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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334680/assessing-driving-forces-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-by-a-mixed-method-approach-in-north-eastern-ghana-west-africa
#1
Janina Kleemann, Gülendam Baysal, Henry N N Bulley, Christine Fürst
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333986/building-the-road-to-a-regional-zoonoses-strategy-a-survey-of-zoonoses-programmes-in-the-americas
#2
Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314189/single-vehicle-crashes-along-rural-mountainous-highways-in-malaysia-an-application-of-random-parameters-negative-binomial-model
#3
Rusdi Rusli, Md Mazharul Haque, Mark King, Wong Shaw Voon
Mountainous highways generally associate with complex driving environment because of constrained road geometries, limited cross-section elements, inappropriate roadside features, and adverse weather conditions. As a result, single-vehicle (SV) crashes are overrepresented along mountainous roads, particularly in developing countries, but little attention is known about the roadway geometric, traffic and weather factors contributing to these SV crashes. As such, the main objective of the present study is to investigate SV crashes using detailed data obtained from a rigorous site survey and existing databases...
March 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303732/mitochondrial-dna-sequence-variation-in-iranian-native-dogs
#4
Zeinab Amiri Ghanatsaman, Adeniyi C Adeola, Masood Asadi Fozi, Ya-Ping Ma, Min-Sheng Peng, Guo-Dong Wang, Ali Esmailizadeh, Ya-Ping Zhang
The dog mtDNA diversity picture from wide geographical sampling but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, displayed little geographical correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. For a clear picture, we extensively surveyed Iranian native dogs (n = 305) in comparison with published European (n = 443) and Southwest Asian (n = 195) dogs. Twelve haplotypes related to haplogroups A, B and C were shared by Iranian, European, Southwest Asian and East Asian dogs...
March 17, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296466/road-accident-fatality-risks-for-vulnerable-versus-protected-road-users-in-northern-ghana
#5
James Damsere-Derry, Gavan Palk, Mark King
Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic which claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low and middle income countries. The unfavourable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in Northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users...
March 15, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288732/evaluation-of-the-five-year-bloomberg-philanthropies-global-road-safety-program-in-the-russian-federation
#6
S Gupta, N Paichadze, E Gritsenko, V Klyavin, E Yurasova, A A Hyder
Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In Russia, a road safety program was implemented in Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya oblasts (regions) as part of a 10-country effort funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies. The program was focused on increasing seat belt and child restraint use and reducing speeding. The primary goals of this monitoring and evaluation study are to assess trends in seat belt use, child restraint use, and speed compliance in the two oblasts over the 5 years and to explore the overall impact of the program on road traffic injury and death rates...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286817/epidemiological-pattern-of-injuries-in-iran-a-nationwide-review-of-seven-million-emergency-department-admissions
#7
Mohammad Haji Aghajani, Mashyaneh Haddadi, Soheil Saadat
INTRODUCTION: Globally, it is estimated that around 5.8 million people die annually as result of injuries, which causes 10% of all deaths and 16% of disability adjusted life years lost worldwide. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of injuries in emergency departments in Iran. METHOD: This cross sectional study was carried out using national injury surveillance data registry from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2014. RESULTS: 7,176,344 patients with the mean age of 27...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285708/acquisition-and-analysis-of-road-incidents-based-on-vehicle-dynamics
#8
Claire Naude, Thierry Serre, Maxime Dubois-Lounis, Jean-Yves Fournier, Daniel Lechner, Michèle Guilbot, Vincent Ledoux
Because motor vehicle crashes have decreased during the last decade in many countries in the world and are more diffuse, local authorities have difficulties to define road safety policies. An experiment with 51 cars of public fleets equipped with a specific Event Data Recorder was carried out in France during one year. The purposes of this research were to evaluate if incident data (critical driving situations) help to understand crashes, and to explore a new way for road infrastructure safety diagnosis. The analysis of 339 genuine incidents and 1237 simple events recorded illustrates the potentiality of such an experiment and provides: some insights about conditions in which incidents occur, a general overview of their distribution according to different road layouts, as well as information on the different levels of accelerations reached...
March 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282753/reliability-of-the-virtual-elevation-method-to-evaluate-rolling-resistance-of-different-mountain-bike-cross-country-tyres
#9
Thomas Maier, Beat Müller, Lucas Schmid, Thomas Steiner, Jon Peter Wehrlin
Although a low rolling resistance is advantageous in mountain bike cross-country racing, no studies have used the virtual elevation method to compare tyres from different manufacturers as used in international competitions so far. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of this method, to compare the off-road rolling resistance between tyres and to calculate the influence on off-road speed. Nine 29-in. mountain bike cross-country tyres were tested on a course representing typical ground surface conditions 5 or 6 times...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273545/prevalence-of-drugs-in-oral-fluid-from-truck-drivers-in-brazilian-highways
#10
Henrique Silva Bombana, Hallvard Gjerde, Marcelo Filonzi Dos Santos, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem Jamt, Mauricio Yonamine, Waldo José Caram Rohlfs, Daniel Romero Muñoz, Vilma Leyton
Traffic accidents are responsible for 1.25 million deaths worldwide and are the most common cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. In Brazil, traffic accidents caused more than 44,000 deaths in 2014. The use of psychoactive drugs is an important risk factor for being involved in traffic accidents. Previous studies have found that psychoactive substances are commonly used by truck drivers in Brazil to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake while driving during nighttime hours. The state of Sao Paulo is one of the most important states regarding goods transportation...
March 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259829/the-role-of-parental-risk-judgements-transport-safety-attitudes-transport-priorities-and-accident-experiences-on-pupils-walking-to-school
#11
Milad Mehdizadeh, Trond Nordfjaern, Amir Reza Mamdoohi, Afshin Shariat Mohaymany
Walking to school could improve pupils' health condition and might also reduce the use of motorized transport modes, which leads to both traffic congestion and air pollution. The current study aims to examine the role of parental risk judgements (i.e. risk perception and worry), transport safety attitudes, transport priorities and accident experiences on pupils' walking and mode choices on school trips in Iran, a country with poor road safety records. A total of 1078 questionnaires were randomly distributed among pupils at nine public and private schools in January 2014 in Rasht, Iran...
March 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259828/how-did-the-economic-recession-2008-2010-influence-traffic-fatalities-in-oecd-countries
#12
Fred Wegman, Richard Allsop, Constantinos Antoniou, Ruth Bergel-Hayat, Rune Elvik, Sylvain Lassarre, Daryl Lloyd, Wim Wijnen
This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden...
March 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255612/admission-delays-magnitude-of-traumatized-patients-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-hospital-in-egypt-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
H M Saleh, A E Elsabagh, M G Elewa, A A Fawzy, O M Hassan, A C Comer, I M Abdelmonem, J M Hirshon, M El-Shinawi
BACKGROUND: Injury is an escalating public health problem, representing about 9% of global mortality, which disproportionately impacts lower- and middle-income countries. There are approximately 12,000 annual fatalities from road traffic injuries in Egypt, but a little information about delays in seeking emergent care is available. OBJECTIVES: To measure the time interval between sustaining an injury and presentation to the emergency department of Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital and to identify possible causes of these delays...
March 3, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255457/the-epidemiology-of-hospital-referred-head-injury-in-ardabil-city
#14
Esmaeil Farzaneh, Ghasem Fattahzadeh-Ardalani, Vahid Abbasi, Fariba Kahnamouei-Aghdam, Behnam Molaei, Elham Iziy, Habib Ojaghi
Background and Purpose. Trauma is the leading cause of death for youth in developing countries. Given the prevalence of head trauma (HT) in society and its complication and burden, the epidemiologic study of head trauma is necessary and is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods. This retrospective population-based survey describes the epidemiology of head injury in a defined population in Ardabil city. It includes all 204 patients with head injury referred to the University Hospital of Ardabil, Iran, during 2013-2014...
2017: Emergency Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254036/metal-distribution-characteristic-of-mswi-bottom-ash-in-view-of-metal-recovery
#15
Yi Xia, Pinjing He, Liming Shao, Hua Zhang
Bottom ash is the major by-product of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), and is often reused as an engineering material, such as road-base aggregate. However, some metals (especially aluminum) in bottom ash can react with water and generate gas that could cause expansion and failure of products containing the ash; these metals must be removed before the ash is utilized. The size distribution and the chemical speciation of metals in the bottom ash from two Chinese MSWI plants were examined in this study, and the recovery potential of metals from the ash was evaluated...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243417/policy-analysis-of-road-traffic-injury-prevention-in-iran
#16
Saber Azami-Aghdash, Hassan Abolghasem Gorji, Hosein Shabaninejad, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani
INTRODUCTION: Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. METHODS: This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified...
January 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217574/india-in-search-of-right-universal-health-coverage-uhc-model-the-risks-of-implementing-uhc-in-the-absence-of-political-demand-by-the-citizen
#17
EDITORIAL
Raman Kumar, Pritam Roy
Amid the global push for Universal Health Coverage (UHC), the agenda is being set for India's health care. In the absence of a constitutional mandate, a national policy and citizen-led political demand for UHC, there exist specific risks in rushing toward its implementation in India. As the debate of UHC continues, the health-care delivery system in India is at cross roads. UHC in India could take two different trajectories. The first one takes India toward becoming "Global Bazaar" of morbidity and ill health, founded on the pillars of a vibrant rapidly multiplying healthcare industry...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215875/occurrence-and-molecular-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-wild-mesocarnivores-in-spain
#18
Marta Mateo, Marta Hernández de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Lucía Morales, Ana Balseiro, Alberto Espí, Marta Barral, José Francisco Lima Barbero, Miguel Ángel Habela, José L Fernández-García, Rafael Calero Bernal, Pamela C Köster, Guillermo A Cardona, David Carmena
There is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. Consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. In this molecular epidemiological survey a total of 193 individual faecal samples from badgers (Meles meles, n=70), ferrets (Mustela putorius furo, n=2), genets (Genetta genetta, n=6), Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus, n=6), beech martens (Martes foina, n=8), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon, n=2), otters (Lutra lutra, n=2), polecats (Mustela putorius, n=2), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=87), wildcats (Felis silvestris, n=2), and wolves (Canis lupus, n=6) were obtained from road-killed, hunted, and accidentally found carcasses, and from camera-trap surveys or animals entering rescue shelters, during the period December 2003-April 2016...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210405/titanium-clamps-for-a-simple-low-profile-autologous-osteosynthesis-in-the-reconstruction-of-posttraumatic-craniofacial-convexital-skeletal-disruption
#19
Amos Olufemi Adeleye, Toluyemi Adefolarin Malomo
Attempts at reconstruction of posttraumatic craniofacial defects (PTCDs) can be a challenge in low-resource practice areas of the world where the needed biomaterials are logistically beyond reach. A simple low-profile technique of autologous osteosynthesis for PTCD using the titanium clamps is presented in this report. In addition, a 6-year prospective database on a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent this procedure was analyzed for clinical, functional, and aesthetic outcomes, both in-hospital and at midterm follow-up...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196769/nanoparticles-of-wc-co-wc-co-and-cu-of-relevance-for-traffic-wear-particles-particle-stability-and-reactivity-in-synthetic-surface-water-and-influence-of-humic-matter
#20
Yolanda S Hedberg, Jonas F Hedberg, Sara Isaksson, Nanxuan Mei, Eva Blomberg, Susanna Wold, Inger Odnevall Wallinder
Studded tyres made of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) are in the Northern countries commonly used during the winter time. Tungsten (W)-containing nano- and micron-sized particles have been detected close to busy roads in several European countries. Other typical traffic wear particles consist of copper (Cu). The aims of this study were to investigate particle stability and transformation/dissolution properties of nanoparticles (NPs) of WC-Co compared with NPs of tungsten carbide (WC), cobalt (Co), and Cu. Their physicochemical characteristics (primarily surface oxide and charge) are compared with their extent of sedimentation and metal release in synthetic surface water (SW) with and without two different model organic molecules, 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) mimicking certain sorption sites of humic substances, for time periods up to 22 days...
February 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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