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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182659/metformin-exhibits-preventive-and-therapeutic-efficacy-against-experimental-cystic-echinococcosis
#1
Julia A Loos, Valeria A Dávila, Christian R Rodrígues, Romina Petrigh, Jorge A Zoppi, Fernando A Crocenzi, Andrea C Cumino
Metformin (Met) is an anti-hyperglycemic and potential anti-cancer agent which may exert its anti-proliferative effects via the induction of energetic stress. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Met against the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Metformin showed significant dose- and time-dependent killing effects on in vitro cultured protoscoleces and metacestodes. Notably, the combination of Met together with the minimum effective concentration of ABZSO had a synergistic effect after days 3 and 12 on metacestodes and protoscoleces, respectively...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166101/comparative-effect-of-initiating-metformin-versus-sulfonylureas-on-breast-cancer-risk-in-older-women
#2
Jin-Liern Hong, Michele Jonsson Funk, John Buse, Louise M Henderson, Jennifer L Lund, Virginia Pate, Til Stürmer
BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have reported that metformin may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer; however, many of these studies were affected by time-related biases such as immortal time bias and time-window bias. This study aimed to examine the relative risk of breast cancer for older women initiating metformin versus sulfonylureas while avoiding such biases. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of women aged 65+ who initiated monotherapy with metformin (n=45,900) or sulfonylureas (n=13,904) and were free of cancer and renal disease within 6 months before treatment initiation using 2007-2012 US Medicare claims data...
February 3, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151974/assessment-of-a-prognostic-model-psa-metrics-and-toxicities-in-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-using-data-from-project-data-sphere-pds
#3
Bethany Pitcher, Leila Khoja, Robert J Hamilton, Kald Abdallah, Melania Pintilie, Anthony M Joshua
BACKGROUND: Prognostic models in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may have clinical utility. Using data from PDS, we aimed to 1) validate a contemporary prognostic model (Templeton et al., 2014) 2) evaluate prognostic impact of concomitant medications and PSA decrease 3) evaluate factors associated with docetaxel toxicity. METHODS: We accessed data on 2,449 mCRPC patients in PDS. The existing model was validated with a continuous risk score, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and corresponding time-dependent Area under the Curve (tAUC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114390/high-glucose-mediated-stat3-activation-in-endometrial-cancer-is-inhibited-by-metformin-therapeutic-implications-for-endometrial-cancer
#4
John J Wallbillich, Srirama Josyula, Uksha Saini, Roman A Zingarelli, Kalpana Deepa Priya Dorayappan, Maria K Riley, Ross A Wanner, David E Cohn, Karuppaiyah Selvendiran
OBJECTIVES: STAT3 is over-expressed in endometrial cancer, and diabetes is a risk factor for the development of type 1 endometrial cancer. We therefore investigated whether glucose concentrations influence STAT3 expression in type 1 endometrial cancer, and whether such STAT3 expression might be inhibited by metformin. METHODS: In Ishikawa (grade 1) endometrial cancer cells subjected to media with low, normal, or high concentrations of glucose, expression of STAT3 and its target proteins was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019064/novel-antidiabetic-medications-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Yoshio Sumida, Yuya Seko, Masashi Yoneda
Liver related diseases are the leading causes of death in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. T2DM is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. NASH can be called "diabetic hepatopathy". There are no established pharmacotherapies for NAFLD/NASH patients with T2DM. Although metformin is established as the first-line therapy for T2DM, given its relative safety and beneficial effects on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, and cardiovascular mortality, this agent is not recommended as specific therapy for NASH/NAFLD due to no clinical evidences...
December 26, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931017/lean-body-weight-and-metformin-are-insufficient-to-prevent-endometrial-hyperplasia-in-mice-harboring-inactivating-mutations-in-pten
#6
David A Iglesias, Qian Zhang, Joseph Celestino, Charlotte C Sun, Melinda S Yates, Rosemarie E Schmandt, Karen H Lu
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a major risk factor for endometrial cancer. We evaluated whether obesity exacerbates progression of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) using the PRCre/+ PTENflox/+ mouse model and examined if the type 2 diabetes drug, metformin, could prevent EH. METHODS: Twenty obese (PRCre/+ PTENflox/+) mice were maintained on a high-fat diet, while 20 lean mice ate a matching low-fat diet. Ten mice from each group received metformin (1,000 mg/day) in drinking water...
2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903149/obesity-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-evidence-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
Sao Jiralerspong, Pamela J Goodwin
Purpose To summarize the evidence of an association between obesity and breast cancer prognosis. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding overweight and obesity and breast cancer survival outcomes, overall and with regard to breast cancer subtypes, breast cancer therapies, biologic mechanisms, and possible interventions. We summarize our findings and provide clinical management recommendations. Results Obesity is associated with a 35% to 40% increased risk of breast cancer recurrence and death and therefore poorer survival outcomes...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861146/metformin-and-esophageal-cancer-risk-in-taiwanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
This study evaluated whether metformin might reduce esophageal cancer risk. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed during 1999-2005 were recruited from the reimbursement database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance. Those newly treated with metformin (n = 288013, "ever users of metformin") or other antidiabetic drugs (n = 16216, "never users of metformin") were followed until December 31, 2011. Sensitivity analyses were conducted in a matched-pair sample of 16216 never users and 16216 ever users...
November 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748816/antidiabetic-activities-of-a-cucurbitane%C3%A2-type-triterpenoid-compound-from-momordica%C3%A2-charantia-in-alloxan%C3%A2-induced-diabetic-mice
#9
Bowen Jiang, Mingli Ji, Wei Liu, Lili Chen, Zhiyu Cai, Yuqing Zhao, Xiuli Bi
Momordica charantia has been used to treat a variety of diseases, including inflammation, diabetes and cancer. A cucurbitane‑type triterpenoid [(19R,23E)‑5β, 19‑epoxy‑19‑methoxy‑cucurbita‑6,23,25‑trien‑3 β‑o‑l] previously isolated from M. charantia was demonstrated to possess significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The current study investigated the effects of this compound (referred to as compound K16) on diabetes using an alloxan‑induced diabetic mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with alloxan (10 mg/kg body weight), and those with blood glucose concentration higher than 10 mM were selected for further experiments...
November 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725832/insulin-sensitizers-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-gynaecological-cancer-risk
#10
REVIEW
Rosa Lauretta, Giulia Lanzolla, Patrizia Vici, Luciano Mariani, Costanzo Moretti, Marialuisa Appetecchia
Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684440/an-open-label-pilot-study-of-metformin-as-a-concomitant-therapy-on-patients-with-prostate-cancer-undergoing-androgen-deprivation-treatment
#11
Wenhui Zhu, Hua Xu, Jing Ma, Jianming Guo, Wei Xue, Baojun Gu, Lu Sheng, Xudong Yao, Fukang Sun, Jian Gong, Weiliang Qiu, Qiang Ding, Haowen Jiang
PURPOSE: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin on insulin, C-peptide and body weight in Chinese men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: Between March 2013 and June 2014, 62 newly diagnosed patients of prostate cancer (PCa) due to receive ADT were recruited from 7 hospitals in Shanghai. Patients were randomized to respectively receive ADT (n = 31) and ADT + metformin (n = 31) for 6 months. Fasting and postprandial serum levels of insulin and C-peptide, blood glucose, prostate specific antigen, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured at the beginning and end of 6-month treatment...
2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587088/metformin-reduces-gastric-cancer-risk-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
This retrospective cohort study investigated whether metformin may reduce gastric cancer risk by using the reimbursement databases of the Taiwan's National Health Insurance. Patients with type 2 diabetes diagnosed during 1999-2005 and newly treated with metformin (n=287971, "ever users of metformin") or other antidiabetic drugs (n=16217, "never users of metformin") were followed until December 31, 2011. The effect of metformin (for ever versus never users, and for tertiles of cumulative duration of therapy) was estimated by Cox regression incorporated with the inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity score...
August 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547763/association-between-metformin-use-and-cancer-stage-at-diagnosis-among-elderly-medicare-beneficiaries-with-preexisting-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-incident-prostate-cancer
#13
Amit D Raval, Malcolm D Mattes, Suresh Madhavan, Xiaoyun Pan, Wenhui Wei, Usha Sambamoorthi
Objective. To examine the association between metformin use and cancer stage at diagnosis among elderly men with preexisting diabetes mellitus and incident prostate cancer. Methods. This study used a population-based observational cohort of elderly men (≥66 years) with preexisting diabetes and incident prostate cancer between 2008 and 2009 (N = 2,652). Cancer stage at diagnosis (localized versus advanced) was based on the American Joint Cancer Committee classification. Metformin use and other independent variables were measured during the one year before cancer diagnosis...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486978/metformin-use-and-cervical-cancer-risk-in-female-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
This study evaluated whether metformin may affect the risk of cervical cancer. The reimbursement databases of the Taiwan's National Health Insurance were used. Female patients with type 2 diabetes at an onset age of 25-74 years during 1999-2005 and newly treated with metformin (n=132971, "ever users of metformin") or other antidiabetic drugs (n=6940, "never users of metformin") were followed for at least 6 months until December 31, 2011. The treatment effect of metformin (for ever versus never users, and for tertiles of cumulative duration of therapy) was estimated by Cox regression incorporated with the inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity score...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486761/intratumoral-heterogeneity-of-the-therapeutical-response-to-gemcitabine-and-metformin
#15
Dietmar Zechner, Florian Bürtin, Ann-Christin Albert, Xianbin Zhang, Simone Kumstel, Maria Schönrogge, Josefine Graffunder, Hao-Yu Shih, Sarah Müller, Tobias Radecke, Robert Jaster, Brigitte Vollmar
Cancer heterogeneity and microenvironmental aspects within a tumor are considered key factors influencing resistance of carcinoma cells to distinct chemotherapeutical agents. We evaluated a high concentration of metformin in combination with gemcitabine on a syngeneic orthotopic mouse model using 6606PDA cells. We observed reduced tumor size and reduced cancer cell proliferation after three weeks of chemotherapy with either compound and noticed an additive effect between gemcitabine and metformin on tumor weight...
August 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430290/metformin-improves-survival-in-patients-with-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-and-pre-existing-diabetes-a-propensity-score-analysis
#16
S Amin, G Mhango, J Lin, A Aronson, J Wisnivesky, P Boffetta, Aimee L Lucas
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a highly lethal disease. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is both a risk factor for and a sequela of PDAC. Metformin is a commonly prescribed biguanide oral hypoglycemic used for the treatment of type II DM. We investigated whether metformin use before PDAC diagnosis affected survival of patients with DM, controlling confounders such as diabetic severity. METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (SEER)-Medicare linked database to identify patients with PDAC diagnosed between 2007 and 2011...
September 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430256/phase-ii-study-of-metformin-for-reduction-of-obesity-associated-breast-cancer-risk-a-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#17
Jessica A Martinez, Pavani Chalasani, Cynthia A Thomson, Denise Roe, Maria Altbach, Jean-Philippe Galons, Alison Stopeck, Patricia A Thompson, Diana Evelyn Villa-Guillen, H-H Sherry Chow
BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of U.S. adult women are overweight or obese. High body mass index (BMI) and adult weight gain are risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including postmenopausal breast cancer. The higher postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with elevated BMI is likely to be attributable to related metabolic disturbances including altered circulating sex steroid hormones and adipokines, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, and insulin resistance. Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug that has demonstrated favorable effects on metabolic disturbances and as such may lead to lower breast cancer risk in obese women...
July 19, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424258/metformin-use-and-kidney-cancer-outcomes-in-patients-with-diabetes-a-propensity-score-analysis
#18
Madhur Nayan, Antonio Finelli, Michael A S Jewett, David N Juurlink, Peter C Austin, Girish S Kulkarni, Robert J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Exposure to metformin, a medication used to treat diabetes, has been associated with improved survival outcomes in various malignancies. However, studies evaluating the association between metformin use and kidney cancer survival outcomes have demonstrated conflicting results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of diabetic patients undergoing nephrectomy for M0 renal cell carcinoma from 2000 to 2014 at a tertiary academic center...
June 23, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284267/lifestyle-changes-and-the-risk-of-developing-endometrial-and-ovarian-cancers-opportunities-for-prevention-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Anna L Beavis, Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith, Amanda Nickles Fader
Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231573/surgical-safety-and-personal-costs-in-morbidly-obese-multimorbid-patients-diagnosed-with-early-stage-endometrial-cancer-having-a-hysterectomy
#20
Andreas Obermair, Donal J Brennan, Eva Baxter, Jane E Armes, Val Gebski, Monika Janda
BACKGROUND: Many women who develop endometrial cancer (EC) or endometrial hyperplasia with atypia are obese and therefore at high risk of surgical complications. Recently clinical trials have been initiated offering non-surgical treatment to these women, but not all may agree to participate in such trials. This paper aims to describe the patient characteristics, and surgical outcomes of women with suspected early stage endometrial cancer and body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater, who declined enrolment in the feMMe trial, which offers non-surgical hormonal treatment, hormonal plus metformin or hormonal plus weight loss as primary treatment...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
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