keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Circuit

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343366/motor-learning-in-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-motor-cortex
#1
REVIEW
Tonghui Xu, Shaofang Wang, Rupa R Lalchandani, Jun B Ding
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion causes major changes in the brain, resulting in the typical cardinal motor features of the disease. PD neuropathology has been restricted to postmortem examinations, which are limited to only a single time of PD progression. Models of PD in which dopamine tone in the brain is chemically or physically disrupted are valuable tools in understanding the mechanisms of the disease. The basal ganglia have been well studied in the context of PD, and circuit changes in response to dopamine loss have been linked to the motor dysfunctions in PD...
March 25, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343142/circuit-mechanisms-of-sleepiness-and-cataplexy-in-narcolepsy
#2
REVIEW
Sara Pintwala, John Peever
Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder caused by loss of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy are the major complaints in narcolepsy, and are associated with impaired quality of life. Although it is unclear how orexin loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy, animal models have been instrumental in identifying the neurobiological underpinnings of narcolepsy because they reliably recapitulate disease symptoms. Current evidence indicates that orexin cell loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy by destabilizing the ability of the circuits that initiate and sustain normal levels of arousal and motor activity...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342743/measurement-of-ion-fluxes-across-epithelia
#3
REVIEW
Miroslaw Zajac, Krzysztof Dolowy
Epithelial tissues line all wet surfaces of vertebrate bodies. Their major function is directional transport of ions and water. Cells forming an epithelial layer are bound together by a tight junction that forms a barrier to ion flux. Ions and water are transported via specialized molecules. The presence of a defect in a single ion channel molecule leads to cystic fibrosis - the most common, fatal, human genetic disease. The paper describes ion transport data obtained by means of different experimental techniques...
March 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342510/arterial-protocol-including-prophylactic-distal-perfusion-catheter-decreases-limb-ischemia-complications-in-patients-undergoing-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#4
Kathleen M Lamb, Paul J DiMuzio, Adam Johnson, Philip Batista, Neil Moudgill, Megan McCullough, Joshua A Eisenberg, Hitoshi Hirose, Nicholas C Cavarocchi
OBJECTIVE: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a salvage therapy in patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure. Owing to the large size of the cannulas inserted via the femoral vessels (≤24-F) required for adequate oxygenation, this procedure could result in significant limb ischemic complications (10%-70%). This study evaluates the results of a distal limb perfusion arterial protocol designed to reduce associated complications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective institutional review board-approved review of consecutive patients requiring ECMO via femoral cannulation (July 2010-January 2015)...
April 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342410/transition-to-manual-comparing-simulator-with-on-road-control-transitions
#5
A Eriksson, V A Banks, N A Stanton
BACKGROUND: Whilst previous research has explored how driver behaviour in simulators may transfer to the open road, there has been relatively little research showing the same transfer within the field of driving automation. As a consequence, most research into human-automation interaction has primarily been carried out in a research laboratory or on closed-circuit test tracks. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether research into non-critical control transactions in highly automated vehicles performed in driving simulators correlate with road driving conditions...
March 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342307/simple-fabrication-of-pineapple-root-like-palladium-gold-catalysts-as-the-high-efficiency-cathode-in-direct-peroxide-peroxide-fuel-cells
#6
Xin Wang, Ke Ye, Ce Sun, Hongyu Zhang, Kai Zhu, Kui Cheng, Guiling Wang, Dianxue Cao
Pd-Au/TiC electrodes with various three-dimensional structures are obtained by the pulsed potential electro-deposition in PdCl2/HAuCl4 electrolytes. The morphologies of Pd-Au/TiC composite catalysts are significantly dependent on the component of deposited solutions. The surface appearance of Pd-Au catalysts changes from rime-shaped structure, to feather-like construction, then to pineapple root-like structure and finally to flower-like configuration with the increase of PdCl2 content in electrolytes. These particular three-dimensional structures may be very suitable for H2O2 electro-reduction, which assures a high utilization of Pd-Au catalysts and provides a large specific surface area...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340511/quantitative-mapping-reveals-age-and-sex-differences-in-vasopressin-but-not-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-social-behavior-neural-network
#7
Brett T DiBenedictis, Elizabeth R Nussbaum, Harry K Cheung, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated in the regulation of numerous social behaviors in adult and juvenile animals. AVP and OT signaling predominantly occur within a circuit of interconnected brain regions known collectively as the "social behavior neural network" (SBNN). Importantly, AVP and OT signaling within the SBNN has been shown to differentially regulate diverse social behaviors, depending on the age and/or sex of the animal. We hypothesized that variation in the display of these behaviors is due in part to age and sex differences in AVP and OT synthesis within the SBNN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#8
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340447/fronto-limbic-disconnection-in-depressed-patients-with-suicidal-ideation-a-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study
#9
Lian Du, Jinkun Zeng, Huan Liu, Dejian Tang, Huaqing Meng, Yongmei Li, Yixiao Fu
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation (SI) is highly prevalent and a known symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), but its underlying biological mechanisms are relatively unknown. Several studies linked suicidal ideation to dysfunctional brain circuits, specifically fronto-limbic connections. The purpose of this work was to investigate fronto-limbic disconnection in MDD patients with or without SI. METHODS: MDD patients with SI (SI, n=28) or without SI (NSI, n=20), identified by the Scale for Suicide Ideation and healthy controls (HCs, n=30) underwent resting-state functional MRI scanning...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340299/bifurcation-of-regeneration-and-recombination-in-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-via-electronic-manipulation-of-tandem-cobalt-redox-shuttles
#10
Josh Baillargeon, Yuling Xie, Thomas W Hamann
A cobalt(IV/III) redox shuttle, cobalt tris(2-(p-tolyl)pyridine), [Co(ptpy)3]+/0, was synthesized and investigated for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs. An incredibly fast self-exchange rate constant of (9.2  3.9) × 108 M-1s-1 was determined for [Co(ptpy)3]+/0, making it an ideal candidate for dye regeneration. To avoid fast recombination and solubility limitations, a tandem electrolyte containing [Co(ptpy)3]+/0 and cobalt tris(2,2'-bipyridine), [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+, was utilized. An improved short circuit current density is achieved for DSSCs employing the tandem electrolyte, compared to electrolytes containing only [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+, consistent with superior dye regeneration expected based on predictions using Marcus Theory, which is also discussed...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340290/nucleus-accumbens-dopamine-receptors-mediate-hypothalamus-induced-antinociception-in-the-rat-formalin-test
#11
A Siahposht-Khachaki, P Pourreza, S Ezzatpanah, A Haghparast
BACKGROUND: Lateral hypothalamus (LH) involves in modulation of tonic pain. Regarding the direct and indirect neural connections between the LH and nucleus accumbens (NAc), we aimed to examine the pain modulatory role of NAc dopamine receptors in modulation of LH-induced analgesia in the formalin test. METHODS: Vehicle-control groups received saline or DMSO into the NAc and saline into the LH. Carbachol-control groups received carbachol (250 nmol/L) into the LH, 5 min after saline or DMSO injection into the NAc...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340236/diet-density-during-the-first-week-of-life-effects-on-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-characteristics-of-broiler-chickens
#12
D M Lamot, D Sapkota, P J A Wijtten, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch...
March 11, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340177/the-significance-of-internode-length-for-saltatory-conduction-looking-back-at-the-age-of-90
#13
Reinhard L Friede
The development of peripheral nerve fibers involves interdependence between the timing of Schwann cell recruitment during myelination and elongation of the nerve. This adjusts the number and the length of internodes to the length of the fiber. Saltatory conduction in longer nerves involves longer saltations; this makes internode length the factor that determines conduction velocity, thereby adjusting impulse transmission in circuits of different lengths. Myelination increases conduction velocity by means of saltatory conduction but what determines the saltatory conduction is not so much the indispensable insulating adjunct of myelin as the length of the internodes that separate the excitable membrane segments...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339750/downstream-overdrive-pacing-and-intracardiac-concealed-fusion-to-guide-rapid-identification-of-atrial-tachycardia-after-atrial-fibrillation-ablation
#14
Chirag R Barbhaiya, Samuel H Baldinger, Saurabh Kumar, Jason S Chinitz, Alan D Enriquez, Roy John, William G Stevenson, Gregory F Michaud
Aims: Atrial tachycardia (AT) related to atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation frequently poses a diagnostic challenge. Downstream overdrive pacing (DOP) can be used to rapidly detect reentry and assess proximity of a pacing site to an AT circuit or focus. We hypothesized that systematic DOP using multielectrode catheters would facilitate AT mapping. Methods and results: DOP identified constant fusion when the post-pacing interval (PPI)-tachycardia cycle length (TCL) <40 ms and stimulus to adjacent upstream atrial electrogram interval >75% of TCL...
February 17, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339575/histaminergic-neurotransmission-as-a-gateway-for-the-cognitive-effect-of-oleoylethanolamide-in-contextual-fear-conditioning
#15
Gustavo Provensi, Roberta Fabbri, Leonardo Munari, Alessia Costa, Elisabetta Baldi, Corrado Bucherelli, Patrizio Blandina, Maria Beatrice Passani
Background: The integrity of the brain histaminergic system is necessary for the unfolding of homeostatic and cognitive processes through the recruitment of alternative circuits with distinct temporal patterns. We recently demonstrated that the fat-sensing lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide indirectly activates histaminergic neurons to exerts its hypophagic effects. The present experiments investigated whether histaminergic neurotransmission is necessary also for the modulation of emotional memory induced by oleoylethanolamide in a contextual fear conditioning paradigm...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339239/photon-statistics-of-propagating-thermal-microwaves
#16
J Goetz, S Pogorzalek, F Deppe, K G Fedorov, P Eder, M Fischer, F Wulschner, E Xie, A Marx, R Gross
In experiments with superconducting quantum circuits, characterizing the photon statistics of propagating microwave fields is a fundamental task. We quantify the n^{2}+n photon number variance of thermal microwave photons emitted from a blackbody radiator for mean photon numbers, 0.05≲n≲1.5. We probe the fields using either correlation measurements or a transmon qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Our experiments provide a precise quantitative characterization of weak microwave states and information on the noise emitted by a Josephson parametric amplifier...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339121/connecting-today-s-climates-to-future-analogs-to-facilitate-species-movement-under-climate-change
#17
Caitlin E Littlefield, Brad H McRae, Julia Michalak, Joshua J Lawler, Carlos Carroll
Increasing connectivity is an important strategy for facilitating species range shifts and maintaining biodiversity in the face of climate change. To date, however, few studies have included future climate projections in efforts to prioritize areas for increasing connectivity. Here, we identify key areas likely to facilitate climate-induced species movement across western North America. Using historical climate datasets and future climate projections, we mapped potential routes between current climates and their future analogs with a novel moving-window analysis based on electrical circuit theory...
March 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338845/computational-psychiatry-and-the-challenge-of-schizophrenia
#18
John H Krystal, John D Murray, Adam M Chekroud, Philip R Corlett, Genevieve Yang, Xiao-Jing Wang, Alan Anticevic
Schizophrenia research is plagued by enormous challenges in integrating and analyzing large datasets and difficulties developing formal theories related to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of this disorder. Computational psychiatry provides a path to enhance analyses of these large and complex datasets and to promote the development and refinement of formal models for features of this disorder. This presentation introduces the reader to the notion of computational psychiatry and describes discovery-oriented and theory-driven applications to schizophrenia involving machine learning, reinforcement learning theory, and biophysically-informed neural circuit models...
March 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338785/elevated-nucleus-accumbens-structural-connectivity-associated-with-proneness-to-hypomania-a-reward-hypersensitivity-perspective
#19
Katherine S Damme, Christina B Young, Robin Nusslock
The Reward Hypersensitivity Model of bipolar disorder argues that hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues characterizes risk for hypo/mania. This hypersensitivity leads to increased goal-directed motivation during reward-relevant life events that, in the extreme, is reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. In line with this perspective, individuals with bipolar disorder display elevated activation in a cortico-striatal reward circuit including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). To date, however, research on reward-related neural circuitry underlying bipolar symptoms focuses on syndromal bipolar disorder (bipolar I, bipolar II), and typically examines neural regions in isolation of each other...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338740/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#20
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
keyword
keyword
102734
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"