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Sweat gland

Gabriella Béke, Zsolt Dajnoki, Anikó Kapitány, Krisztián Gáspár, Barbara Medgyesi, Szilárd Póliska, Zoltán Hendrik, Zoltán Péter, Dániel Törőcsik, Tamás Bíró, Andrea Szegedi
The immunological barrier of the healthy skin is considered to be unified on the whole body surface-however, recent indirect findings have challenged this dogma since microbial and chemical milieu (e.g., sebum, sweat, and pH) exhibit remarkable differences on topographically distinct skin areas. Therefore, in the present study, we performed whole transcriptomic and subsequent pathway analyses to assess differences between sebaceous gland rich (SGR) and sebaceous gland poor (SGP) regions. Here, we provide the first evidence that different skin regions exhibit a characteristic innate and adaptive immune and barrier milieu as we could detect significantly increased chemokine (CCL2, 3, 19, 20, 23, 24) and antimicrobial peptide (S100A7, A8, A9, lipocalin, β-defensin-2) expression, altered barrier (keratin 17, 79) functions, and a non-inflammatory Th17/IL-17 dominance in SGR skin compared to SGP...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrew Best, Jason M Kamilar
Sweating is an unusual thermoregulatory strategy for most mammals, yet is critical for humans. This trait is commonly hypothesized to result from human ancestors moving from a forest to a warmer and drier open environment. As soft tissue traits do not typically fossilize, this idea has been difficult to test. Therefore, we used a comparative approach to examine 15 eccrine gland traits from 35 primate species. For each trait we measured phylogenetic signal, tested three evolutionary models to explain trait variation, and used phylogenetic models to examine how traits varied in response to climate variables...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Jie Gao, Yuan Gao, Jingjing Ma
Cefuroxime is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent administered in cases of perioperative prophylaxis. Kounis syndrome is defined as the concurrence of anaphylactic events with acute coronary syndromes. Limited data is available for cefuroxime-associated Kounis syndrome in perioperative prophylaxis. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman undergoing bilateral sweat gland resection who presented with Kounis syndrome following cefuroxime infusion for perioperative prophylaxis. The patient had severe symptoms and unique manifestations that never been reported before: pink frothy sputum indicating heart failure, due to severe systolic dysfunction requiring invasive ventilation and intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Shira Ronen, Irene Aguilera-Barrantes, Tamara Giorgadze, Petr Šteiner, Petr Grossmann, Saul Suster
Polymorphous sweat gland carcinoma is an uncommon low-grade malignant adnexal tumor with a marked predilection for the distal extremities. Histologically, the lesions are characterized by a cellular proliferation showing a combination of growth patterns, including trabecular, solid, tubular, cribriform, or adenoid cystic and pseudopapillary. The immunohistochemical and molecular profile of these tumors has not yet been properly addressed. We have studied 3 cases of polymorphous sweat gland carcinoma using a broad panel of immunohistochemical markers including cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK5/6, MOC31, p40, p63, p16, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, MIB-1, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, BER-EP4, smooth muscle actin, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, CD117, S100 protein, HBME-1, DOG1, vimentin, and mammaglobin...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Fang Yu, Gerald B Kasting
A three-dimensional diffusion model with either hexagonal or cylindrical symmetry has been constructed to simulate desorption profiles of hydrophilic chemicals from the topmost layer of human skin (the stratum corneum) as measured in ex vivo studies. The tissue is pierced by skin appendages - sweat glands and hair follicles - which in this particular scenario are considered to be perfect sinks. Desorption profiles of nine test permeants covering a wide range of lipophilicity were analyzed. By optimizing transverse and lateral diffusion coefficients to match these profiles, it was found that the lateral diffusivity values exceeded the transverse values by average factors ranging from 45 (hexagon model) to 71 (cylinder model)...
March 8, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Machiko Watanabe, Chisato Yamada, Yoshinori Komagata, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Hosono, Fumio Itagaki
Background: Patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) typically present clinically with xerostomia (dry mouth) because of progressive damage to the exocrine glands. We developed a new, low-dose pilocarpine/sodium alginate (LPA) solution with pilocarpine hydrochloride to inhibit systemic adverse effects by administering via the oral mucosa. The purpose of this study was to assess its stability, safety, and efficacy. Methods: The pilocarpine concentration in an LPA liquid formulation was measured 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after preparation to assess its stability...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
Nicola Gerrett, Tatsuro Amano, Yoshimitsu Inoue, George Havenith, Narihiko Kondo
The sweat glands maximum ion reabsorption rates were investigated (n = 12, 21.7 ± 3.0 years, 59.4 ± 9.8 kg, 166.9 ± 10.4 cm and 47.1 ± 7.5 mL/kg/min) during two separate endogenous protocols; cycling at 30% (LEX) and 60% VO2max (MEX) and one exogenous trial; passive heating (PH) (43°C water lower leg immersion) in 27°C, 50%RH. Oesophageal temperature (Tes ), skin temperature (Tsk ), and forearm, chest and lower back sweat rate (SR) and galvanic skin conductance (GSC) were measured. Salivary aldosterone was measured pre-and postheating (n = 3)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
S Hamzaoui, C A Burger, J L Collier, R J Collier
Apocrine sweat glands in bovine skin are involved in thermoregulation. Human, horse, and sheep sweat gland epithelial cells have been isolated and grown in vitro. The present study was conducted to identify a method to isolate bovine sweat glands and culture apocrine bovine sweat gland epithelial cells in vitro. Mechanical shearing, collagenase digestion, centrifugation, and neutral red staining were used to identify and isolate the apocrine glands from skin. Bovine sweat glands in situ and after isolation comprised 2 major cell types consisting of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a layer of myoepithelial cells...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Brendan Kane, Evan Adler, Tarun Bhandari, Michael Rose, Nicola DiGuglielmo, Xiu Sun
Malignant hidradenocarcinomas are rare soft tissue tumors of sweat gland origin. We present the case of a soft tissue, fungating tumor of 15 years' duration of the medial ankle in an 85-year-old male that exhibited malignant features clinically and radiographically. Subsequent punch biopsy revealed a diagnosis of malignant hidradenocarcinoma. Given the risk of recurrence and the poor radiation and chemotherapy options, the patient initially decided to leave the lesion untreated. However, he soon developed lower extremity cellulitis from the exposed lesion and decided to have the tumor excised, eliminating the source of the infection...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Jin Ho Han, June-Kyu Kim, Kun Chul Yoon, Hyun Woo Shin
BACKGROUND: Osmidrosis is a malodorous disease caused by the breakdown of sweat secreted from the apocrine glands by surface bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Versajet-assisted hydraulic epilation for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with axillary osmidrosis (64 axillae) underwent Versajet-assisted hydraulic epilation between January 2016 and January 2017. Subjective assessments were evaluated by a patient survey at least 3 months after the procedure...
February 20, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Alexander J Brent, Sundeep S Deol, Ram Vaidhyanath, Gerald Saldanha, Raghavan Sampath
Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a very rare and locally aggressive sweat gland tumour. MAC has been well reported presenting as a periocular cutaneous lesion, rarely with subsequent direct orbital invasion and only once as a primary orbital lesion. Local recurrence is frequent after primary surgical excision and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy is ill-defined. We describe a case of orbital MAC treated successfully with radiotherapy after incomplete margin clearance post exenteration surgery and review the associated literature...
February 20, 2018: Orbit
James K Chambers, Atigan Thongtharb, Takanori Shiga, Daigo Azakami, Miyoko Saito, Masumi Sato, Motoji Morozumi, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
Canine Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing nonfatal structural epilepsy, mainly affecting miniature wirehaired dachshunds. Repeat expansion in the EPM2B gene causes a functional impairment of the ubiquitin ligase malin which regulates glycogen metabolism. Abnormally structured glycogen accumulates and develop polyglucosan bodies predominantly in the central nervous system. The authors performed a comprehensive clinical, genetic, and pathological study of 4 LD cases affecting miniature wirehaired dachshund dogs with EPM2B repeat expansions, with systemic distribution of polyglucosan bodies and accumulation of laforin and other functionally associated proteins in the polyglucosan bodies...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Keiko Miura, Takumi Akashi, Noboru Ando, Shinya Ayabe, Kou Kayamori, Takeshi Namiki, Yoshinobu Eishi
AIM: A number of homeobox transcriptional factors are utilized as organ-specific markers in the histopathological diagnosis of neoplasms. We have screened a homeobox gene that is specifically expressed in normal sweat gland cells and is useful for the histopathological diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms. METHODS AND RESULTS: By screening an open database resource of The Human Protein Atlas, 37 genes among the 235 homeobox transcriptional factors were found to be specifically expressed in the skin...
February 12, 2018: Histopathology
E Poblet, F Jimenez-Acosta, E Escario-Travesedo, J A Hardman, I Hernández-Hernández, J L Agudo-Mena, J J Cabrera-Galvan, C Nicu, R Paus
BACKGROUND: Eccrine sweat glands (ESGs) are critical for thermoregulation and involved in wound healing. ESGs have traditionally been considered as separate skin appendages without connection to the pilosebaceous unit (PSU). However, recent preliminary evidence has encouraged the hypothesis that PSU and ESG are more interconnected than previously thought. OBJECTIVE: To reevaluate the morphology of human skin adnexa with an integrated 3D perspective in order to explore the possible interconnections that the PSU and the ESG may form...
February 12, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Osamah S Malallah, Cristina M Aller Garcia, Gordon B Proctor, Ben Forbes, Paul G Royall
Radiotherapy is a life-saving treatment for head and neck cancers, but almost 100% of patients develop dry mouth (xerostomia) because of radiation-induced damage to their salivary glands. Patients with xerostomia suffer symptoms that severely affect their health as well as physical, social and emotional aspects of their life. The current management of xerostomia is the application of saliva substitutes or systemic delivery of saliva-stimulating cholinergic agents, including pilocarpine, cevimeline or bethanechol tablets...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sung Bong Kim, Yi Zhang, Sang Min Won, Amay J Bandodkar, Yurina Sekine, Yeguang Xue, Jahyun Koo, Sean W Harshman, Jennifer A Martin, Jeong Min Park, Tyler R Ray, Kaitlyn E Crawford, Kyu-Tae Lee, Jungil Choi, Rhonda L Pitsch, Claude C Grigsby, Adam J Strang, Yu-Yu Chen, Shuai Xu, Jeonghyun Kim, Ahyeon Koh, Jeong Sook Ha, Yonggang Huang, Seung Wook Kim, John A Rogers
This paper introduces super absorbent polymer valves and colorimetric sensing reagents as enabling components of soft, skin-mounted microfluidic devices designed to capture, store, and chemically analyze sweat released from eccrine glands. The valving technology enables robust means for guiding the flow of sweat from an inlet location into a collection of isolated reservoirs, in a well-defined sequence. Analysis in these reservoirs involves a color responsive indicator of chloride concentration with a formulation tailored to offer stable operation with sensitivity optimized for the relevant physiological range...
February 2, 2018: Small
F Jimenez, M Alam, I Hernandez, E Poblet, J A Hardman, R Paus
We describe a simple and efficient method to isolate eccrine sweat glands from the human scalp. This method is inspired by the hair graft harvesting method used in hair transplantation. Based on the recently described anatomical relationship between the scalp hair follicle and the eccrine gland, we have found that scalp follicular unit grafts are an excellent eccrine gland isolation source, especially for the coiled component. In order to make the gland visible for stereoscopic microdissection, the follicular units need to be previously stained with a vital dye like Methylene Blue or Neutral Red...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Bjørn H Kristiansen, Kim H Lindahl, Kristine A U Pallesen, Anette Bygum
A 14-year-old girl and a 30-year-old woman presented with localised hyperhidrosis on the dorsal hand and wrist, respectively, provoked by different stimuli such as physical activity and minor trauma to the skin. The skin was seemingly normal in both patients where an iodine-starch test revealed a well-demarcated area of hyperhidrosis. Following histopathological examination, the diagnosis was unilateral localised hyperhidrosis in both cases; one with normal histology and one with a nevus sudoriferous. Both patients were successfully treated with botulinum toxin type A...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Mehdi Gheisari, Behnaz Hamedani, RezaM Robati, Nikoo Mozafari
BACKGROUND: Multiple eccrine hidrocystomas (MEH) are benign cystic lesions of the sweat gland ducts. They are characterized by translucent, skin-colored or bluish dome-shaped papules on the face, causing cosmetic concern. Recently, botulinum toxin-A, because of its antiperspirant properties, has been used to treat facial MEH. However, there are only some case reports in the literature. OBJECTIVE: Here, we conducted a prospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of intralesional injection of botulinum toxin-A (Dysport) for the treatment of MEH...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Hai-Jian Yuan, Wei Li, Jian-Ming Jin, Jing-Jing Chen, Jun Jiang, Hui Wang, Xiao-Bin Jia, Liang Feng
Guizhi Decoction was one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese Medicine which possesses the effects of "jie-ji-fa-biao, regulating Ying and Wei". It was mainly used to treat mind-cold due to exogenous evils such as fever, headache, sweating, hate the wind, et al. Modern studies indicated that the chemical constituents of Guizhi decoction mainly include phenylpropanoid, monoterpenes, organic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and so on. Pharmacological experimental studies had shown that Guizhi decoction could play a big role in dual-directional regulation on sweat gland, body temperature, immune function, gastrointestinal peristalsis, and blood pressure, and could also play the role of anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-allergic, analgesic, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular protection...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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