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Cognitive rehabilitation in dementia

Noa Raz, Netta Levin
Despite the fact that almost one-third of patients suffer from visual deficits following brain damage; neuro-visual rehabilitation to compensate for visual field deficits is relatively neglected in the clinical setting. This is in contrast to physio and speech therapies, which are the bread and butter of rehabilitative programs. Likewise, programs that address coping with dementia usually concentrate on language, memory and cognitive skills, but often fail to address the deficits experienced by the subset of patients suffering from progressive cortico-visual dysfunction...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Gordon Lyons, Tania De Bortoli, Michael Arthur-Kelly
PURPOSE: This paper explains and demonstrates the pilot application of Triangulated Proxy Reporting (TPR); a practical technique for enhancing communication around people who have severe cognitive impairment (SCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: An introduction explains SCI and how this impacts on communication; and consequently on quality of care and quality of life. This is followed by an explanation of TPR and its origins in triangulation research techniques. An illustrative vignette explicates its utility and value in a group home for a resident with profound multiple disabilities...
August 16, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Bernard Auvinet, Claude Touzard, Vincent Goëb
OBJECTIVE: Gait disorders are associated with increased fall risk, dementia and loss of autonomy. Gait analysis has previously been validated in the identification of motor phenotypes in mild cognitive impairment [1]. We hypothesized that gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly patients with gait disorders might allow the identification of motor phenotypes linked to specific brain abnormalities. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational study was instructed for elderly patients with gait disorders or memory impairment...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Peter Hartley, Kerry Alexander, Jennifer Adamson, Carol Cunningham, Georgina Embleton, Roman Romero-Ortuno
AIM: Impaired cognition is common among older patients admitted to acute hospitals, but its association with functional trajectories has not been well studied. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out in an English tertiary university hospital. We analyzed all first episodes of county residents aged ≥75 years admitted to the Department of Medicine for the Elderly wards between December 2014 and May 2015. A history of dementia or a cognitive concern in the absence of a known diagnosis of dementia were recorded on admission...
September 16, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Shigeya Tanaka, Shin Honda, Hajime Nakano, Yuko Sato, Kazufumi Araya, Haruyasu Yamaguchi
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of rehabilitation involving group and personal sessions on demented participants. METHODS: This single-blinded randomized controlled trial included 60 elderly participants with dementia in a geriatric health service facility, or R oken. Staff members, who did not participate in the intervention, examined cognitive function, mood, communication ability, severity of dementia, objective quality of life, vitality, and daily behaviour...
September 9, 2016: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Lorraine Thibault, Hélène Kergoat
PURPOSE: The prevalence of dementia and ocular pathology increases with age and many older individuals affected by such diseases are being institutionalised. The objectives of this systematic review are to describe the level of eye care services being offered to older institutionalised individuals, present the prevalence of visual impairment in those with dementia, and describe the interventions offered to visually impaired residents with dementia. METHODS: A literature review was performed in four relevant databases, limited to peer-reviewed journals published in English and French, between the years 1984 and 2014...
September 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Marco Cavallo, Arianna Signorino, Maria Luisa Perucchini
Preclinical Research Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) now termed Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (MCD) in DSM-5, is widely used to define the disorder in individuals who have subjective cognitive deficits, objective memory impairments, or other cognitive deficits, without impairments in daily activities. Cognitive enhancers such as the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, commonly used with some benefit in overt dementia, have recently started to be used in MCI/MCD. Treatment of disorders associated with cognitive dysfunction represents an expanding area of neurological rehabilitation and continues to be of paramount importance from political, social and ethical perspectives...
August 29, 2016: Drug Development Research
Douglas A Wajda, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Jacob J Sosnoff
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with neurodegenerative disease (NDD) commonly have elevated cognitive-motor interference, change in either cognitive or motor performance (or both) when tasks are performed simultaneously, compared to healthy controls. Given that cognitive-motor interference is related to reduced community ambulation and elevated fall risk, it is a target of rehabilitation interventions. AREAS COVERED: This review details the collective findings of previous dual task interventions in individuals with NDD...
September 12, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Vicky Booth, Victoria Hood, Fiona Kearney
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for falls. Older adults with cognitive impairment (such as dementia) have an increased risk of falling compared with age-matched individuals without a cognitive impairment. To reduce falls in this population, interventions could theoretically target and train both physical and cognitive abilities. Combining and addressing cognitive components in falls rehabilitation is a novel and emerging area of healthcare. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of combined cognitive and physical interventions on the risk of falls in cognitively impaired older adults...
May 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Christina J Perry
Alcohol consumption triggers a neuroinflammatory response which, if prolonged, can lead to substantial volume loss in both gray and white matter. This brain injury is associated with characteristic cognitive deficits, and, in extreme cases, with dementia. Even mild cognitive impairment creates a significant hurdle for alcohol rehabilitation, because the domains that are affected tend to be those important for sustaining abstinence. Thus, cognitive decline induced by alcohol contributes to the persistence of alcoholism...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Tamlyn J Watermeyer, John V Hindle, Julie Roberts, Catherine L Lawrence, Anthony Martyr, Huw Lloyd-Williams, Andrew Brand, Petra Gutting, Zoe Hoare, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Linda Clare
Alongside the physical symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, health services must also address the cognitive impairments that accompany these conditions. There is growing interest in the use of nonpharmacological approaches to managing the consequences of cognitive disorder. Cognitive rehabilitation is a goal-orientated behavioural intervention which aims to enhance functional independence through the use of strategies specific to the individual's needs and abilities...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Kazunori Okada, Shuhei Yamaguchi
Apathy, which has been attracting attention since Marin's report in 1990, is ubiquitous among neuropsychiatric diseases. It has a major impact on the quality of life in both patients and their caregivers and impairs rehabilitation and outcome. Furthermore, apathy is important as a prodromal syndrome in the development of dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We reviewed the neurobiological basis, prevalence and assessment of potential benefits of non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions for apathy in MCI and dementia...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Richard Cheston, Ada Ivanecka
OBJECTIVES: Psychotherapy provides a means of helping participants to resolve emotional threats and play an active role in their lives. Consequently, psychotherapy is increasingly used within dementia care. This paper reviews the existing evidence base for individual and group psychotherapy with people affected by dementia. DESIGN: The protocol was registered. We searched electronic databases, relevant websites and reference lists for records of psychotherapy with people affected by Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular dementia, Lewy-body dementia or a mixed condition between 1997 and 2015...
July 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Rosaria De Luca, Alessia Bramanti, Maria Cristina De Cola, Simona Leonardi, Michele Torrisi, Bianca Aragona, Antonino Trifiletti, Maria Danilo Ferrara, Piero Amante, Carmela Casella, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Dementia is an increasing challenge for health care and social system in developed countries. Interventions with a cognitive focus, also using assistive technology, are leading to promising results in improving cognitive and behavior symptoms in individuals with dementia. Aim of our study was to evaluate the combined effects of the standard cognitive training in addition to web-based rehabilitation in dementia people living in a nursing home. We have studied twenty dementia people (10 females and 10 males) with a mild to moderate cognitive decline (MMSE 25 ± 3...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
Rachel Burton, Megan E O'Connell, Debra G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Goal oriented cognitive rehabilitation is a promising intervention for individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia due to Alzheimer Disease (AD). Videoconferencing delivered cognitive rehabilitation is a potential avenue for increasing accessibility for rural patients and their families. OBJECTIVE: First, we were concerned with the accessibility of the treatment for individuals in rural and remote areas. Second, client-centered goal setting was explored by asking this sample about their goals for cognitive rehabilitation...
June 30, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
Emilia Salvadori, Anna Poggesi, Raffaella Valenti, Eleonora Della Rocca, Stefano Diciotti, Mario Mascalchi, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
UNLABELLED: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause attentional and executive cognitive deficits. No drug is currently available to improve cognitive performance or to prevent dementia in SVD patients, and cognitive rehabilitation could be a promising approach. We aimed to investigate: (1) the effectiveness of the Attention Process Training-II program in the rehabilitation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and SVD; (2) the impact of the induced cognitive improvement on functionality and quality of life; (3) the effect of training on brain activity at rest and the possibility of a training-induced plasticity effect...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
Alessandro Morandi, Jin H Han, David Meagher, Eduard Vasilevskis, Joaquim Cerejeira, Wolfgang Hasemann, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Giorgio Annoni, Marco Trabucchi, Giuseppe Bellelli
OBJECTIVES: Delirium disproportionately affects patients with dementia and is associated with adverse outcomes. The diagnosis of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD), however, can be challenging due to several factors, including the absence of caregivers or the severity of preexisting cognitive impairment. Altered level of consciousness has been advocated as a possible useful indicator of delirium in this population. Here we evaluated the performance of the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) and the modified-RASS (m-RASS), an ultra-brief measure of the level of consciousness, in the diagnosis of DSD...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Jo Lebeer
BACKGROUND: The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability and Mediated Learning Experience of Reuven Feuerstein states that individuals with brain impairment, because of congenital or acquired origin, may substantially and structurally improve their cognitive functioning, by a systematic intervention based on a specific, criteria-based type of interaction ("mediated learning"). Three application systems are based on it: a dynamic-interactive assessment of learning capacity and processes of learning, the LPAD (Learning Propensity Assessment Device); a cognitive intervention program called "Instrumental Enrichment Program", which trains cognitive, metacognitive and executive functions; and a program, which is oriented at working in context, Shaping Modifying Environments...
June 18, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
Elizabeth B Fauth, Sydney Y Schaefer, Steven H Zarit, Marie Ernsth-Bravell, Boo Johansson
OBJECTIVE: Fine motor ability (FMA) is essential in certain activities of daily living (ADL) and is considered mostly as a component of physical function. We hypothesize that cognitive ability explains significant variance in ADL-related FMA, above and beyond what is explained by physical ability (grip strength). METHOD: Origins of Variance in the Old Old Study (OCTO)-Twin participants (n = 218), aged 80+ (dementia, stroke, Parkinson's disease excluded) were assessed on depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D]), a cognitive battery, grip strength, and FMA...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Raksha A Mudar, Fatima T Husain
Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in older adults. Growing evidence suggests that hearing loss is associated with reduced cognitive functioning and incident dementia. In this mini-review, we briefly examine literature on anatomical and functional alterations in the brains of adults with acquired age-associated hearing loss, which may underlie the cognitive consequences observed in this population, focusing on studies that have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and event-related electroencephalography...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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