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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895703/changing-patterns-of-lung-liver-and-head-and-neck-non-aids-defining-cancers-relative-to-hiv-status-in-tanzania-between-2002-2014
#1
Julee A Campbell, Amr S Soliman, Crispin Kahesa, Sioban D Harlow, Diwani Msemo
BACKGROUND: Tanzania, like other low-income countries, has an increasing cancer burden that remains underestimated. Infection-associated malignancies, particularly HIV-infection, represent a great proportion of cancer burden in Tanzania and throughout Africa. Availability of HIV treatment and improved survival of HIV patients are suggested factors related to increasing prevalence of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs). This study examined patterns of NADCs and proportions of HIV-positivity at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893865/the-decrease-in-traumatic-brain-injury-epidemics-deriving-from-road-traffic-collision-following-strengthened-legislative-measures-in-france
#2
Thomas Lieutaud, Blandine Gadegbeku, Amina Ndiaye, Mireille Chiron, Vivian Viallon
BACKGROUND: Since 2002, France has been strengthening legislation on road traffic. This study is intended to evaluate the changes in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) incidence and mortality resulting from Road Traffic Collision (RTC) in the two 6-year periods before and after 2002. METHODS: We used a Registry of all RTC casualties in the Rhône Department of France. Each casualty was coded according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The study describes changes in demographic variables, TBI (AIS ≥ 2) incidence and mortality, other body lesions (AIS ≥ 3) associated with TBI, road user types, seatbelt and helmet wearing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889110/psychological-distress-and-physical-disability-in-patients-sustaining-severe-injuries-in-road-traffic-crashes-results-from-a-one-year-cohort-study-from-three-european-countries
#3
Maria Papadakaki, Ottavia Eleonora Ferraro, Chiara Orsi, Dietmar Otte, Georgia Tzamalouka, Marco von-der-Geest, Timo Lajunen, Türker Özkan, Anna Morandi, Markos Sarris, George Pierrakos, Joannes Chliaoutakis
The current study aimed to follow-up a group of road crash survivors for one year and assesses the impact of injury on their psychological and physical condition. All crash survivors that were admitted to the intensive or sub-intensive care units of selected hospitals in Greece, Germany and Italy over one year period (2013-2014), were invited to participate in the study and were interviewed at three different time-points as follows: (a) at one month (baseline data), (b) at six months, and (c) at twelve months...
November 18, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886584/attributes-of-successful-actions-to-restore-lakes-and-estuaries-degraded-by-nutrient-pollution
#4
Catharine Gross, James D Hagy
As more success is achieved in restoring lakes and estuaries from the impacts of nutrient pollution, there is increased opportunity to evaluate the scientific, social, and policy factors associated with achieving restoration goals. We examined case studies where deliberate actions to reduce nutrient pollution and restore ecosystems resulted in ecological recovery. Prospective cases were identified from scientific literature and technical documents for lakes and estuaries with: (1) scientific evidence of nutrient pollution; (2) restoration actions taken to mitigate nutrient pollution; and (3) documented ecological improvement...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884311/understanding-kidney-care-needs-and-implementation-strategies-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-conclusions-from-a-kidney-disease-improving-global-outcomes-kdigo-controversies-conference
#5
Vivekanand Jha, Mustafa Arici, Allan J Collins, Guillermo Garcia-Garcia, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Tazeen H Jafar, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Laura Sola, Charles R Swanepoel, Irma Tchokhonelidze, Angela Yee Moon Wang, Bertram L Kasiske, David C Wheeler, Goce Spasovski
Evidence-based cinical practice guidelines improve delivery of uniform care to patients with and at risk of developing kidney disease, thereby reducing disease burden and improving outcomes. These guidelines are not well-integrated into care delivery systems in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The KDIGO Controversies Conference on Implementation Strategies in LMIC reviewed the current state of knowledge in order to define a road map to improve the implementation of guideline-based kidney care in LMICs...
December 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881270/cost-effectiveness-of-screening-and-treatment-for-cervical-cancer-in-tanzania-implications-for-other-sub-saharan-african-countries
#6
Stephanie Nelson, Jungyoon Kim, Fernando A Wilson, Amr S Soliman, Twalib Ngoma, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage
OBJECTIVES: To compare the institutional cost per person of screening and treatment between two groups of patients-those screened and those not screened before treatment for cervical cancer at Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the ORCI cervical cancer screening program. METHODS: The study included 721 screened and 333 unscreened patients treated at ORCI for cervical cancer from 2002 to 2011...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880835/built-environment-selected-risk-factors-and-major-cardiovascular-disease-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#7
Pasmore Malambo, Andre P Kengne, Anniza De Villiers, Estelle V Lambert, Thandi Puoane
INTRODUCTION: Built environment attributes have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, identifying built environment attributes that are associated with CVD risk is relevant for facilitating effective public health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of literature to examine the influence of built environmental attributes on CVD risks. DATA SOURCE: Multiple database searches including Science direct, CINAHL, Masterfile Premier, EBSCO and manual scan of reference lists were conducted...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879497/the-differential-diagnosis-between-natural-death-and-homicide-an-everlasting-challenge-for-the-forensic-pathologist-an-exemplar-case-report
#8
Alessandro di Luca, Valentino de Matteis, Antonio Marcelli, Matteo Polacco, Vincenzo L Pascali, Antonio Oliva
Most of the work performed by the forensic expert is to find proof for different plausible hypotheses that may be used in a trial to serve justice purposes when the "identity" of a case is already unveiled. Yet the previous phase of the investigation is also of great importance, and sometimes (like in the presented case), it represents the core element of the entire investigation. The appropriate determination of the differential diagnosis between a natural death and a death of forensic interest (ie, homicide) is the first and crucial step in the classification of a case...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874992/on-the-road-to-health-equity-incorporating-culture-into-research
#9
EDITORIAL
Rosa M Gonzalez-Guarda, June Carrington
The increased mobility of people between and within countries throughout history has contributed to the diversification of populations worldwide. Despite the recent worldwide economic crisis, migration to both Northern and Southern regions in the world and from rural to urban areas has reached all-time highs (United Nations 2013). As a result, local communities have become increasingly diverse with individuals within these communities representing a myriad of races, ethnic groups, countries of origin, languages, religions, socioeconomic strata, histories, and lived experiences...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868167/the-role-of-ugandan-district-hospital-orthopedic-units-in-the-care-of-vulnerable-road-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Dan K Kisitu, Lauren E Eyler, Isaac Kajja, Gonzaga Waiswa, Titus Beyeza, David R Ragland, Isabelle Feldhaus, Catherine Juillard, Rochelle A Dicker
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are a common cause of morbidity after road traffic injury (RTI) in motorizing countries. District hospitals provide front-line orthopedic care in Uganda and other sub-Saharan African nations. Improving care at the district hospital level is an important component of the World Health Organization's strategy for surgical and trauma systems strengthening, but the data necessary to inform RTI safety and care initiatives has previously been insufficient at the district hospital level...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867825/evolution-opportunity-and-challenges-of-transboundary-water-and-energy-problems-in-central-asia
#11
Lidan Guo, Haiwei Zhou, Ziqiang Xia, Feng Huang
Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865138/young-driver-risky-behaviour-and-predictors-of-crash-risk-in-australia-new-zealand-and-colombia-same-but-different
#12
Bridie Scott-Parker, Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios
Young drivers remain overrepresented in road crashes around the world, with road injury the leading cause of death among adolescents. In addition, the majority of road traffic crashes, fatalities and injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries. All young drivers are at risk due to a breadth of age- and inexperience-related factors; however it is well recognised that young drivers may also intentionally engage in risky driving behaviours which increase their crash risk. The aim of this paper is to examine the self-reported risky driving behaviour of young drivers in Australia, New Zealand (high-income countries), and Colombia (middle-income country), and to explore the utility of a crash risk assessment model in these three countries...
November 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852263/regional-disparities-in-road-traffic-injuries-and-their-determinants-in-brazil-2013
#13
Otaliba Libanio Morais Neto, Ana Lúcia Andrade, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Polyana Maria Pimenta Mandacarú, Gabriela Camargo Tobias
BACKGROUND: In recent decades middle-income countries have experienced a rapid increase in the number of cars and motorcycles. Increased deaths and hospitalizations due to road traffic injuries (RTI) has been observed in several countries as a result. In this study we assessed the determinants of RTIs in Brazil by mode of transportation and compared differences in RTI rates among macro-regions. METHODS: We used data from the National Health Survey (NHS) conducted in 2013 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843956/state-of-the-art-unresolved-issues-and-future-research-directions-in-the-fight-against-hepatitis-c-virus-perspectives-for-screening-diagnostics-of-resistances-and-immunization
#14
REVIEW
Cecilia Trucchi, Andrea Orsi, Cristiano Alicino, Laura Sticchi, Giancarlo Icardi, Filippo Ansaldi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) still represents a major public health threat, with a dramatic burden from both epidemiological and clinical points of view. New generation of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has been recently introduced in clinical practice promising to cure HCV and to overcome the issues related to the interferon-based therapies. However, the emergence of drug resistance and the suboptimal activity of DAAs therapies against diverse HCV genotypes have been observed, determining treatment failure and hampering an effective control of HCV spread worldwide...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836956/an-association-of-particulate-air-pollution-and-traffic-exposure-with-mortality-after-lung-transplantation-in-europe
#15
David Ruttens, Stijn E Verleden, Esmée M Bijnens, Ellen Winckelmans, Jens Gottlieb, Gregor Warnecke, Federica Meloni, Monica Morosini, Wim Van Der Bij, Erik A Verschuuren, Urte Sommerwerck, Gerhard Weinreich, Markus Kamler, Antonio Roman, Susana Gomez-Olles, Cristina Berastegui, Christian Benden, Are Martin Holm, Martin Iversen, Hans Henrik Schultz, Bart Luijk, Erik-Jan Oudijk, Johanna M Kwakkel-van Erp, Peter Jaksch, Walter Klepetko, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Claus Neurohr, Paul Corris, Andrew J Fisher, James Lordan, Gerard Meachery, Davide Piloni, Elly Vandermeulen, Hannelore Bellon, Barbara Hoffmann, Danielle Vienneau, Gerard Hoek, Kees de Hoogh, Benoit Nemery, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos, Tim S Nawrot, Bart M Vanaudenaerde
Air pollution from road traffic is a serious health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. Single-centre studies showed an association with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and survival after lung transplantation, but there are no large studies.13 lung transplant centres in 10 European countries created a cohort of 5707 patients. For each patient, we quantified residential particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) by land use regression models, and the traffic exposure by quantifying total road length within buffer zones around the home addresses of patients and distance to a major road or freeway...
November 11, 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825043/pedestrian-self-reported-use-of-smart-phones-positive-attitudes-and-high-exposure-influence-intentions-to-cross-the-road-while-distracted
#16
Alexia Lennon, Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Sarah Matthews
Pedestrian crashes are an important issue globally as pedestrians are a highly vulnerable road user group, accounting for approximately 35% of road deaths worldwide each year. In highly motorised countries, pedestrian distraction by hand held technological devices appears to be an increasing factor in such crashes. An online survey (N=363) was conducted to 1) obtain prevalence information regarding the extent to which people cross the road while simultaneously using mobile phones for potentially distracting activities; 2) identify whether younger adult pedestrians are more exposed to/at risk of injury due to this cause than older adults; and 3) explore whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) might provide insight into the factors influencing the target behaviours...
November 5, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813488/-epidemiology-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-iceland-from-1975-to-2014
#17
Eyrún Arna Kristinsdottir, Sigrun Knutsdottir, Kristinn Sigvaldason, Halldor Jonsson, Pall E Ingvarsson
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is serious and often has long-term consequences. Since no cure has been found the emphasis has been on preventive measures. The incidence of TSCI varies between countries and the epidemiology has been changing. The aim of this study was to gather epidemiological data on patients with TSCI in Iceland and search for risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital records of everyone diagnosed with TSCI in 1975-2014 admitted to Landspitali University Hospital were reviewed and information gathered on incidence, age, gender and causes of injury...
November 2016: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810682/children-s-blood-pressure-and-its-association-with-road-traffic-noise-exposure-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#18
Angel M Dzhambov, Donka D Dimitrova
BACKGROUND: Primary and synthetic research on road traffic noise (RTN) and blood pressure (BP) is more common for adults than it is for children and adolescents. Given the conflicting evidence from primary studies, this study aimed to conduct an up-to-date systematic review with meta-analysis of the association between RTN and children's BP, by using advanced statistical techniques, to take into account the heterogeneity in primary studies. METHODS: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (ScienceDirect with filters), and the Internet (Google) were searched (last update: July 21, 2016) in English, Spanish, and Russian...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808359/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-kazakh-horses-equus-caballus-inferred-from-mtdna-sequences
#19
M Gemingguli, K R Iskhan, Y Li, A Qi, W Wunirifu, L Y Ding, A Wumaierjiang
The Kazakh horse is an important old horse breed in Xinjiang. They have contributed greatly to the breeding and improvement of other local horse breeds, yet their genetic diversity and population structure are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Kazakh horses and their relationship with other horse breeds using the mtDNA D-loop region, Cyt b gene, and a DNA fragment (nps 7974-9963, containing COX3, tRNA-Gly, ND3, and tRNA-Arg). A total of 130 Kazakh horses from 8 populations in China and Kazakhstan were analyzed...
October 5, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807806/a-pilot-study-of-a-hospital-based-injury-surveillance-system-in-a-secondary-level-district-hospital-in-india-lessons-learnt-and-way-ahead
#20
P V M Lakshmi, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Nalinikanta Tripathy, Sunita Singh, Deepak Bhatia, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Reliable epidemiological information on injury burden and pattern is essential to formulate effective injury control and prevention strategies. Injury surveillance systems are globally gaining ground as a tool for collecting such systematic data on injuries, but less so in low and middle income countries. This study describes the experience of setting up a District Level Hospital-Based Injury Surveillance System in India and the pattern of injuries encountered therein. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted during Jan-Dec 2012 at the emergency department of a District Hospital in Fatehgarh Sahib in a North Indian state of Punjab...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
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