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Nutrition for fat loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053575/the-impact-of-a-weight-loss-intervention-on-diet-quality-and-eating-behaviours-in-people-with-obesity-and-copd
#1
Rebecca F McLoughlin, Vanessa M McDonald, Peter G Gibson, Hayley A Scott, Michael J Hensley, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lisa G Wood
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status...
October 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051228/thermal-strategies-of-king-penguins-during-prolonged-fasting-in-water
#2
Agnès Lewden, Manfred R Enstipp, Batshéva Bonnet, Caroline Bost, Jean-Yves Georges, Yves Handrich
Most animals experience periods of unfavourable conditions, challenging their daily energy balance. During breeding, king penguins fast voluntarily for up to 1.5 months in the colony, after which they replenish their energy stores at sea. However, at sea, birds might encounter periods of low foraging profitability, forcing them to draw from previously stored energy (e.g. subcutaneous fat). Accessing peripheral fat stores requires perfusion, increasing heat loss and thermoregulatory costs. Hence, how these birds balance the conflicting demands of nutritional needs and thermoregulation is unclear...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051113/body-composition-early-identifies-cancer-patients-with-radiotherapy-at-risk-for-malnutrition
#3
Pei-Ling Tang, Hsiu-Hung Wang, Huey-Shyan Lin, Wen-Shan Liu, Lih-Mih Chen, Fan-Hao Chou
BACKGROUND: The side effects of radiotherapy (RT) and the occurrence of comorbidity often result in appetite loss in patients, which leads to serious nutritional problems, significantly affecting the patients' treatment results and disease prognosis. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate changes in the body composition of patients with cancer from the time they received RT to 3 months after completion of RT. DESIGN: A total of 101 cancer patients who received RT, which included head or neck cancer, chest or breast cancer, and abdominal or pelvic cancer patients...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040389/the-anti-epileptic-ketogenic-diet-alters-hippocampal-transporter-levels-and-reduces-adiposity-in-aged-rats
#4
Abbi R Hernandez, Caesar M Hernandez, Keila T Campos, Leah M Truckenbrod, Yasemin Sakarya, Joseph A McQuail Ph D, Christy S Carter, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
Nutritional ketosis is induced by high fat/low carbohydrate dietary regimens, which produce high levels of circulating ketone bodies, shifting metabolism away from glucose utilization. While ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to suppress seizures, they are garnering attention for their potential to treat a myriad of neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders that are associated with advanced age. The feasibility and physiological impact of implementing a long-term KD in old animals, however, has not been systematically examined...
October 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038669/body-composition-is-altered-in-pre-diabetic-patients-with-impaired-fasting-glucose-tolerance-results-from-the-nhanes-survey
#5
Valerie Julian, Romain Blondel, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, Yves Boirie, Martine Duclos
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a loss of muscle mass but the impact of fasting blood glucose (FBG) on body composition remains underappreciated in pre-diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of FBG on lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM) and their distribution (trunk vs. appendicular), separately in middle-aged men and women. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred and eleven (1,911) men (63...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035973/the-relevance-of-dietary-protein-after-bariatric-surgery-what-do-we-know
#6
Nele Steenackers, Ina Gesquiere, Christophe Matthys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing obesity epidemic is associated with an increased demand for bariatric surgery with Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy as the most widely performed procedures. Despite beneficial consequences, nutritional complications may arise because of anatomical and physiological changes of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the recent additions to our understanding of the impact of bariatric surgery on the intake, digestion and absorption of dietary protein...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035677/effectiveness-of-a-smartphone-application-for-the-management-of-metabolic-syndrome-components-focusing-on-weight-loss-a-preliminary-study
#7
Tatiana Toro-Ramos, Dong-Hwa Lee, Youngin Kim, Andreas Michaelides, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Soo Lim
BACKGROUND: There are inconsistent results for the effectiveness of using smartphone applications (apps) or websites on weight loss. We investigated the efficacy of a smartphone intervention using a designated app that utilizes a lifestyle intervention-focused approach, including a human coaching element, toward weight loss in overweight or obese Korean adults. METHODS: One hundred four adults aged 20-60 years with a body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2), who signed up for a smartphone program for weight loss (using the Noom app), were recruited...
October 16, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030560/risk-of-sarcopenia-and-osteoporosis-in-male-tuberculosis-survivors-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#8
Chang-Jin Choi, Whan-Seok Choi, Churl-Min Kim, Sook-Young Lee, Kyung-Soo Kim
Short-term prospective studies have suggested that pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) preludes permanent loss of lean tissue and fat mass even when TB treatment is effective. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of sarcopenia and osteoporosis among Korean male TB survivors. Data of the population-based, Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011) were analyzed, including 3,228 males aged 50 years or older who underwent chest X-ray (CXR) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#10
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988565/effect-of-age-and-gender-on-carcass-traits-and-meat-quality-of-farmed-brown-hares
#11
A Trocino, M Birolo, S Dabbou, F Gratta, N Rigo, G Xiccato
A total of 48 sub-adult hares and adult reproducing farmed hares were used to characterize carcass and meat traits according to the age and gender of animals. With respect to carcass traits, when age increased, the carcass weight significantly increased (2022 to 3391 g; P<0.001), but dressing out percentages did not change. The dissectible fat (1.3% to 2.2%; P<0.05) and Longissimus lumborum (LL) proportions (13.5% to 14.5%; P<0.001) and muscle-to-bone ratio of hind legs (5.11 to 6.23; P<0.001) increased, whereas the hind leg proportions decreased (37...
October 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987469/prevalence-of-sarcopenia-and-its-association-with-activities-of-daily-living-and-dysphagia-in-convalescent-rehabilitation-ward-inpatients
#12
Yoshihiro Yoshimura, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Takahiro Bise, Maiko Tanoue
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia following stroke, musculoskeletal disease, or hospital-associated deconditioning in convalescent rehabilitation ward inpatients. The association between the activities of daily living (ADLs), dysphagia, and sarcopenia was also assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in consecutive patients admitted to convalescent rehabilitation wards. Sarcopenia was defined as a loss of skeletal muscle mass and decreased muscle strength...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985039/pretreatment-fasting-plasma-glucose-modifies-dietary-weight-loss-maintenance-success-results-from-a-stratified-rct
#13
Mads F Hjorth, Anette Due, Thomas M Larsen, Arne Astrup
OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6 months: (1) a moderate-fat diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA); (2) a low-fat, high-fiber diet (Nordic Nutrition Recommendations [NNR]); and (3) the Average Danish Diet (ADD)...
October 6, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977347/nutritional-supplementation-with-physical-activity-improves-muscle-composition-in-mobility-limited-older-adults-the-vive2-study-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Davis A Englund, Dylan R Kirn, Afsaneh Koochek, Hao Zhu, Thomas G Travison, Kieran F Reid, Åsa von Berens, Michael Melin, Tommy Cederholm, Thomas Gustafsson, Roger A Fielding
Background: Nutritional supplementation and physical activity have been shown to positively influence muscle mass and strength in older adults. The efficacy of long-term nutritional supplementation in combination with physical activity in older adults remains unclear. Methods: Mobility-limited (short physical performance battery [SPPB] ≤9) and vitamin D insufficient (serum 25(OH) D 9-24 ng/mL) older adults were recruited for this study. All subjects participated in a physical activity program...
July 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974784/determinants-of-broiler-chicken-meat-quality-and-factors-affecting-them-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Nasir Akbar Mir, Aasima Rafiq, Faneshwar Kumar, Vijay Singh, Vivek Shukla
Broiler production at mass level has already been achieved and now emphasis is being laid on increasing meat quality by altering various characteristics of broiler meat. Appearance, texture, juiciness, wateriness, firmness, tenderness, odor and flavor are the most important and perceptible meat features that influence the initial and final quality judgment by consumers before and after purchasing a meat product. The quantifiable properties of meat such as water holding capacity, shear force, drip loss, cook loss, pH, shelf life, collagen content, protein solubility, cohesiveness, and fat binding capacity are indispensable for processors involved in the manufacture of value added meat products...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962884/lipid-accumulation-oxidative-stress-and-immune-related-molecules-affected-by-tributyltin-exposure-in-muscle-tissues-of-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#16
Jiliang Zhang, Chunnuan Zhang, Dongdong Ma, Min Liu, Shuntao Huang
Tributyltin (TBT) is reported to induce adipogenesis in fish, which might affect nutritional qualities and health status. Muscle tissues account for the majority of body mass, and have been described as a major site of fat deposition and an immunologically active organ. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate whether chronic exposures of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ng/L, affects lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune status in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)...
September 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946223/impact-of-cooking-process-on-nutritional-composition-and-antioxidants-of-cactus-cladodes-opuntia-ficus-indica
#17
Elsy De Santiago, Maite Domínguez-Fernández, Concepción Cid, María-Paz De Peña
The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942676/epigenetics-of-cancer-associated-muscle-catabolism
#18
Ryan M Carr, Elisa Enriquez-Hesles, Rachel Lo Olson, Aminah Jatoi, Jason Doles, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Cancer patients are commonly affected by cachexia, a wasting process involving muscle and fat. Specifically, loss of the muscle compartment has been associated with poor prognosis and suboptimal response to therapy. Nutritional support has been ineffective in treating this process leading to investigations into the underlying molecular processes governing muscle catabolism. In this commentary, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of cancer-associated muscle metabolism and the epigenetic processes responsible for the muscle wasting phenotype...
September 25, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920824/baseline-health-and-nutrition-evaluation-of-two-sympatric-nocturnal-lemur-species-avahi-laniger-and-lepilemur-mustelinus-residing-near-an-active-mine-site-at-ambatovy-madagascar
#19
Randall E Junge, Cathy V Williams, Hajanirina Rakotondrainibe, Karine L Mahefarisoa, Tsiky Rajaonarivelo, Charles Faulkner, Vanessa Mass
Extractive industries can have significant impacts on ecosystems through loss of habitat, degradation of water quality, and direct impact on floral and faunal biodiversity. When operations are located in sensitive regions with high biodiversity containing endangered or threatened species, it is possible to minimize impact on the environment by developing programs to scientifically monitor the impact on resident flora and fauna species in the early phases of operation so that effects can be mitigated whenever possible...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912804/assessment-of-nutritional-status-digestion-and-absorption-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#20
J E Witvliet-van Nierop, C M Lochtenberg-Potjes, N J Wierdsma, H J Scheffer, G Kazemier, K Ottens-Oussoren, M R Meijerink, M A E de van der Schueren
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To provide a comprehensive quantitative assessment of nutritional status, digestion and absorption, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: Sixteen patients with LAPC were prospectively assessed for weight loss (WL), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), handgrip strength (HGS), dietary macronutrient intake, serum vitamin levels, resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, indirect calorimetry), intestinal absorption capacity and fecal losses (bomb calorimetry), exocrine pancreatic function (fecal elastase-1 (FE1)), and gastrointestinal quality of life (GIQLI)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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