 29-year-old self-proclaimed drug-free female figure competitor during a 32-week preparatory regimen comprising high-volume resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244552/prevalence-of-sarcopenia-in-community-dwelling-chilean-elders-according-to-an-adapted-version-of-the-european-working-group-on-sarcopenia-in-older-people-ewgsop-criteria
#9
L Lera, C Albala, H Sánchez, B Angel, M J Hormazabal, C Márquez, P Arroyo
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of mass and skeletal muscle strength and has serious consequences on older people's health. The Chilean older population has a high life-expectancy, but the prevalence of functional dependence is also high. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chilean older adults and its relationship with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231180/evolution-of-the-maillard-reaction-in-glutamine-or-arginine-dextrinomaltose-model-systems
#10
Silvia Pastoriza, José Ángel Rufián-Henares, Belén García-Villanova, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández
Enteral formulas are foods designed for medical uses to feed patients who are unable to eat normally. They are prepared by mixing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and fats and submitted to sterilization. During thermal treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place through the reaction of animo acids with reducing sugars. Thus, although glutamine and arginine are usually added to improve the nutritional value of enteral formulas, their final concentration may vary. Thus, in the present paper the early, intermediate, and advanced states of the Maillard reaction were studied in model systems by measuring loss of free amino acids through the decrease of fluorescence intensity with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA), 5-Hydroximethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, glucosylisomaltol, fluorescence, and absorbance at 420 nm...
December 7, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204901/the-effect-of-hydration-status-on-the-measurement-of-lean-tissue-mass-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#11
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
March 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183305/controlling-of-growth-performance-lipid-deposits-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-chicken-meat-through-a-probiotic-lactobacillus-johnsonii-during-subclinical-clostridium-perfringens-infection
#12
Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Lei Liu, Dong Zeng, Jing Lai, Xiaodan Qing, Guangyao Li, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
BACKGROUND: Meat is considered as a major source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is essential for humans, therefore its lipid level and fatty acid composition have drawn great attention. As no clinical sign can be found in chicks subclinically infected by Clostridium perfringens (CP), the meat may be purchased and eaten. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) can control the CP-caused impact on growth, lipid levels, fatty acid composition and other flavor or nutritional quality in the meat...
February 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177923/protein-calorie-malnutrition-nutritional-intervention-and-personalized-cancer-care
#13
Anju Gangadharan, Sung Eun Choi, Ahmed Hassan, Nehad M Ayoub, Gina Durante, Sakshi Balwani, Young Hee Kim, Andrew Pecora, Andre Goy, K Stephen Suh
Cancer patients often experience weight loss caused by protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) during the course of the disease or treatment. PCM is expressed as severe if the patient has two or more of the following characteristics: obvious significant muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat; nutritional intake of <50% of recommended intake for 2 weeks or more; bedridden or otherwise significantly reduced functional capacity; weight loss of >2% in 1 week, 5% in 1 month, or 7.5% in 3 months. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a multifactorial condition of advanced PCM associated with underlying illness (in this case cancer) and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass...
February 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156586/the-effectiveness-of-nutritional-sensitive-approach-to-restore-physical-activity-in-cachexic-female-palliative-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
(no author information available yet)
258 Background: Loss of lean body mass, body fat along with inflammation characterizes cachexia in patients with cancer. Nutrition intervention with counseling may ameliorate undernutrition and metabolic alterations. The aim of this study was to improve nutritional status and quality of life by providing nutrients dense natural food (IAtta) along with counseling. METHODS: Female patients with cancerwith symptoms of cachexia were randomly distributed into placebo (n = 75) and intervention group (n = 75)...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144165/osteosarcopenic-obesity-in-women-impact-prevalence-and-management-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Pegah JafariNasabian, Julia E Inglis, Owen J Kelly, Jasminka Z Ilich
Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome (OSO) has recently been identified as a condition encompassing osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity. OSO is especially deleterious in older adults (even if they are not obese by conventional measures), due to age-related redistribution of fat and its infiltration into bone and muscle. Osteoporosis and bone fractures in elderly increase the risk of sarcopenia, which, through decreased mobility, increases the risk of more falls and fractures, creating a vicious cycle...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138933/update-on-management-of-cancer-related-cachexia
#16
REVIEW
Lindsey J Anderson, Eliette D Albrecht, Jose M Garcia
Cachexia is a metabolic syndrome driven by inflammation and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. In cancer cachexia, the tumor burden and host response induce increased inflammation, decreased anabolic tone, and suppressed appetite leading to the clinical presentation of reduced body weight and quality of life (QOL). There is no approved treatment for cancer cachexia, and commonly used nutritional and anti-inflammatory strategies alone have proven ineffective for management of symptoms...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117386/lifestyle-guidelines-for-managing-adverse-effects-on-bone-health-and-body-composition-in-men-treated-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-an-update
#17
REVIEW
P J Owen, R M Daly, P M Livingston, S F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer are prone to multiple treatment-induced adverse effects, particularly with regard to a deterioration in bone health and altered body composition including decreased lean tissue mass and increased fat mass. These alterations may partially explain the marked increased risk in osteoporosis, falls, fracture and cardiometabolic risk that has been observed in this population. METHODS: A review was conducted that assessed standard clinical guidelines for the management of ADT-induced adverse effects on bone health and body composition in men with prostate cancer...
January 24, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115774/emulsion-gels-as-potential-fat-replacers-delivering-%C3%AE-glucan-and-healthy-lipid-content-for-food-applications
#18
T Pintado, A M Herrero, F Jiménez-Colmenero, C Ruiz-Capillas
Oat emulsion gels and oil-free oat gels were formulated with varying proportions of oat bran/olive oil (from 12/40 to 28/0) without or with alginate or gelatin used as animal fat replacers and/or to provide β-glucan and MUFA for meat products. Composition, technological properties (thermal stability, colour, texture, etc.) and the effects of chilled and frozen storage of samples were evaluated. Depending on the proportion, samples developed for use as animal fat replacers in meat products may endow these with properties qualifying them for nutrition and health claims...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109619/obesity-and-heart-failure-focus-on-the-obesity-paradox
#19
REVIEW
Salvatore Carbone, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena
The escalating prevalence of obesity has been linked to substantial increases in both metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the direct effects of obesity on cardiovascular health and function require further exploration. In particular, the relationship between obesity and cardiac function has received intense scrutiny. Although obesity increases the risk for development of heart failure (HF), it appears to exert a protective effect in patients in whom HF has already been diagnosed (the "obesity paradox")...
February 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107410/prognostic-impact-of-ct-quantified-muscle-and-fat-distribution-before-and-after-first-line-chemotherapy-in-lung-cancer-patients
#20
Johanna Nattenmüller, Raoul Wochner, Thomas Muley, Martin Steins, Simone Hummler, Birgit Teucher, Joachim Wiskemann, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Mark Oliver Wielpütz, Claus Peter Heussel
INTRODUCTION: Cachexia and sarcopenia are associated with poor outcome and increased chemotherapy-induced toxicity in lung cancer patients. However, the complex interplay of obesity, sarcopenia and cachexia, and its impact on survival in the context of first-line-chemotherapy is not yet understood. METHODS: In 200 consecutively recruited lung cancer patients (70 female, mean age 62y; mean BMI 25 kg/m2; median follow-up 15.97 months) with routine staging-CT before and after chemotherapy (CTX, mean interval: 4...
2017: PloS One
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