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Emma J Bubb, Lisa Kinnavane, John P Aggleton
This review brings together current knowledge from tract tracing studies to update and reconsider those limbic connections initially highlighted by Papez (1937) for their presumed role in emotion. These connections link hippocampal and parahippocampal regions with the mammillary bodies, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the cingulate gyrus, all structures now strongly implicated in memory functions. An additional goal of this review is to describe the routes taken by the various connections within this network...
August 4, 2017: Brain and neuroscience advances
François Haman, Denis P Blondin
As endotherms, humans exposed to a compensable cold environment rely on an increase in thermogenic rate to counteract heat lost to the environment, thereby maintaining a stable core temperature. This review focuses primarily on the most important contributor of heat production in cold-exposed adult humans, shivering skeletal muscles. Specifically, it presents current understanding on (1) the origins of shivering, (2) the contribution of shivering to total heat production and (3) the metabolic requirements of shivering...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
K Kobayashi, J H Chien, J H Kim, F A Lenz
The thalamus is a critical module in the circuit which has been associated with movement disorders including dystonia. This circuit extends from cortex to striatum to pallidum to the thalamic nucleus Ventral Lateral anterior (VLa) to cortex and can be studied by activity recorded during thalamic stereotactic surgery for the treatment of dystonia. Neuronal recordings in the VLa nucleus show low frequency modulation of firing that is correlated with and leads the low frequency modulation of EMG activity; this EMG activity is characteristic of dystonia...
June 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
Haowei Jiang, Alex Sun, A G Venkatesh, Drew A Hall
Portable and easy-to-use point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices hold high promise for dramatically improving public health and wellness. In this paper, we present a mobile health (mHealth) immunoassay platform based on audio jack embedded devices, such as smartphones and laptops, that uses electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to detect binding of target biomolecules. Compared to other biomolecular detection tools, this platform is intended to be used as a plug-and-play peripheral that reuses existing hardware in the mobile device and does not require an external battery, thereby improving upon its convenience and portability...
February 1, 2017: IEEE Sensors Journal
Inga Schubert, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Andrew Winter, Lauren Vollmer, Ian Lewkowich, Renu Sah
Mounting evidence supports immune dysfunction in psychiatric conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The association of immunomodulatory mechanisms with PTSD-relevant behavior and physiology is not well understood. Communication between neurons and microglia, resident immune cells of the central nervous system, is crucial for optimal regulation of behavior and physiology. In this regard, the fractalkine CX3CL1, secreted from neurons and its target, the microglial CX3CR1 receptor represent a primary neuron-microglia inter-regulatory system important for synaptic plasticity and function...
September 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Xuhua Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Xinjian Li, Zicong Zhang, Hengfu Yang, Yu Zhang, Philip R Williams, Noaf S A Alwahab, Kush Kapur, Bin Yu, Yiming Zhang, Mengying Chen, Haixia Ding, Charles R Gerfen, Kuan Hong Wang, Zhigang He
Corticospinal neurons (CSNs) represent the direct cortical outputs to the spinal cord and play important roles in motor control across different species. However, their organizational principle remains unclear. By using a retrograde labeling system, we defined the requirement of CSNs in the execution of a skilled forelimb food-pellet retrieval task in mice. In vivo imaging of CSN activity during performance revealed the sequential activation of topographically ordered functional ensembles with moderate local mixing...
September 20, 2017: Cell
Anirban Paul, Megan Crow, Ricardo Raudales, Miao He, Jesse Gillis, Z Josh Huang
Understanding the organizational logic of neural circuits requires deciphering the biological basis of neuronal diversity and identity, but there is no consensus on how neuron types should be defined. We analyzed single-cell transcriptomes of a set of anatomically and physiologically characterized cortical GABAergic neurons and conducted a computational genomic screen for transcriptional profiles that distinguish them from one another. We discovered that cardinal GABAergic neuron types are delineated by a transcriptional architecture that encodes their synaptic communication patterns...
September 20, 2017: Cell
Marilyn Cyr, Daniel C Kopala-Sibley, Seonjoo Lee, Chen Chen, Mihaela Stefan, Martine Fontaine, Kate Terranova, Laura A Berner, Rachel Marsh
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional data suggest functional and anatomical disturbances in inferior and orbital frontal regions in bulimia nervosa (BN). Using longitudinal data, we investigated whether reduced cortical thickness (CT) in these regions arises early and persists over adolescence in BN, independent of symptom remission, and whether CT reductions are markers of BN symptoms. METHOD: A total of 33 adolescent females with BN symptoms (BN or other specified feeding or eating disorder) and 28 healthy adolescents participated in this study...
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
R H Kaiser, R Clegg, F Goer, P Pechtel, M Beltzer, G Vitaliano, D P Olson, M H Teicher, D A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Exposure to threat-related early life stress (ELS) has been related to vulnerability for stress-related disorders in adulthood, putatively via disrupted corticolimbic circuits involved in stress response and regulation. However, previous research on ELS has not examined both the intrinsic strength and flexibility of corticolimbic circuits, which may be particularly important for adaptive stress responding, or associations between these dimensions of corticolimbic dysfunction and acute stress response in adulthood...
September 25, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Nicholas R Clark, Wendy Lecluyse, Tim Jürgens
OBJECTIVE: This technical paper describes a biologically inspired hearing aid algorithm based on a computer model of the peripheral auditory system simulating basilar membrane compression, reflexive efferent feedback and its resulting properties. DESIGN: Two evaluations were conducted on the core part of the algorithm, which is an instantaneous compression sandwiched between the attenuation and envelope extraction processes of a relatively slow feedback compressor...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
Pierrick Poisbeau, Valery Grinevich, Alexandre Charlet
Originally confined to the initiation of parturition and milk ejection after birth, the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is now recognized as a critical determinant of social behavior and emotional processing. It accounts for the modulation of sensory processing and pain perception as OT displays a potent analgesic effect mediated by OT receptors (OTRs) expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In our chapter, we will first systemically analyze known efferent and afferent OT neuron projections, which form the anatomical basis for OT modulation of somatosensory and pain processing...
September 24, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Roxana Vancea, Kristina Simonyan, Maria Petracca, Miroslaw Brys, Alessandro Di Rocco, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Matilde Inglese
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to the reorganization of brain topology. Although drug challenge studies have proven how levodopa treatment can modulate functional connectivity in brain circuits, the role of chronic dopaminergic therapy on cognitive status and functional connectivity has never been investigated. We sought to characterize brain functional topology in mid-stage PD patients under chronic antiparkinson treatment and explore the presence of correlation between reorganization of brain architecture and specific cognitive deficits...
September 23, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Wenjing Lian, Jiying Liang, Li Shen, Yue Jin, Hongyun Liu
The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films were electropolymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with luminol and pyrrole (PY) as the two monomers and ampicillin (AM) as the template molecule. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity peak of polyluminol (PL) of the AM-free MIP films at 0.7V vs Ag/AgCl could be greatly enhanced by AM rebinding. In addition, the ECL signals of the MIP films could also be enhanced by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOD)/glucose and/or ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)2) in the testing solution...
September 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Tariq R Alam, Mark A Pierson, Mark A Prelas
Simulation of beta particle transport from a Ni-63 radioisotope in silicon using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code for monoenergetic beta particle average energy, monoenergetic beta particle maximum energy, and the more precise full beta energy spectrum of Ni-63 were demonstrated. The beta particle penetration depth and the shape of the energy deposition varied significantly for different transport approaches. A penetration depth of 2.25±0.25µm with a peak in energy deposition was found when using a monoenergetic beta particle average energy and a depth of 14...
September 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Meng Xiao, Li Zhao, Shoubin Wei, Yanyan Li, Binghai Dong, Zuxun Xu, Li Wan, Shimin Wang
ABX3-type organic lead halide perovskites have gained increasing attention as light harvester for solar cells due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE). Recently, it has become a trend to avoid the use of expensive hole-transport materials (HTMs) and precious metals, such as Au, to be competitive in future commercial development. In this study, we fabricated mixed-cation perovskite-based solar cells through one-step spin-coating using methylammonium (CH3NH3(+)) and formamidinium (HN=CHNH3(+)) cations to extend the optical absorption range into the red region and enhance the utilization of solar light...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
H Urbach, K Egger, K Rutkowski, J M Nakagawa, B Schmeiser, M Reisert, A Brandt, B J Steinhoff, A Schulze-Bonhage, T Hammen
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether white matter tracts within the Papez circuit are altered in patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically proven unilateral HS and 20 age-matched controls were studied with a 3T Epilepsy-dedicated MRI protocol including a MPRAGE sequence for hippocampus volumetry and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence (61 diffusion-encoding directions, 2×2×2mm(3) voxels) for diffusion tensor tractography (DTT)...
September 2017: European Journal of Radiology
Anvita Sheel, Deepak Pant
The aim of present study was to develop a modified method of gold recovery from e-waste. Selective biosorption of gold from contact point of printed circuit board was achieved by using the combination of ammonium thiosulfate (AT) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA).Improvement in biosorption was due to the π-π interaction and resultant change in amide absorption bond between AT and LA, as evidenced by infrared spectroscopy. Selection was justified by some basic postulates of ionic radii and confirmed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy...
September 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhihui Li, Xingjun Chen, Tao Wang, Ying Gao, Fei Li, Long Chen, Jin Xue, Yan He, Yan Li, Wei Guo, Wu Zheng, Liping Zhang, Fenfen Ye, Xiangpeng Ren, Yue Feng, Piu Chan, Jiang-Fan Chen
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) taps into multiple executive processes including encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information, but the molecular and circuit modulation of these WM processes remains undefined due to the lack of methods to control G protein-coupled receptor signaling with temporal resolution of seconds. METHODS: By coupling optogenetic control of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling, the Cre-loxP-mediated focal A2AR knockdown with a delayed non-match-to-place (DNMTP) task, we investigated the effect of optogenetic activation and focal knockdown of A2ARs in the dorsomedial striatum (n = 8 to 14 per group) and medial prefrontal cortex (n = 16 to 22 per group) on distinct executive processes of spatial WM...
August 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Tianxin Zhao, Chao Zhong
Materials are the basis for human being survival and social development. To keep abreast with the increasing needs from all aspects of human society, there are huge needs in the development of advanced materials as well as high-efficiency but low-cost manufacturing strategies that are both sustainable and tunable. Synthetic biology, a new engineering principle taking gene regulation and engineering design as the core, greatly promotes the development of life sciences. This discipline has also contributed to the development of material sciences and will continuously bring new ideas to future new material design...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Shuguang Peng, Zhen Xie
Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
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