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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729193/the-pattern-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-dysfunction-in-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#1
A Majander, A G Robson, C João, G E Holder, P F Chinnery, A T Moore, M Votruba, A Stockman, P Yu-Wai-Man
Leber inherited optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by subacute bilateral loss of central vision due to dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Comprehensive visual electrophysiological investigations (including pattern reversal visual evoked potentials, pattern electroretinography and the photopic negative response) performed on 13 patients with acute and chronic LHON indicate early impairment of RGC cell body function and severe axonal dysfunction. Temporal, spatial and chromatic psychophysical tests performed on 7 patients with acute LHON and 4 patients with chronic LHON suggest severe involvement or loss of the midget, parasol and bistratified RGCs associated with all three principal visual pathways...
July 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725290/the-discovery-of-the-flammer-syndrome-a-historical-and-personal-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Josef Flammer, Katarzyna Konieczka
This review describes the clinical and basic research that led to the description of Flammer syndrome. It is narrated from a personal perspective. This research was initiated by the observation of an increased long-term fluctuation of visual fields in a subgroup of glaucoma patients. As these patients had strikingly cold hands, peripheral blood flow was tested with a capillary microscopy, and vasospastic syndrome (VS) was diagnosed. Further studies on these patients revealed frequently weakened autoregulation of ocular blood flow and increased flow resistivity in retroocular vessels...
June 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724824/late-onset-descemet-s-membrane-detachment-20-years-after-penetrating-keratoplasty
#3
Sharon D'Souza, Narpat Solanki, K R Sushma, Priyank Solanki
This paper reports a case of spontaneous Descemet's Membrane (DM ) detachment 20-years after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The patient presented with acute onset blurred vision in the right eye associated with mild ocular discomfort. There was no prior history of trauma. The patient had undergone PK in the right eye 20 years back. Detailed ophthalmic examination showed best corrected visual acuity of hand movements close to face in the right eye and 20/80 in the left eye. The right eye showed diffuse graft edema but no congestion, epithelial defect, or loss of continuity of graft-host junction to suggest a traumatic etiology...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712034/recurrence-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-manifesting-as-serous-retinal-detachments-and-optic-disc-swelling
#4
Ozge Yabas Kiziloglu, Mert Mestanoglu, Ozgun Melike Totuk Gedar, Cafer Adiguzel, Okan Toygar
PURPOSE: The aim of this case report is to describe a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who developed bilateral serous retinal detachments and unilateral optic disc swelling. METHODS: A 23-year-old woman with ALL presented to the ophthalmology clinic with bilateral subacute visual loss. RESULTS: Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral serous retinal detachments and unilateral optic disc swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging for differential diagnosis was inconclusive; however, cerebrospinal fluid sampling demonstrated leukemic involvement of the central nervous system...
July 15, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704891/mastoid-vibration-reduces-ipsilesional-shift-of-subjective-visual-horizontal-in-patients-with-acute-stage-of-unilateral-vestibulopathy
#5
Kun Woo Kim, Min Young Lee, Jae Yun Jung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate effect of the vibration on subjective visual horizontal (SVH) in patients with acute stage of unilateral vestibulopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five unilateral vestibulopathy patients which analyzed into 42 cases at different time points and suffered from spinning vertigo for more than 24 hours without hearing loss and neurologic abnormality were enrolled. Thirteen subjects with spontaneous nystagmus (>3 degree/sec; averaged symptom onset <1 week) at the time of SVH measurement were classified into the acute unilateral vestibulopathy group (aVU)...
July 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703795/edaravone-suppresses-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-in-a-mouse-model-of-normal-tension-glaucoma
#6
Kei Akaiwa, Kazuhiko Namekata, Yuriko Azuchi, Xiaoli Guo, Atsuko Kimura, Chikako Harada, Yoshinori Mitamura, Takayuki Harada
Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the mammalian retina, excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is expressed in neural cells, including RGCs. Loss of EAAC1 leads to RGC degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and exhibits glaucomatous pathology including glutamate neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In the present study, we found that edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is used for treatment of acute brain infarction and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), reduces oxidative stress and prevents RGC death and thinning of the inner retinal layer in EAAC1-deficient (KO) mice...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698382/phosphatidylserine-dictates-the-assembly-and-dynamics-of-caveolae-in-the-plasma-membrane
#7
Takashi Hirama, Raibatak Das, Yanbo Yang, Charles Ferguson, Amy Won, Christopher M Yip, Jason G Kay, Sergio Grinstein, Robert G Parton, Gregory D Fairn
Caveolae are bulb-shaped nanodomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. They have many physiological functions, including endocytic transport, mechanosensing, and regulation of membrane and lipid transport. Caveola formation relies on integral membrane proteins termed caveolins (CAVs) and the cavin family of peripheral proteins. Both protein families bind anionic phospholipids, but the precise roles of these lipids are unknown. Here, we studied the effects of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) on caveolar formation and dynamics...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689637/measurement-of-flow-of-thought-in-68-patients-monitored-in-post-emergency-outpatient-consultations-role-of-ideational-turmoil-in-the-anxiety-depressive-symptomatology
#8
J Vandevoorde, A Sanchez Valero, E Baudoin, S Kamar, B Chabert, T Baudoin
INTRODUCTION: Rumination, cognitive control deficits, cognitive saturation, and loss of inhibition are the major hypotheses used to explain depressive disorders. A few studies have nevertheless looked at the form of thought. In this study, we will test a double measurement of the number of thoughts and a double measurement of the flow of thought together with their correlation with well-being, mental pain, and depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between May and September 2015, 68 subjects, initially admitted as emergencies for acute anxiety depressive disorders and/or suicide attempts and subsequently monitored as post-emergency outpatients in medico-psychological consultations agreed to complete a set of Visual Analogue Scales measuring their well-being, their mental pain, their estimated number of thoughts and the how agitated these thoughts are estimated to be...
July 6, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685801/can-cs-gas-induce-myocardial-infarction
#9
Lilia Zakhama, Wassim Ben Ameur, Saoussen Antit, Iskander Slama, Alaa Eddine Jallad, Sara Chenik, Mourad Masmoudi, Besma Herbegue, Elhem Boussabah, Moez Thameur, Soraya Ben Youssef
"2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile" also named CS gas is the most used riot-control agent in the world. Its reputation as the least toxic tear gas explains its large use by different authorities. Early exposure to CS spray commonly induces visual irritation, skin reactions, with increased mucous secretion in order to temporarily incapacitate targeted people. However, there is a large agreement that safety data of this product is limited and further studies need to be performed since serious problems could occur after heavy exposure such as loss of consciousness, laryngospasm, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage...
October 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682904/sudden-bilateral-vision-loss-as-the-sole-manifestation-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-from-acute-uremia-clinical-case-report
#10
Hye-Young Shin, So Hee Kim, Mee Yon Lee, Sun Ae Yoon, Su Young Kim, Young Chun Lee
RATIONALE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a cliniconeuroradiological entity associated with vasogenic edema. Symptoms may include headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual impairment. Patients with PRES generally present with neurological deficits. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report an unusual case of a 42-year-old man who presented with sudden bilateral vision loss without any other neurologic symptoms. DIAGNOSES: He was diagnosed with PRES secondary to acute uremia...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678218/idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-in-males
#11
Hissah K Al Abdulsalam, Abdulrazag M Ajlan
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a neurological condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure without an underlying intracranial pathology. This condition is rarely encountered in men and it predominantly affects obese women of childbearing age. We present an interesting case of IIH in a male patient who presented with acute severe vision loss over 2 weeks and was successfully treated via surgery. Although IIH is less common in men than in women, men are more likely to develop vision loss, which is usually severe and less likely to respond to medical treatment...
July 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670981/keep-an-eye-out-a-rare-case-of-acute-onset-charles-bonnet-syndrome-after-stanford-type-a-aortic-dissection-repair-surgery
#12
Fabian Cook, Scott Dougherty, Robert Moreton, Maziar Khorsandi
Charles Bonnet Syndrome describes the triad of complex visual hallucinations secondary to ophthalmic pathology in psychologically normal people. We present a rare case of acute-onset Charles Bonnet Syndrome following cardiac surgery that resulted in profound loss of visual acuity in both eyes with characteristic visual hallucinations that were initially mistaken for delirium. Computed tomography of the brain revealed bilateral occipital infarcts, providing the substrate for Charles Bonnet Syndrome. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in cognitively intact patients with visual loss who are also experiencing visual hallucinations to ensure prompt diagnosis and management of this often overlooked condition...
May 2017: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667356/low-dose-radiation-accelerates-aging-of-the-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-in-cba-ca-mice
#13
Serge M Candéias, Justyna Mika, Paul Finnon, Tom Verbiest, Rosemary Finnon, Natalie Brown, Simon Bouffler, Joanna Polanska, Christophe Badie
While the biological effects of high-dose-ionizing radiation on human health are well characterized, the consequences of low-dose radiation exposure remain poorly defined, even though they are of major importance for radiological protection. Lymphocytes are very radiosensitive, and radiation-induced health effects may result from immune cell loss and/or immune system impairment. To decipher the mechanisms of effects of low doses, we analyzed the modulation of the T-cell receptor gene repertoire in mice exposed to a single low (0...
June 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647203/gene-therapy-for-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-low-and-medium-dose-visual-results
#14
John Guy, William J Feuer, Janet L Davis, Vittorio Porciatti, Phillip J Gonzalez, Rajeshwari D Koilkonda, Huijun Yuan, William W Hauswirth, Byron L Lam
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of AAV2(Y444,500,730F)-P1ND4v2 in patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). DESIGN: Prospective open-label, unilateral single-dose, intravitreal injection of AAV2(Y444,500,730F)-P1ND4v2 per participant. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen patients with visual loss and mutated G11778A mitochondrial DNA. METHODS: Intravitreal injection with the gene therapy vector AAV2(Y444,500,730F)-P1ND4v2 into 1 eye...
June 21, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641636/-short-and-long-term-clinical-efficacy-of-imrt-and-crt-for-treatment-of-patients-with-enktl
#15
Jian-Xiong Cui, Wu-Hua Lin
OBJECTIVE: To compare the short and long term clinical efficacy for treatment of patients with extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma(ENKTL) by intensity modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) and conventional radiotheraphy(CRT). METHODS: Sixty-three cases of early ENKTL were divided into the IMRT group of (33 cases) and CRT group(30 cases). The short effects, overall survival(OS) of 3 years, progression free survival(PFS) of 3 years, acute radiation injury and late adverse reactions to radiation were compared between 2 group...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634555/a-rare-case-of-pneumopericardium-in-the-setting-of-tuberculous-constrictive-pericarditis
#16
Lauro L Abrahan Iv, Stephanie Martha O Obillos, Jaime Alfonso M Aherrera, Jose Donato A Magno, Celia Catherine C Uy-Agbayani, Ulysses King G Gopez, Jobelle Joyce Anne R Baldonado
A 28-year-old Filipino male was admitted due to high-grade fevers and dyspnea on a background of chronic cough and weight loss. Due to clinical and echocardiographic signs of cardiac tamponade, emergency pericardiocentesis was performed on his first hospital day. Five days after, chest radiographs showed new pockets of radiolucency within the cardiac shadow, indicative of pneumopericardium. On repeat echo, air microbubbles admixed with loculated effusion were visualized in the anterior pericardial space. Constrictive physiology was also supported by a thickened pericardium, septal bounce, exaggerated respiratory variation in AV valve inflow, and IVC plethora...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630795/efficacy-of-oral-valacyclovir-treatment-in-a-case-with-acute-retinal-necrosis
#17
Mert Şimşek, Pınar Çakar Özdal, Kemal Tekin
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressive disease with poor prognosis, leading to visual loss in most cases. Rapid diagnosis and early anti-viral treatment significantly affect the course and prognosis of the disease. In this case report, we present a 34-year-old female patient referred to our clinic with symptoms of blurred vision and ocular pain diagnosed as acute glaucoma elsewhere. A clinical diagnosis of ARN was made and anti-viral treatment was started immediately. We herein describe our treatment approach to this particular case and discuss previously reported treatment modalities...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626419/shallow-anterior-chamber-in-a-severe-case-of-unilateral-acute-central-serous-retinal-detachment
#18
Ahmet Colakoglu, Banu Cosar
BACKGROUND: Atypical serous chorioretinopathy can present with symptoms similar to those of other pachychoroid diseases; however, a proper differential diagnosis will prevent unnecessary intensive treatments. To this end, we report on the shallowness of anterior chamber and transitory anterior vitreous cells in a patient with atypical severe serous retinal detachment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old woman presented with unilateral visual loss accompanied by mild, vague eye pain for 4 days...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626418/rapid-cataract-progression-after-nd-yag-vitreolysis-for-vitreous-floaters-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
I-Ting Sun, Tsung-Han Lee, Chih-Hsin Chen
PURPOSE: We report a case of rapid cataract progression after Nd:YAG vitreolysis for vitreous floaters. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old man presented with acute onset of blurred vision following Nd:YAG vitreolysis for symptomatic floaters in the left eye. His initial best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/1,000 in the left eye. Ocular examinations showed frost-like opacities of the lens and a suspected break of the posterior capsule in the left eye. There were no detectable retinal lesions...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623040/-neuro-ophthalmological-conditions-study-of-the-clinical-care-pathway
#20
I Layat, G Challe, P LeHoang, B Bodaghi, V Touitou
INTRODUCTION: Neuro-ophthalmologic conditions require specialized multidisciplinary management, both medical and surgical, for patients affected by visual loss due to nervous system disease. The primary goal of this study is to define the specificity of neuro-ophthalmology within the realm of visual health. The secondary goal is to review clinical care pathways by studying the organization of management, in terms of accessibility to care and personalization of the care pathway. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A field study was carried out from February to June 2015, within the ophthalmology service of the Pitié-Salpêtrière University Medical Center in Paris...
June 13, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
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