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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792901/identification-and-functional-characterization-including-cytokine-production-modulation-of-the-novel-chicken-interleukin-11
#1
Anh Duc Truong, Yeojin Hong, Deivendran Rengaraj, Janggeun Lee, Kyungbaek Lee, Yeong Ho Hong
Interleukin (IL)-11 plays an important role in the immune system. However, IL-11 has not yet been characterized in avian species, including chickens. This study is the first to clone and functionally characterize chicken IL-11 (chIL-11). Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree comparisons of chIL-11 with IL-11 proteins from other species revealed high levels of conservation and a close relationship between chicken and Japanese quail IL-11. Our results demonstrate that chIL-11 was a functional ligand of IL-11RA and IL-6ST in chicken HD11 and OU2 cell lines, as well as activated and regulated JAK-STAT, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways in chicken cell lines...
May 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792854/bergmann-glial-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-activity-is-required-for-proper-cerebellar-cortical-expansion-and-architecture
#2
Frances Y Cheng, Jonathan T Fleming, Chin Chiang
Neuronal-glial relationships play a critical role in the maintenance of central nervous system architecture and neuronal specification. A deeper understanding of these relationships can elucidate cellular cross-talk capable of sustaining proper development of neural tissues. In the cerebellum, cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) proliferate in response to Purkinje neuron-derived Sonic hedgehog (Shh) before ultimately exiting the cell cycle and migrating radially along Bergmann glial fibers. However, the function of Bergmann glia in CGNP proliferation remains not well defined...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792038/downregulation-of-cancer-stemness-by-novel-diterpenoid-ovatodiolide-inhibits-hepatic-cancer-stem-cell-like-traits-by-repressing-wnt-formula-see-text-catenin-signaling
#3
Mingche Liu, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Wei-Hwa Lee, Yen-Kuang Lin, Alexander T H Wu, Hsiao M, Yew-Min Tzeng, Chi-Tai Yeh, Jo-Ting Tsai
The hierarchical tumor propagation or cancer stem cells (CSCs) model of carcinogenesis postulates that like physiologic adult stem cell (ASC), the CSCs positioned at the apex of any tumor population form the crux of tumor evolution with a constitutive regenerative capacity and differentiation potential. The propagation and recurrence of the characteristically heterogeneous and therapy-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), adds to accumulating evidence to support this CSCs model. Based on the multi-etiologic basis of HCC formation which among others, focuses on the disruption of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, this study evaluated the role of cembrane-type phytochemical, Ovatodiolide, in the modulation of the Wnt/[Formula: see text]-catenin pathway, and its subsequent effect on liver CSCs' activities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791846/myosin-iia-promotes-antibody-responses-by-regulating-b-cell-activation-acquisition-of-antigen-and-proliferation
#4
Robbert Hoogeboom, Elizabeth M Natkanski, Carla R Nowosad, Dessislava Malinova, Rajesh P Menon, Antonio Casal, Pavel Tolar
B cell responses are regulated by antigen acquisition, processing, and presentation to helper T cells. These functions are thought to depend on contractile activity of non-muscle myosin IIa. Here, we show that B cell-specific deletion of the myosin IIa heavy chain reduced the numbers of bone marrow B cell precursors and splenic marginal zone, peritoneal B1b, and germinal center B cells. In addition, myosin IIa-deficient follicular B cells acquired an activated phenotype and were less efficient in chemokinesis and extraction of membrane-presented antigens...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791845/equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-3-regulates-t-cell-homeostasis-by-coordinating-lysosomal-function-with-nucleoside-availability
#5
Chin-Wen Wei, Chia-Ying Lee, Ding-Jin Lee, Chang-Feng Chu, Ju-Chu Wang, Tien-Chiao Wang, Wann-Neng Jane, Zee-Fen Chang, Chuen-Miin Leu, Ivan L Dzhagalov, Chia-Lin Hsu
T cells are a versatile immune cell population responding to challenges by differentiation and proliferation followed by contraction and memory formation. Dynamic metabolic reprogramming is essential for T cells to meet the biosynthetic needs and the reutilization of biomolecules, processes that require active participation of metabolite transporters. Here, we show that equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3) is highly expressed in peripheral T cells and has a key role in maintaining T cell homeostasis by supporting the proliferation and survival of T cells...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791810/anal-fibropapillomas-containing-bovine-papillomavirus-type-2-dna-in-two-groups-of-heifers
#6
J S Munday, A A Cullum, N A Thomson, M Bestbier, T McCormack, A F Julian
CASE HISTORY: Anal warts were observed in heifers in two unrelated groups of animals. Heifers in one group developed visible warts 4 months after manual rectal examination and heifers in the other group developed warts 5 months after examination using a hand-held rectal ultrasound probe. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Large exophytic proliferative anal masses were observed in 5/15 (33%) heifers in one group and 13/149 (9%) heifers in the second group. Heifers in the second group were also noted to have similar masses on the underside of the tail at sites previously used for venepuncture and some of the heifers had skin warts...
May 23, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791021/immtac-anti-pd-1-combination-to-enhance-killing-of-cancer-cells-by-reversing-treg-mediated-immunosuppression
#7
Huanling Zhang, Yanyan Li, Xiaoping Liu, Zhaoduan Liang, Mengyong Yan, Qiang Liu, Anan Chen, Yifeng Bao, Chengzhi Zhou, Shiyue Li, Cassian Yee, Yi Li
Recently, bi-functional molecules that can redirect immune effectors to tumor cells have emerged as potentially robust mediators of tumor regression in clinical trials. Two modalities, in particular, bi-specific antibodies for T cell redirection and activation (BiTe) and immune-mobilizing monoclonal T-cell receptors against cancer (ImmTAC) are being evaluated in efficacy studies as 'off-the-shelf' reagents. Optimal therapy will require an understanding and means to address regulatory mechanisms of limiting efficacy...
May 23, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790605/cd57-identifies-t-cells-with-functional-senescence-before-terminal-differentiation-and-relative-telomere-shortening-in-patients-with-activated-pi3-kinase-delta-syndrome
#8
Paola Cura Daball, Monica Sofia Ventura Ferreira, Sandra Ammann, Christian Klemann, Myriam Ricarda Lorenz, Ursula Warthorst, T Ronan Leahy, Niall Conlon, Justin Roche, Pere Soler-Palacín, Marina Garcia-Prat, Ilka Fuchs, Sebastian Fuchs, Fabian Beier, Tim H Brümmendorf, Carsten Speckmann, Peter Olbrich, Olaf Neth, Klaus Schwarz, Stephan Ehl, Anne Rensing-Ehl
Premature T cell immunosenescence with CD57+ CD8+ T cell accumulation has been linked to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in primary immunodeficiencies including activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS). To address whether CD57 marks the typical senescent T cell population seen in adult individuals or identifies a distinct population in APDS, we compared CD57+ CD8+ T cells from mostly pediatric APDS patients to those of healthy adults with similarly prominent senescent T cells. CD57+ CD8+ T cells from APDS patients were less differentiated with more CD27+ CD28+ effector memory cells showing increased PD1 and Eomesodermin expression...
May 23, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789652/small-hypoxia-primed-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-graft-versus-host-disease
#9
YongHwan Kim, Hye Jin Jin, Jinbeom Heo, Hyein Ju, Hye-Yeon Lee, Sujin Kim, Seungun Lee, Jisun Lim, Sang Young Jeong, JiHye Kwon, Miyeon Kim, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Yoon Sun Yang, Hyun Ho Hwang, Hwan Yeul Yu, Chae-Min Ryu, Hong Bae Jeon, Dong-Myung Shin
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of particular interest for the treatment of immune-related diseases due to their immunosuppressive capacity. Here, we show that Small MSCs primed with Hypoxia and Calcium ions (SHC-MSCs) exhibit enhanced stemness and immunomodulatory functions for treating allogeneic conflicts. Compared with naïve cultured human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs, SHC-MSCs were resistant to passage-dependent senescence mediated via the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and p53/p21 cascade and secreted large amounts of pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory factors, resulting in suppression of T-cell proliferation...
May 22, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789603/vorinostat-and-quinacrine-have-synergistic-effects-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-through-reactive-oxygen-species-increase-and-mitophagy-inhibition
#10
Bo Jing, Jin Jin, Rufang Xiang, Meng Liu, Li Yang, Yin Tong, Xinhua Xiao, Hu Lei, Wei Liu, Hanzhang Xu, Jiong Deng, Li Zhou, Yingli Wu
Despite recent progress in the treatment, the outcome of adult acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is poor. Development of novel approach to combat this disease is urgently required. Vorinostat, a pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, exerts promising anticancer activity in a variety of solid and hematologic malignancies. However, the efficacy of vorinostat monotherapy is unsatisfactory. Here, we show that quinacrine (QC), an anti-malaria drug with potent autophagy inhibitory activity, could synergistically enhance vorinostat-induced cell death at a non-toxic concentration...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788970/an-autopsy-case-of-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-occurring-in-a-postpartum-woman-a-unique-case-suggesting-changes-in-the-immunocharacteristics-of-lymphoma-cells-before-and-after-delivery
#11
Kenichi Mizutani, Sohsuke Yamada, Xin Guo, Chizuru Futatsuya, Motona Kumagai, Akihiro Shioya, Akane Aikawa, Satoko Nakada, Nozomu Kurose, Hiroshi Minato, Takayuki Nojima
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of malignant lymphoma after delivery is an extremely rare event. Although several cases of Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell lymphoma and a few cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) after delivery have been reported, there are no report of autopsy cases of PTCL in the puerperal period. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Japanese woman with a past medical history of atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma presented with generalized eruptions four days after the delivery of her first child; generalized skin induration and lymphadenopathy subsequently emerged...
May 22, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788434/a-novel-mouse-model-of-testicular-granulosa-cell-tumors
#12
Xin Fang, Nan Ni, Yang Gao, David F Vincent, Laurent Bartholin, Qinglei Li
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of dysregulated transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling in the development of sex cord-stromal tumors in the testis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overactivation of TGFB signaling results in the development of testicular tumors resembling granulosa cell tumors (GrCTs). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In an earlier study, we demonstrated that constitutively active TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in ovarian somatic cells promotes the development of ovarian GrCTs...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786170/immunopeptidomic-profiling-of-hla-a2-positive-triple-negative-breast-cancer-identifies-potential-immunotherapy-target-antigens
#13
Nicola Ternette, Marloes J M Olde Nordkamp, Julius Muller, Amanda P Anderson, Annalisa Nicastri, Adrian V S Hill, Benedikt M Kessler, Demin Li
The recent development in immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells in the treatment of cancer has not only demonstrated the potency of utilising T-cell reactivity for cancer therapy, but has also highlighted the need for developing new approaches to discover targets suitable for such novel therapeutics. Here we analysed the immunopeptidomes of 6 HLA-A2-positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) samples by nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nUPLC-MS2 )...
May 22, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786142/the-bone-marrow-is-not-only-a-primary-lymphoid-organ-the-critical-role-for-t-lymphocyte-migration-and-housing-of-long-term-memory-plasma-cells
#14
REVIEW
Reinhard Pabst
In immunology and anatomy textbooks the bone marrow is described as a typical "primary lymphoid organ" producing lymphoid cells independent of antigens. The hematopoietic bone marrow is largely age-dependent organ with great anatomical and functional differences among various species. There are estimates that about 12 % of all lymphoid cells in the human body are found in the bone marrow at any given time (2 % in the peripheral blood). Enormous numbers of T lymphocytes migrate to the bone marrow and partly return later to the blood...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786112/ctla%C3%A2-4-interferes-with-the-hbv%C3%A2-specific-t-cell-immune-response-review
#15
Hui Cao, Ruiwen Zhang, Wei Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute hepatitis B, chronic HBV infection is associated with the depletion of T cells, resulting in weak or absent virus‑specific T cells reactivity, which is described as 'exhaustion'. This exhaustion is characterized by impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple coinhibitory molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte‑associated antigen‑4 (CTLA‑4) is one of many coinhibitory molecules that can attenuate T cell activation by inhibiting costimulation and transmitting inhibitory signals to T cells...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784906/the-anti-cancer-activity-of-an-andrographolide-analogue-functions-through-a-gsk-3%C3%AE-independent-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#16
Somrudee Reabroi, Rungnapha Saeeng, Nittaya Boonmuen, Teerapich Kasemsuk, Witchuda Saengsawang, Kanoknetr Suksen, Weiming Zhu, Pawinee Piyachaturawat, Arthit Chairoungdua
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in the progression of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and is one of the leading targets of chemotherapy agents developed for CRC. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effects and molecular mechanisms of 19-O-triphenylmethyl andrographolide (RS-PP-050), an andrographolide analogue and determine its activity in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. RS-PP-050 was found to potently inhibit the proliferation and survival of HT-29 CRC cells. It induces cell cycle arrest and promotes apoptotic cell death which was associated with the activation of PARP-1 and p53...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784636/adaptive-nk-cells-resist-regulatory-t-cell-suppression-driven-by-il-37
#17
Dhifaf Sarhan, Keli L Hippen, Amanda Lemire, Skyler Hying, Xianghua Luo, Todd Lenvik, Julie Curtsinger, Zachary Davis, Bin Zhang, Sarah Cooley, Frank Cichocki, Bruce R Blazar, Jeffrey S Miller
Natural Killer (NK) cells are capable of fighting viral infections and cancer. However, these responses are inhibited by immune suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor progression promotes the recruitment and generation of intratumoral regulatory T cells (Tregs), associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here, we show that canonical NK cells are highly susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression, in contrast to highly resistant CD57+ FcεRγ-NKG2C+ adaptive (CD56+CD3-) NK cells that expand in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-exposed individuals...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782857/quaternary-ammonium-salt-of-u50-488h-elicits-protective-effects-against-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
Yaguang Zhou, Xin Tian, Xueying Wang, Yuanbo Wang, Rong Fan, Yuemin Wang, Na Feng, Shumiao Zhang, Haitao Guo, Xiaoming Gu, Min Jia, Wen Yin, Zuoxu Hou, Juan Li, Jianming Pei
The present study aimed to investigate the role of quaternary ammonium salt of U50,488H (Q-U50,488H) in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and underlying mechanisms involved. A HPH animal model was established in rats under hypoxia and the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and right ventricular pressure (RVP) were measured. Relaxation of the pulmonary artery in response to Q-U50,488H was determined. In addition, expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO content, Akt expression, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and gp91phox were evaluated...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781812/pim-2-protein-kinase-negatively-regulates-t-cell-responses-in-transplantation-and-tumor-immunity
#19
Anusara Daenthanasanmak, Yongxia Wu, Supinya Iamsawat, Hung D Nguyen, David Bastian, MengMeng Zhang, M Hanief Sofi, Shilpak Chatterjee, Elizabeth G Hill, Shikhar Mehrotra, Andrew S Kraft, Xue-Zhong Yu
PIM kinase family members play a crucial role in promoting cell survival and proliferation via phosphorylation of their target substrates. In this study, we investigated the role of the PIM kinases with respect to T cell responses in transplantation and tumor immunity. We found that the PIM-2 isoform negatively regulated T cell responses to alloantigen, in contrast to the PIM-1 and PIM-3 isoforms, which acted as positive regulators. T cells deficient in PIM-2 demonstrated increased T cell differentiation toward Th1 subset, proliferation, and migration to target organs after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, resulting in dramatically accelerated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) severity...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781221/aberrant-expansion-and-function-of-t-follicular-helper-cell-subsets-in-igg4-related-disease
#20
Yu Chen, Wei Lin, Hongxian Yang, Mu Wang, Panpan Zhang, Ruie Feng, Hua Chen, Linyi Peng, Xuan Zhang, Yan Zhao, Xiaofeng Zeng, Fengchun Zhang, Wen Zhang, Peter E Lipsky
OBJECTIVE: To determine the number and function of Tfh cell subsets in IgG4-RD. METHODS: Mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and involved tissues of IgG4-RD patients were collected. Tfh cell subsets, mRNA levels of Bcl-6, Blimp-1 and IL-21 were tested. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques were used to assess the location of IL-21, Bcl-6, and (CD4+CXCR5+) Tfh cells in the involved tissues. Furthermore, by in vitro cell co-culture, the abilities of cTfh cell subsets to induce B cells proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and production of IgG4 were explored...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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