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Metformin weight cancer

Bowen Jiang, Mingli Ji, Wei Liu, Lili Chen, Zhiyu Cai, Yuqing Zhao, Xiuli Bi
Momordica charantia has been used to treat a variety of diseases, including inflammation, diabetes and cancer. A cucurbitane‑type triterpenoid [(19R,23E)‑5β, 19‑epoxy‑19‑methoxy‑cucurbita‑6,23,25‑trien‑3 β‑o‑l] previously isolated from M. charantia was demonstrated to possess significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The current study investigated the effects of this compound (referred to as compound K16) on diabetes using an alloxan‑induced diabetic mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with alloxan (10 mg/kg body weight), and those with blood glucose concentration higher than 10 mM were selected for further experiments...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rosa Lauretta, Giulia Lanzolla, Patrizia Vici, Luciano Mariani, Costanzo Moretti, Marialuisa Appetecchia
Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Wenhui Zhu, Hua Xu, Jing Ma, Jianming Guo, Wei Xue, Baojun Gu, Lu Sheng, Xudong Yao, Fukang Sun, Jian Gong, Weiliang Qiu, Qiang Ding, Haowen Jiang
PURPOSE: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin on insulin, C-peptide and body weight in Chinese men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: Between March 2013 and June 2014, 62 newly diagnosed patients of prostate cancer (PCa) due to receive ADT were recruited from 7 hospitals in Shanghai. Patients were randomized to respectively receive ADT (n = 31) and ADT + metformin (n = 31) for 6 months. Fasting and postprandial serum levels of insulin and C-peptide, blood glucose, prostate specific antigen, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured at the beginning and end of 6-month treatment...
September 30, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
This retrospective cohort study investigated whether metformin may reduce gastric cancer risk by using the reimbursement databases of the Taiwan's National Health Insurance. Patients with type 2 diabetes diagnosed during 1999-2005 and newly treated with metformin (n=287971, "ever users of metformin") or other antidiabetic drugs (n=16217, "never users of metformin") were followed until December 31, 2011. The effect of metformin (for ever versus never users, and for tertiles of cumulative duration of therapy) was estimated by Cox regression incorporated with the inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity score...
August 2016: Aging
Amit D Raval, Malcolm D Mattes, Suresh Madhavan, Xiaoyun Pan, Wenhui Wei, Usha Sambamoorthi
Objective. To examine the association between metformin use and cancer stage at diagnosis among elderly men with preexisting diabetes mellitus and incident prostate cancer. Methods. This study used a population-based observational cohort of elderly men (≥66 years) with preexisting diabetes and incident prostate cancer between 2008 and 2009 (N = 2,652). Cancer stage at diagnosis (localized versus advanced) was based on the American Joint Cancer Committee classification. Metformin use and other independent variables were measured during the one year before cancer diagnosis...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
This study evaluated whether metformin may affect the risk of cervical cancer. The reimbursement databases of the Taiwan's National Health Insurance were used. Female patients with type 2 diabetes at an onset age of 25-74 years during 1999-2005 and newly treated with metformin (n=132971, "ever users of metformin") or other antidiabetic drugs (n=6940, "never users of metformin") were followed for at least 6 months until December 31, 2011. The treatment effect of metformin (for ever versus never users, and for tertiles of cumulative duration of therapy) was estimated by Cox regression incorporated with the inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity score...
July 29, 2016: Oncotarget
Dietmar Zechner, Florian Bürtin, Ann-Christin Albert, Xianbin Zhang, Simone Kumstel, Maria Schönrogge, Josefine Graffunder, Hao-Yu Shih, Sarah Müller, Tobias Radecke, Robert Jaster, Brigitte Vollmar
Cancer heterogeneity and microenvironmental aspects within a tumor are considered key factors influencing resistance of carcinoma cells to distinct chemotherapeutical agents. We evaluated a high concentration of metformin in combination with gemcitabine on a syngeneic orthotopic mouse model using 6606PDA cells. We observed reduced tumor size and reduced cancer cell proliferation after three weeks of chemotherapy with either compound and noticed an additive effect between gemcitabine and metformin on tumor weight...
July 28, 2016: Oncotarget
S Amin, G Mhango, J Lin, A Aronson, J Wisnivesky, P Boffetta, Aimee L Lucas
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a highly lethal disease. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is both a risk factor for and a sequela of PDAC. Metformin is a commonly prescribed biguanide oral hypoglycemic used for the treatment of type II DM. We investigated whether metformin use before PDAC diagnosis affected survival of patients with DM, controlling confounders such as diabetic severity. METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (SEER)-Medicare linked database to identify patients with PDAC diagnosed between 2007 and 2011...
September 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jessica A Martinez, Pavani Chalasani, Cynthia A Thomson, Denise Roe, Maria Altbach, Jean-Philippe Galons, Alison Stopeck, Patricia A Thompson, Diana Evelyn Villa-Guillen, H-H Sherry Chow
BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of U.S. adult women are overweight or obese. High body mass index (BMI) and adult weight gain are risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including postmenopausal breast cancer. The higher postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with elevated BMI is likely to be attributable to related metabolic disturbances including altered circulating sex steroid hormones and adipokines, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, and insulin resistance. Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug that has demonstrated favorable effects on metabolic disturbances and as such may lead to lower breast cancer risk in obese women...
2016: BMC Cancer
Madhur Nayan, Antonio Finelli, Michael A S Jewett, David N Juurlink, Peter C Austin, Girish S Kulkarni, Robert J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Exposure to metformin, a medication used to treat diabetes, has been associated with improved survival outcomes in various malignancies. However, studies evaluating the association between metformin use and kidney cancer survival outcomes have demonstrated conflicting results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of diabetic patients undergoing nephrectomy for M0 renal cell carcinoma from 2000 to 2014 at a tertiary academic center...
June 23, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Anna L Beavis, Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith, Amanda Nickles Fader
Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Andreas Obermair, Donal J Brennan, Eva Baxter, Jane E Armes, Val Gebski, Monika Janda
BACKGROUND: Many women who develop endometrial cancer (EC) or endometrial hyperplasia with atypia are obese and therefore at high risk of surgical complications. Recently clinical trials have been initiated offering non-surgical treatment to these women, but not all may agree to participate in such trials. This paper aims to describe the patient characteristics, and surgical outcomes of women with suspected early stage endometrial cancer and body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater, who declined enrolment in the feMMe trial, which offers non-surgical hormonal treatment, hormonal plus metformin or hormonal plus weight loss as primary treatment...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
R William Chong, Vijaya Vasudevan, Jeffrey Zuber, Solomon S Solomon
OBJECTIVE: Prostate cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are both common diseases found in the elderly male population. The diabetic drug, metformin, has been shown to have antineoplastic properties and demonstrated better treatment outcomes when used as adjuvant therapy in patients with breast cancer. The hormonally-sensitive cancer analogous to breast cancer in men is prostate cancer. We investigated improved survival, lower risks of recurrences, and lower, more stable levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with DM2 along with prostate cancer on metformin...
April 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Catherine M Kuecker, Eva M Vivian
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to health care providers regarding the use of dapagliflozin-metformin XR (extended release) as a therapeutic option for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: The PubMed database was searched through August 2015 to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses evaluating the use of the sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin administered as monotherapy or in combination with metformin...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Zhongbo Liu, Noriko N Yokoyama, Christopher A Blair, Xuesen Li, Daina Avizonis, Xue-Ru Wu, Edward Uchio, Ramy Youssef, Michael McClelland, Michael Pollak, Xiaolin Zi
While pharmacoepidemiologic and laboratory studies have supported the hypothesis that the antidiabetic drug metformin may be useful in treating or preventing cancer, there is limited evidence to suggest which specific cancer sites may be particularly sensitive. Sensitivity likely is determined both by features of tumor pathophysiology and by pharmacokinetic factors. We used UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic mice that develop hyperplasia and low-grade, papillary urothelial cell carcinoma to determine whether metformin has activity in a model of superficial bladder cancer...
March 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Mehmet Uzunlulu, Ozge Telci Caklili, Aytekin Oguz
Growing data show the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components with cancer development and cancer-related mortality. It is suggested that in MetS and cancer association, insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factor 1 system play a key role, especially adipokines secreted from visceral adipocytes, free fatty acids and aromatase activity contribute to this process. It is also reported that MetS has a link with colorectal, breast, endometrial, pancreas, primary liver and, although controversial, prostate cancer...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Valeria Simone, Morena D'Avenia, Antonella Argentiero, Claudia Felici, Francesca Maria Rizzo, Giovanni De Pergola, Franco Silvestris
UNLABELLED: Obesity is an important risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in postmenopausal women; interlinked molecular mechanisms might be involved in the pathogenesis. Increased levels of estrogens due to aromatization of the adipose tissue, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and prostaglandin E2, insulin resistance and hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors pathways, adipokines, and oxidative stress are all abnormally regulated in obese women and contribute to cancerogenesis...
April 2016: Oncologist
Joao Incio, Josh Tam, Nuh N Rahbari, Priya Suboj, Dan T McManus, Shan M Chin, Trupti D Vardam, Ana Batista, Suboj Babykutty, Keehoon Jung, Anna Khachatryan, Tai Hato, Jennifer A Ligibel, Ian E Krop, Stefan B Puchner, Christopher L Schlett, Udo Hoffmman, Marek Ancukiewicz, Masabumi Shibuya, Peter Carmeliet, Raquel Soares, Dan G Duda, Rakesh K Jain, Dai Fukumura
PURPOSE: Obesity promotes pancreatic and breast cancer progression via mechanisms that are poorly understood. Although obesity is associated with increased systemic levels of placental growth factor (PlGF), the role of PlGF in obesity-induced tumor progression is not known. PlGF and its receptor VEGFR-1 have been shown to modulate tumor angiogenesis and promote tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment and activity. Here, we hypothesized that increased activity of PlGF/VEGFR-1 signaling mediates obesity-induced tumor progression by augmenting tumor angiogenesis and TAM recruitment/activity...
June 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Shumei Xu, Ying Xue
Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21-24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16-18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults...
January 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dai Fukumura, Joao Incio, Ram C Shankaraiah, Rakesh K Jain
With the current epidemic of obesity, a large number of patients diagnosed with cancer are overweight or obese. Importantly, this excess body weight is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. The mechanisms for this worse outcome, however, remain poorly understood. We review here the epidemiological evidence for the association between obesity and cancer, and discuss potential mechanisms focusing on angiogenesis and inflammation. In particular, we will discuss how the dysfunctional angiogenesis and inflammation occurring in adipose tissue in obesity may promote tumor progression, resistance to chemotherapy, and targeted therapies such as anti-angiogenic and immune therapies...
April 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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