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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922733/assessing-the-ground-vibrations-produced-by-a-heavy-vehicle-traversing-a-traffic-obstacle
#1
Loïc Ducarne, Daniel Ainalis, Georges Kouroussis
Despite advancements in alternative transport networks, road transport remains the dominant mode in many modern and developing countries. The ground-borne motions produced by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle (e.g. speed hump, train tracks) pose a fundamental problem in transport annoyance in urban areas. In order to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle, a two-step numerical model is developed. The first step involves simulating the dynamic loads generated by the heavy vehicle using a multibody approach, which includes the tyre-obstacle-ground interaction...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916366/measuring-progress-and-projecting-attainment-on-the-basis-of-past-trends-of-the-health-related-sustainable-development-goals-in-188-countries-an-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990-2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past trends, we projected indicators to 2030...
September 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915503/availability-and-consistency-of-health-and-non-health-data-for-road-traffic-fatality-analysis-of-data-from-195-countries-1985-2013
#4
Helai Huang, Qingyi Yin, David C Schwebel, Peishan Ning, Guoqing Hu
High-quality data are critical for validly monitoring progress toward global initiatives related to road traffic crash prevention. We assessed the availability and consistency of road traffic mortality data from health and non-health departments in national governments, plus changes in data consistency over time from 1985 to 2013. Using freely accessible data, we systematically assessed availability and consistency of health and non-health data from 1985 to 2013 in 195 countries. Data availability was reflected by the presence of data on motor vehicle mortality rates in that country at any points between 1985 and 2013...
September 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911877/validity-and-reliability-of-naturalistic-driving-scene-categorization-judgments-from-crowdsourcing
#5
Christopher D D Cabrall, Zhenji Lu, Miltos Kyriakidis, Laura Manca, Chris Dijksterhuis, Riender Happee, Joost de Winter
A common challenge with processing naturalistic driving data is that humans may need to categorize great volumes of recorded visual information. By means of the online platform CrowdFlower, we investigated the potential of crowdsourcing to categorize driving scene features (i.e., presence of other road users, straight road segments, etc.) at greater scale than a single person or a small team of researchers would be capable of. In total, 200 workers from 46 different countries participated in 1.5days. Validity and reliability were examined, both with and without embedding researcher generated control questions via the CrowdFlower mechanism known as Gold Test Questions (GTQs)...
September 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905388/alcohol-and-road-traffic-injuries-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-a-case-crossover-study
#6
Guilherme Borges, Maristela Monteiro, Cheryl J Cherpitel, Ricardo Orozco, Yu Ye, Vladimir Poznyak, Margie Peden, Flavio Pechansky, Mariana Cremonte, Sandra D Reid, Jesus Mendez
BACKGROUND: This study reports dose-response estimates for the odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk of acute alcohol use and road traffic injury (RTI). METHODS: Data were analyzed on 1,119 RTI patients arriving at 16 emergency departments (EDs) in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago. Case-crossover analysis, pair-matching the number of standard drinks consumed within the 6 hours prior to the RTI with 2 control periods (prior d/wk), was performed using fractional polynomial analysis for dose-response...
September 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900351/an-overview-of-different-health-indicators-used-in-the-european-health-systems
#7
REVIEW
M Gaeta, F Campanella, L Capasso, G M Schifino, L Gentile, G Banfi, G Pelissero, C Ricci
INTRODUCTION: In the European Union three different health systems could be defined according to service delivery, financing, and economic policies: Beveridge, Bismarck and Mixed system. Although health systems are hardly to compare, various organizations are developing methods assessing performance. In the present work the performance of the three systems were evaluated using European Community Health Indicators according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. METHODS: The study has been conducted among the 28 states of the European Union using the following indicators: Standardized death rate for diseases of the circulatory system, standardized death rate of malignant neoplasms, road traffic accidents with injury, life expectancy at birth, incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), infant deaths, pure alcohol consumption, infants vaccinated against Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTP), public and total expenditure on health over the period 2001-2010...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899412/the-effect-of-information-about-the-benefits-and-harms-of-mammography-on-women-s-decision-making-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Misericòrdia Carles, Montserrat Martínez-Alonso, Anna Pons, Maria José Pérez-Lacasta, Lilisbeth Perestelo-Pérez, Maria Sala, Carmen Vidal, Montse Garcia, Ana Toledo-Chávarri, Núria Codern, Maria Feijoo-Cid, Anabel Romero, Roger Pla, Jorge Soler-González, Xavier Castells, Montserrat Rué
BACKGROUND: The decision to participate or not in breast cancer screening is complex due to the trade-off between the expected benefit of breast cancer mortality reduction and the major harm of overdiagnosis. It seems ethically necessary to inform women so that they can actively participate in decision-making and make an informed choice based on their values and preferences. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of receiving information about the benefits and harms of screening on decision-making, in women approaching the age of invitation to mammography screening...
September 12, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895070/needs-for-professional-education-to-optimize-cervical-cancer-screenings-in-low-income-countries-a-case-study-from-tanzania
#9
Anne E Lavelle, Dejun Su, Crispin Kahesa, Amr S Soliman
Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in many developing countries. Due to limited treatment facilities for cancer in Tanzania, a screening referral program was developed between two urban clinics and Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI), the only cancer treatment center in Tanzania. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to identify opportunities for professional education. The study included 139 patients who were referred to ORCI from the screening clinics of Magomeni and Temeke between January 2015 and May 2016...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883155/is-brazil-going-to-achieve-the-road-traffic-deaths-target-an-analysis-about-the-sustainable-development-goals
#10
Cauane Blumenberg, Rafaela C Martins, Janaína C Calu, Luiza I C Ricardo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal relationship between the road traffic mortality rate and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in Brazil, and make an annual prediction of the evolution of both indicators until 2020, the end of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) monitoring period. METHODS: Brazilian road traffic mortality rate official data were described from 2000 to 2015, while the GDP per capita official data were described from 2000 to 2013. GDP per capita and traffic mortality rate predictions were performed until 2020 using fractional polynomial analysis...
September 7, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882280/estimating-the-value-of-life-and-injury-for-pedestrians-using-a-stated-preference-framework
#11
Naghmeh Niroomand, Glenn P Jenkins
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of pedestrian death over the period 2010 to 2014 per 1000,000 in North Cyprus is about 2.5 times that of the EU, with 10.5 times more pedestrian road injuries than deaths. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. METHOD: We conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of pedestrians in North Cyprus for improved walking times, pedestrian costs, and safety...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881702/the-epigenetic-integrator-uhrf1-on-the-road-to-become-a-universal-biomarker-for-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Waseem Ashraf, Abdulkhaleg Ibrahim, Mahmoud Alhosin, Liliyana Zaayter, Khalid Ouararhni, Christophe Papin, Tanveer Ahmad, Ali Hamiche, Yves Mély, Christian Bronner, Marc Mousli
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world causing record number of mortalities in both developed and undeveloped countries. Despite a lot of advances and breakthroughs in the field of oncology still, it is very hard to diagnose and treat the cancers at early stages. Here in this review we analyze the potential of Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and Ring Finger domain 1 (UHRF1) as a universal biomarker for cancers. UHRF1 is an important epigenetic regulator maintaining DNA methylation and histone code in the cell...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876668/accidental-and-non-accidental-injury-related-admissions-to-the-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-at-chris-hani-baragwanath-academic-hospital-johannesburg
#13
N Patel, I Khofi-Phiri, R Mathiva, A Grieve, J Loveland, G Nethathe
BACKGROUND: Paediatric trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low and middle income countries. Data from these regions describing the extent and severity of this problem is scant. Local data is vital to understanding and responding to the problem of childhood injury. METHOD: A retrospective record review of all trauma cases admitted to the PICU at CHBAH from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 was performed. Descriptive statistics were generated using MS Excel...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858775/driver-braking-behavior-analysis-to-improve-autonomous-emergency-braking-systems-in-typical-chinese-vehicle-bicycle-conflicts
#14
Jingliang Duan, Renjie Li, Lian Hou, Wenjun Wang, Guofa Li, Shengbo Eben Li, Bo Cheng, Hongbo Gao
Bicycling is one of the fundamental modes of transportation especially in developing countries. Because of the lack of effective protection for bicyclists, vehicle-bicycle (V-B) accident has become a primary contributor to traffic fatalities. Although AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) systems have been developed to avoid or mitigate collisions, they need to be further adapted in various conflict situations. This paper analyzes the driver's braking behavior in typical V-B conflicts of China to improve the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems...
August 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853321/investigation-of-contributing-factors-to-extremely-severe-traffic-crashes-using-survival-theory
#15
Chengcheng Xu, Jie Bao, Pan Liu, Wei Wang
This study aimed to investigate the contributing factors to serious casualty crashes in China. Crashes with deaths greater than 10 people are defined as serious casualty crashes in China. The serious casualty crash data were collected from 2009 to 2014. The random forest analysis was first conducted to select the candidate variables that affect the risks of serious casualty crashes. The Bayesian random parameters accelerated failure time (AFT) model was then developed to link the probability of the serious casualty crash with road geometric conditions, pavement conditions, environmental characteristics, collision characteristics, vehicle conditions, and driver characteristics...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838752/child-and-adolescent-mortality-across-malaysia-s-epidemiological-transition-a-systematic-analysis-of-global-burden-of-disease-data
#16
Suraya Abdul-Razak, Peter S Azzopardi, George C Patton, Ali H Mokdad, Susan M Sawyer
PURPOSE: A rapid epidemiological transition in developing countries in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by major shifts in the health status of children and adolescents. In this article, mortality estimates in Malaysian children and adolescents from 1990 to 2013 are used to illustrate these changes. METHODS: All-cause and cause-specific mortality estimates were obtained from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. Data were extracted from 1990 to 2013 for the developmental age range from 1 to 24 years, for both sexes...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837645/identification-of-burden-hotspots-and-risk-factors-for-cholera-in-india-an-observational-study
#17
Mohammad Ali, Sanjukta Sen Gupta, Nisha Arora, Pradeep Khasnobis, Srinivas Venkatesh, Dipika Sur, Gopinath B Nair, David A Sack, Nirmal K Ganguly
BACKGROUND: Even though cholera has existed for centuries and many parts of the country have sporadic, endemic and epidemic cholera, it is still an under-recognized health problem in India. A Cholera Expert Group in the country was established to gather evidence and to prepare a road map for control of cholera in India. This paper identifies cholera burden hotspots and factors associated with an increased risk of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We acquired district level data on cholera case reports of 2010-2015 from the Integrated Disease Surveillance Program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829818/spatial-mismatch-analysis-among-hotspots-of-alien-plant-species-road-and-railway-networks-in-germany-and-austria
#18
Yanina Benedetti, Federico Morelli
Road and railway networks are pervasive elements of all environments, which have expanded intensively over the last century in all European countries. These transportation infrastructures have major impacts on the surrounding landscape, representing a threat to biodiversity. Roadsides and railways may function as corridors for dispersal of alien species in fragmented landscapes. However, only few studies have explored the spread of invasive species in relationship to transport network at large spatial scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829627/prevalence-of-alcohol-among-non-fatally-injured-road-accident-casualties-in-two-level-iii-trauma-centres-in-nothern-ghana
#19
James Damsere-Derry, Gavan Palk, Mark King
Background Alcohol use is pervasive among motorists on the roadside in Ghana, however we do not know the extent this behaviour is implicated in road accidents in this country. Objectives The main objective of this research was to establish the prevalence of alcohol in the blood of non-fatally injured casualties in the emergency departments (EDs) in Northern Ghana. Method Participants were injured road traffic crash victims namely pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and drivers seeking treatment at the EDs...
August 22, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828880/critical-reflections-on-a-visit-to-an-inner-city-primary-health-care-clinic-in-rio-de-janeiro
#20
Louis S Jenkins, Marcos A Goldraich
INTRODUCTION: Brazil and South Africa share many sociodemographic and health features that provide many learning opportunities. Brazil's national health system, the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) prioritises primary health care since 1994, the year democracy came to South Africa. Two family physicians from these countries met in Rocinha favela in Rio de Janeiro, a densely populated area where poverty, danger, drugs, tuberculosis and mental illness are the focus of the health system.Maria do Socorro Family Clinic: Central to the SUS are the Family Health Teams, consisting of community health workers, nurses, doctors and allied health workers...
July 27, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
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