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Metabotropic glutamate receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523300/prenatal-glucocorticoid-administration-persistently-increased-the-immunohistochemical-expression-of-type-1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-and-purkinje-cell-dendritic-growth-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-of-the-rat
#1
Rodrigo Pascual, Odra Santander, Isabel Cuevas, Martina Valencia
Several studies have indicated that abnormal prenatal changes in the circulating glucocorticoids (GCs), induced by either maternal stress or exogenous GC administration, significantly alter the development of Purkinje cells (PCs). Among the suggested mechanisms that could mediate this GC-dependent PC susceptibility are changes in the expression of type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1). In the current study, we analyzed whether a single course of prenatally administered betamethasone phosphate (BET) in pregnant rats increased the immunohistochemical expression of mGluR1 in PCs and decreased PC dendritic growth...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520841/chronic-inflammatory-pain-impairs-mglur5-mediated-depolarization-induced-suppression-of-excitation-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#2
Baolin Guo, Jiaqi Wang, Han Yao, Keke Ren, Jing Chen, Jing Yang, Guohong Cai, Haiying Liu, Yunlong Fan, Wenting Wang, Shengxi Wu
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a critical hub for nociceptive perception and pain-related anxiety. Long-term synaptic plasticity in ACC was found to be important for chronic inflammatory pain and pain-related anxiety. As short-term synaptic plasticity, depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) is involved in several conditions, such as chronic stress, epilepsy, and autism. However, it is still unknown whether DSE in the ACC is involved in the central sensitization of pain and anxiety. Using a whole-cell patch clamp, calcium imaging, western blot, and behavioral testing, we found that DSE was induced by a 2 s depolarization in postsynaptic pyramidal cells in ACC...
May 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518055/a-positive-feedback-loop-linking-enhanced-mglur-function-and-basal-calcium-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#3
Pratap Meera, Stefan Pulst, Thomas Otis
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) function in Purkinje neurons (PNs) is essential for cerebellar development and for motor learning and altered mGluR1 signaling causes ataxia. Downstream of mGluR1, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis has been hypothesized as a key pathological event in genetic forms of ataxia but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We find in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) mouse model that calcium homeostasis in PNs is disturbed across a broad range of physiological conditions...
May 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515678/soluble-ectodomain-of-neuroligin-1-decreases-synaptic-activity-by-activating-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-2
#4
Michelle D Gjørlund, Eva M M Carlsen, Andreas B Kønig, Oksana Dmytrieva, Anders V Petersen, Jacob Jacobsen, Vladimir Berezin, Jean-François Perrier, Sylwia Owczarek
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Postsynaptic neuroligins (NLs) form trans-synaptic complexes with presynaptic neurexins (NXs). Both NXs and NLs are cleaved from the cell surface by metalloproteases in an activity-dependent manner, releasing a soluble extracellular fragment and membrane-tethered C-terminal fragment. The cleavage of NL1 depresses synaptic transmission, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) are located primarily at the periphery of presynaptic terminals, where they inhibit the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and consequently suppress the release of glutamate and decrease synaptic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512860/intrinsic-cellular-and-molecular-properties-of-in-vivo-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-are-altered-in-the-absence-of-key-synaptic-matrix-molecules
#5
Stephan Jansen, Christine Gottschling, Andreas Faissner, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Hippocampal synaptic plasticity comprises a key cellular mechanism for information storage. In the hippocampus, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are triggered by synaptic Ca(2+) -elevations that are typically mediated by the opening of voltage-gated cation channels, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), in the postsynaptic density. The integrity of the post-synaptic density is ensured by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we explored whether synaptic plasticity is affected in adult behaving mice that lack the ECM proteins brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C and tenascin-R (TG)...
May 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508312/trpc-channels-and-programmed-cell-death
#6
Jian Zhou, Yichang Jia
Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), bind to their high-affinity receptors to promote neuronal survival during brain development. One of the key downstream pathways is the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway, which not only plays a central role in calcium release from internal store but also in activation of TRPC channels coupled with neurotrophin receptors. TRPC channels are required for the neurotrophin-mediated neuronal protective effects. In addition, activation of TRPC channels is able to protect neurons in the absence of neurotrophin...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503134/aquaporin-4-mediated-glutamate-induced-astrocyte-swelling-is-partially-mediated-through-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-activation
#7
Zhongfang Shi, Wei Zhang, Yang Lu, Yi Lu, Lixin Xu, Qing Fang, Min Wu, Mei Jia, Yujiao Wang, Liping Dong, Xu Yan, Shaohua Yang, Fang Yuan
Astrocytes are one of the most abundant cell types in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), and astrocyte swelling is the primary event associated with brain edema. Glutamate, the principal excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the CNS, is released at high levels after brain injury including cerebral ischemia. This leads to astrocyte swelling, which we previously demonstrated is related to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the predominant water channel in the brain, is expressed in astrocyte endfeet and plays an important role in brain edema following ischemia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500623/simultaneous-inhibition-of-nmda-and-mglu1-5-receptors-by-levo-corydalmine-in-rat-spinal-cord-attenuates-bone-cancer-pain
#8
Wen-Ling Dai, Bing Yan, Nan Jiang, Juan-Juan Wu, Xiu-Feng Liu, Ji-Hua Liu, Bo-Yang Yu
Bone cancer pain is a challenge for its not completely clarified mechanism and broad clinical morbidity. Therefore, novel and more effective drugs are urgent needed for improvement of patients' quality of life. Glutamate receptors have been associated with the development of the central sensitization of chronic pain. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors can effectively attenuate bone cancer pain respectively. Herein, our results indicated that levo-Corydalmine (l-CDL), a compound from Corydalis yanhusuo W...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500286/a-kinase-anchoring-protein-79-150-scaffolds-transient-receptor-potential-a-1-phosphorylation-and-sensitization-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-activation
#9
Allison Doyle Brackley, Ruben Gomez, Kristi A Guerrero, Armen N Akopian, Marc J Glucksman, Junhui Du, Susan M Carlton, Nathaniel A Jeske
Mechanical pain serves as a base clinical symptom for many of the world's most debilitating syndromes. Ion channels expressed by peripheral sensory neurons largely contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity. Transient Receptor Potential A 1 (TRPA1) is a ligand-gated ion channel that contributes to inflammatory mechanical hypersensitivity, yet little is known as to the post-translational mechanism behind its somatosensitization. Here, we utilize biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral measures to demonstrate that metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced sensitization of TRPA1 nociceptors stimulates targeted modification of the receptor...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495373/amyloid-beta-neurotoxicity-and-clearance-are-both-regulated-by-glial-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#10
Daniela Durand, Lila Carniglia, Juan Turati, Delia Ramírez, Julieta Saba, Carla Caruso, Mercedes Lasaga
Astrocytes are now fully endorsed as key players in CNS functionality and plasticity. We recently showed that metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3R) activation by LY379268 promotes non-amyloidogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cultured astrocytes, leading to increased release of neuroprotective sAPPα. Furthermore, mGlu3R expression is reduced in hippocampal astrocytes from PDAPP-J20 mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in Alzheimer's disease. The present study enquires into the role of astroglial-derived neurotrophins induced by mGlu3R activation in neurotoxicity triggered by amyloid β (Aβ)...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494749/alcohol-addiction-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-and-its-ligands-how-they-all-come-together
#11
Jaya Kumar, Zalina Ismail, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Najwa Baharuddin, Hermizi Hapidin, Yvonne-Tee Get Bee, Ernie Yap, Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamed
In the past decade, many studies have highlighted the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) modulators in attenuating alcohol-related biological effects such as alcohol consumption, alcohol-seeking and relapse-like behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that pharmacological agents acting at mGlu5 could be promising tools in curbing inebriation. mGlu5s are present abundantly in brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, motivation and drug administration. On a cellular level, they are primarily located at the postsynaptic part of the neuron where the receptor is functionally linked to various downstream proteins that are involved in cell signaling and gene transcription that mediate the alcohol-induced neuroplasticity...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490646/a-missense-mutation-in-grm6-reduces-but-does-not-eliminate-mglur6-expression-or-rod-depolarizing-bipolar-cell-function
#12
Neal S Peachey, Nazarul Hasan, Bernard FitzMaurice, Samantha Burrill, Gobinda Pangeni, Son Yong Karst, Laura Reinholdt, Melissa L Berry, Marge Strobel, Ronald George Gregg, Maureen A McCall, Bo Chang
GRM6 encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) used by retinal depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs). Mutations in GRM6 lead to DBC dysfunction, and underlie the human condition autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness. Mouse mutants for Grm6 are important models for this condition. Here we report a new Grm6 mutant, identified in an electroretinogram (ERG) screen of mice maintained at The Jackson Laboratory. The Grm6(nob8) mouse has a reduced amplitude b-wave component of the ERG, which reflects light-evoked DBC activity...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487223/obesogenic-diet-intake-during-pregnancy-programs-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-and-addiction-like-behavior-to-a-palatable-food-in-offspring
#13
Alberto Camacho, Larisa Montalvo-Martinez, Robbi E Cardenas-Perez, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Lourdes Garza-Ocañas
Contextual food conditioned behaviors require plasticity of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the reward system, involving changes in the expression of including a-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate 2,3 (mGlur 2,3). However, the role of changes in glutamatergic synaptic markers on energy-dense palatable food preference during development has not been described. Here, we determine the effect of nutritional programing during gestation on fat food choices using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test and an operant training response and its effect on glutamatergic markers in the nucleus accumbens (Nac) shell and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487067/selective-and-interactive-effects-of-d2-receptor-antagonism-and-positive-allosteric-mglur4-modulation-on-waiting-impulsivity
#14
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Janet R Nicholson, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
BACKGROUND: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) and dopamine D2 receptors are specifically expressed within the indirect pathway neurons of the striato-pallidal-subthalamic pathway. This unique expression profile suggests that mGluR4 and D2 receptors may play a cooperative role in the regulation and inhibitory control of behaviour. We investigated this possibility by testing the effects of a functionally-characterised positive allosteric mGluR4 modulator, 4-((E)-styryl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamine (Cpd11), both alone and in combination with the D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, on two distinct forms of impulsivity...
May 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476947/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-persistently-alters-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-endocannabinoid-mediated-excitatory-synaptic-plasticity-in-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons
#15
Kathryn Hausknecht, Ying-Ling Shen, Rui-Xiang Wang, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Roh-Yu Shen
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) leads to increased addiction risk which could be mediated by enhanced excitatory synaptic strength in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Previous studies have shown that PE enhances excitatory synaptic strength by facilitating an anti-Hebbian form of long-term potentiation (LTP). In this study, we investigated the effect of PE on endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in VTA DA neurons. Rats were exposed to moderate (3 g/kg/day) or high (6 g/kg/day) level of ethanol during gestation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475355/review-of-salient-investigational-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
Kaizad Munshi, Katherine Pawlowski, Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich, Jonathan D Picker
OBJECTIVES: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability, in addition to being the commonest diagnosable cause of autism. The identification of the biochemical mechanism underlying this disorder has provided amenable targets for therapy. This review aims to provide an overview of investigational drug therapies for FXS. METHODS: The authors carried out a search of clinical and preclinical trials for FXS in PubMed and on the U...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469203/involvement-of-the-mek-erk-p38-creb-c-fos-signaling-pathway-in-kir-channel-inhibition-induced-rat-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-gliosis
#17
Feng Gao, Fang Li, Yanying Miao, Lin-Jie Xu, Yuan Zhao, Qian Li, Sheng-Hai Zhang, Jihong Wu, Xing-Huai Sun, Zhongfeng Wang
Our previous studies have demonstrated that activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors downregulated Kir channels in chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rats, thus contributing to Müller cell gliosis, characterized by upregulated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In the present study, we explored possible signaling pathways linking Kir channel inhibition and GFAP upregulation. In normal retinas, intravitreal injection of BaCl2 significantly increased GFAP expression in Müller cells, which was eliminated by co-injecting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor U0126...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461116/anti-neuronal-anti-bodies-in-patients-with-early-psychosis
#18
O Mantere, M Saarela, T Kieseppä, T Raij, T Mäntylä, M Lindgren, E Rikandi, W Stoecker, B Teegen, J Suvisaari
It may be challenging to distinguish autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-neuronal autoantibodies from primary psychiatric disorders. Here, serum was drawn from patients with a first-episode psychosis (n=70) or a clinical high-risk for psychosis (n=6) and controls (n=34). We investigated the serum prevalence of 24 anti-neuronal autoantibodies: IgG antibodies for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (anti-NMDAR), glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid alpha and beta receptors (GABA-a, GABA-b), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA), glycine receptor (GlyR), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 and 5 (mGluR1, mGluR5), anti-Tr/Delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor (DNER), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65), collapsin response mediator protein 5/crossveinless-2 (CV2), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), anti-dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX), type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, Hu), Ri, Yo, IgLON5, Ma2, zinc finger protein 4 (ZIC4), Rho GTPase-activating protein 26, amphiphysin, and recoverin, as well as IgA and IgM for dopamine-2-receptor (DRD2)...
April 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456688/native-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-4-depresses-synaptic-transmission-through-an-unusual-g%C3%AE-q-transduction-pathway
#19
Solenne Chardonnet, Thomas Bessiron, Cathy Isaura Ramos, Raoudha Dammak, Marie-Ange Richard, Céline Boursier, Christelle Cadilhac, Frédéric M Coquelle, Simon Bossi, Fabrice Ango, Pierre Le Maréchal, Paulette Decottignies, Catherine Berrier, Heather McLean, Hervé Daniel
In cerebellar cortex, mGlu4 receptors located on parallel fibers play an essential role in normal motor function, but the molecular mechanisms involved are not yet completely understood. Using a strategy combining biochemical and electrophysiological approaches in the rodent cerebellum, we demonstrate that presynaptic mGlu4 receptors control synaptic transmission through an atypical activation of Gαq proteins. First, the Gαq subunit, PLC and PKC signaling proteins present in cerebellar extracts are retained on affinity chromatography columns grafted with different sequences of the cytoplasmic domain of mGlu4 receptor...
April 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455267/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-mediates-the-suppressive-effect-of-6-ohda-induced-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-on-liver-cancer
#20
Shao-Song Xi, Xiao-Xu Bai, Li Gu, Li-Hui Bao, Hui-Min Yang, Wei An, Xiao-Min Wang, Hong Zhang
Numerous epidemiological studies suggested that there is a variable cancer risk in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been investigated in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD combined with liver cancer both in vitro and in vivo. We found that PD cellular model from 6-OHDA-lesioned MN9D cells suppressed the growth, migration, and invasion of Hepa1-6 cells via down-regulation of mGluR5-mediated ERK and Akt pathway...
April 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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