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Nutrition for fat loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077380/metabolomic-profiles-as-reliable-biomarkers-of-dietary-composition
#1
Tõnu Esko, Joel N Hirschhorn, Henry A Feldman, Yu-Han H Hsu, Amy A Deik, Clary B Clish, Cara B Ebbeling, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol. DESIGN: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10-15% of initial body weight...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057582/a-nutritional-perspective-on-ucp1-dependent-thermogenesis
#2
REVIEW
M Luisa Bonet, Josep Mercader, Andreu Palou
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is the hallmark protein responsible for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). UCP1 activity is protective against body fat accumulation. UCP1 has re-gained researchers' attention in the context of obesity following the realization that BAT is present and can be activated in adult humans and of inducible UCP1-expressing cells in white fat depots. UCP1-mediated thermogenesis is activated by specific food compounds, which function by stimulating sympathetic nervous system activity to adipose tissues and/or by acting on the adipose cells directly or indirectly, through humoral factors released upon their intake...
January 2, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050789/weight-loss-and-nutritional-outcomes-10-years-after-biliopancreatic-diversion-with-duodenal-switch
#3
Philippe Topart, Guillaume Becouarn, Jacques Delarue
BACKGROUND: Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS) is the most effective bariatric surgical procedure, but major concerns exist about the nutritional consequences. OBJECTIVES: The study reported weight loss and nutritional outcomes of 80 patients with a follow-up of at least 10 years. SETTING: The follow-up was conducted at a university hospital as well as in a private practice institution in France. METHODS: Eighty patients operated on between February 2002 and May 2006 were reviewed...
January 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027591/tm6sf2-rs58542926-impacts-lipid-processing-in-liver-and-small-intestine
#4
Elizabeth A O'Hare, Rongze Yang, Laura Yerges-Armstrong, Urmilla Sreenivasan, Rebecca McFarland, Carmen C Leitch, Meredith H Wilson, Shilpa Narina, Alexis Gorden, Kathy Ryan, Alan R Shuldiner, Steve A Farber, G Craig Wood, Christopher D Still, Glenn S Gerhard, Janet D Robishaw, Carole Sztalryd, Norann A Zaghloul
: The transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) loss-of-function variant, rs58542926, is a genetic risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to fibrosis, but is paradoxically associated with lower levels of hepatic-derived triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). TM6SF2 is expressed predominately in liver and small intestine, sites for triglyceride rich lipoprotein biogenesis and export. In light of this, we hypothesized that TM6SF2 may exhibit analogous effects on both liver and intestine lipid homeostasis...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004151/reciprocal-regulation-of-mtor-complexes-in-pancreatic-islets-from-humans-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Ting Yuan, Sahar Rafizadeh, Kanaka Durga Devi Gorrepati, Blaz Lupse, Jose Oberholzer, Kathrin Maedler, Amin Ardestani
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of nutritional status at the cellular and organismic level. While mTORC1 mediates beta cell growth and expansion, its hyperactivation has been observed in pancreatic islets from animal models of type 2 diabetes and leads to beta cell loss. We sought to determine whether such mTORC1 activation occurs in humans with type 2 diabetes or in metabolically stressed human islets and whether mTORC1 blockade can restore beta cell function of diabetic islets...
December 21, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966615/the-hepatic-and-skeletal-muscle-ovine-metabolomes-as-affected-by-weight-loss-a-study-in-three-sheep-breeds-using-nmr-metabolomics
#6
Mariana Palma, Tim Scanlon, Tanya Kilminster, John Milton, Chris Oldham, Johan Greeff, Manolis Matzapetakis, André M Almeida
Sheep are a valuable resource for meat and wool production. During the dry summer, pastures are scarce and animals face Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL), which decreases production yields. The study of breeds tolerant to SWL is important to understand the physiological mechanisms of tolerance to nutritional scarcity, and define breeding strategies. Merino, Damara and Dorper sheep breeds have been described as having different levels of tolerance to SWL. In this work, we assess their liver and muscle metabolomes, and compare the responses to feed restriction...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966573/the-association-of-change-in-physical-activity-and-body-weight-in-the-regulation-of-total-energy-expenditure
#7
C Drenowatz, J O Hill, J C Peters, A Soriano-Maldonado, S N Blair
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The limited success in addressing the current obesity epidemic reflects the insufficient understanding of the regulation of energy balance. The present study examines the longitudinal association of body weight with physical activity (PA), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and total daily energy intake (TDEI). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 195 adults (52% male) between 21 and 35 years of age with no intention for weight loss were followed over a 2-year period...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966570/passive-and-active-roles-of-fat-free-mass-in-the-control-of-energy-intake-and-body-composition-regulation
#8
REVIEW
A G Dulloo, J Jacquet, J L Miles-Chan, Y Schutz
While putative feedback signals arising from adipose tissue are commonly assumed to provide the molecular links between the body's long-term energy requirements and energy intake, the available evidence suggests that the lean body or fat-free mass (FFM) also plays a role in the drive to eat. A distinction must, however, be made between a 'passive' role of FFM in driving energy intake, which is likely to be mediated by 'energy-sensing' mechanisms that translate FFM-induced energy requirements to energy intake, and a more 'active' role of FFM in the drive to eat through feedback signaling between FFM deficit and energy intake...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939358/the-new-espen-diagnostic-criteria-for-malnutrition-predict-overall-survival-in-hospitalised-patients
#9
A L M A Rondel, J A E Langius, M A E de van der Schueren, H M Kruizenga
BACKGROUND: In 2015 the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) presented new consensus criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition. Whereas most previous definitions were based on involuntary weight loss and/or a low BMI, the ESPEN definition added Fat Free Mass Index (FFMI) to the set of criteria. AIM: To study the predictive value of the new ESPEN diagnostic criteria for malnutrition on survival, with specific focus on the additional value of FFMI...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919820/tnf-%C3%AE-and-cancer-cachexia-molecular-insights-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Hetal J Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
Cancer cachexia characterized by a chronic wasting syndrome, involves skeletal muscle loss and adipose tissue loss and resistance to conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is responsible for the reduction in quality and length of life of cancer patients. It also decreases the muscle strength of the patients. The pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors produced by the tumor cells have important role in genesis of cachexia. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) may have important role in the pathological mechanisms of cachexia in cancer...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911482/meat-quality-and-intramuscular-fatty-acid-composition-of-catria-horse
#11
Maria Federica Trombetta, Francesco Nocelli, Marina Pasquini
In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911089/don-t-say-that-to-me-opposition-to-targeting-in-weight-centric-intervention-messages
#12
Becky Robinson, Samantha Coveleski
Obesity is a global health issue. Despite well-intentioned efforts by public institutions, traditional health promotion techniques often lead to offending those most in need of weight loss. For example, when Bryn Mawr College targeted overweight students to offer a free fitness and nutrition program, it was met with accusations of fat-shaming, indicating that weight-centric messages operate in a more complex sociocultural system than many public health concerns. To better understand reactions to weight-centric health messages, college-aged women evaluated the Bryn Mawr College e-mail...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901033/impact-of-dietary-glycemic-challenge-on-fuel-partitioning
#13
REVIEW
A Bosy-Westphal, F Hägele, A Nas
The 'carbohydrate-insulin theory of obesity' is used to justify popular health claims stating that carbohydrates make you fat or a high glycemic load and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and breakfast skipping increase fat gain. According to this theory, the elevated postprandial insulin secretion to a high glycemic challenge is blamed as a causal mechanism by directing nutrients away from oxidation in muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Scientific evidence is however largely disagreeing with an adverse effect of postprandial hyperinsulinemia on fuel partitioning...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887752/changes-in-plasma-fatty-acid-composition-are-associated-with-improvements-in-obesity-and-related-metabolic-disorders-a-therapeutic-approach-to-overweight-adolescents
#14
Marcela Guerendiain, Rosa Montes, Gemma López-Belmonte, Miguel Martín-Matillas, Ana I Castellote, Elena Martín-Bautista, Amelia Martí, J Alfredo Martínez, Luis Moreno, Jesús Mª Garagorri, Julia Wärnberg, Javier Caballero, Ascensión Marcos, M Carmen López-Sabater, Cristina Campoy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In recent years, obesity has reached alarming levels among children and adolescents. The study of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition, as a reflection of diet, and its associations with other parameters, that are closely linked to obesity and the cardiometabolic profile, may be useful for setting nutritional goals for obesity treatment and prevention. This study explored the relationship between plasma FA levels and body fat and cardiometabolic risk markers, in overweight adolescents...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885532/whey-protein-supplementation-enhances-body-fat-and-weight-loss-in-women-long-after-bariatric-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Daniela Lopes Gomes, Milene Moehlecke, Fernanda Bassan Lopes da Silva, Eliane Said Dutra, Beatriz D'Agord Schaan, Kenia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)...
November 24, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873046/commercially-available-lifestyle-modification-program-randomized-controlled-trial-addressing-heart-and-bone-health-in-brca1-2-breast-cancer-survivors-after-risk-reducing-salpingo-oophorectomy
#16
Kathleen M Sturgeon, Lorraine T Dean, Mariane Heroux, Jessica Kane, Toni Bauer, Erica Palmer, Jin Long, Shannon Lynch, Linda Jacobs, David B Sarwer, Mary B Leonard, Kathryn Schmitz
PURPOSE: The goal of this RCT was to examine the efficacy and safety of a web-based program to improve cardiovascular and bone health outcomes, among 35 BRCA1/2+ breast cancer survivors who underwent prophylactic oophorectomy and thus experienced premature surgical menopause. METHODS: A 12-month commercially available web-based lifestyle modification program (Precision Nutrition Coaching) was utilized. Cardiovascular fitness, dietary intake, leisure time activity, body composition, bone mineral density, bone structure, and muscle strength were assessed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823746/postmenopausal-women-with-abdominal-obesity-choosing-a-nutritional-approach-for-weight-loss-a-decisional-needs-assessment
#17
Nadine Poirier, France Légaré, Dawn Stacey, Simone Lemieux, Catherine Bégin, Annie Lapointe, Sophie Desroches
OBJECTIVES: To identify the decisional needs of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity choosing between two nutritional approaches for weight loss: a low-fat diet or a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. STUDY DESIGN: Our descriptive qualitative study was based on the Ottawa Decision Support Framework. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Four focus groups were conducted with postmenopausal women. A thematic content analysis was performed to determine the decisional needs influencing the choice of a low-fat diet or a diet rich in fruit and vegetables...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821191/nutritional-management-of-hyperapob
#18
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789123/preoperative-sarcopenia-determinants-in-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#19
Giulia Carrara, Nicolò Pecorelli, Francesco De Cobelli, Giulia Cristel, Anna Damascelli, Luigi Beretta, Marco Braga
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies report that muscle depletion can impair short and long-term results after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present study is to quantify sarcopenia rate in patients undergoing pancreatic resection for cancer and to identify possible determinants of muscle waste. METHODS: Total abdominal muscle area (TAMA) and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured by preoperative CT scan imaging at the level of the third lumbar vertebra in 273 patients undergoing pancreas resection for cancer...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782114/less-than-expected-weight-loss-in-normal-weight-women-undergoing-caloric-restriction-and-exercise-is-accompanied-by-preservation-of-fat-free-mass-and-metabolic-adaptations
#20
K Koehler, M J De Souza, N I Williams
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: -1062±80 kcal per day; n=9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: -633±71 kcal per day; n=7) or energy balance (BAL; n=9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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