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Skin cancer/melanoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227121/automated-basal-cell-carcinoma-detection-in-high-definition-optical-coherence-tomography
#1
Annan Li, Jun Cheng, Ai Ping Yow, Ruchir Srivastava, Damon Wing Kee Wong, Hong Liang Tey, Jiang Liu, Annan Li, Jun Cheng, Ai Ping Yow, Ruchir Srivastava, Damon Wing Kee Wong, Hong Liang Tey, Jiang Liu, Ai Ping Yow, Jiang Liu, Annan Li, Hong Liang Tey, Jun Cheng, Ruchir Srivastava
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Conventional diagnosis of BCC requires invasive biopsies. Recently, a high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) technique has been developed, which provides a non-invasive in vivo imaging method of skin. Good agreements of BCC features between HD-OCT images and histopathological architecture have been found. Therefore it is possible to automatically detect BCC using HD-OCT. This paper presents a novel BCC detection method that consists of four steps: graph based skin surface segmentation, surface flattening, deep feature extraction and the BCC classification...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226759/melanoma-detection-by-analysis-of-clinical-images-using-convolutional-neural-network
#2
E Nasr-Esfahani, S Samavi, N Karimi, S M R Soroushmehr, M H Jafari, K Ward, K Najarian, E Nasr-Esfahani, S Samavi, N Karimi, S M R Soroushmehr, M H Jafari, K Ward, K Najarian, M H Jafari, S M R Soroushmehr, E Nasr-Esfahani, S Samavi, K Najarian, N Karimi, K Ward
Melanoma, most threatening type of skin cancer, is on the rise. In this paper an implementation of a deep-learning system on a computer server, equipped with graphic processing unit (GPU), is proposed for detection of melanoma lesions. Clinical (non-dermoscopic) images are used in the proposed system, which could assist a dermatologist in early diagnosis of this type of skin cancer. In the proposed system, input clinical images, which could contain illumination and noise effects, are preprocessed in order to reduce such artifacts...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226755/automatic-detection-of-melanoma-using-broad-extraction-of-features-from-digital-images
#3
M H Jafari, S Samavi, N Karimi, S M R Soroushmehr, K Ward, K Najarian, M H Jafari, S Samavi, N Karimi, S M R Soroushmehr, K Ward, K Najarian, K Ward, M H Jafari, S M R Soroushmehr, S Samavi, K Najarian, N Karimi
Automatic and reliable diagnosis of skin cancer, as a smartphone application, is of great interest. Among different types of skin cancers, melanoma is the most dangerous one which causes most deaths. Meanwhile, melanoma is curable if it were diagnosed in its early stages. In this paper we propose an efficient system for prescreening of pigmented skin lesions for malignancy using general-purpose digital cameras. These images can be captured by a smartphone or a digital camera. This could be beneficial in different applications, such as computer aided diagnosis and telemedicine applications...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225791/characterization-of-long-noncoding-rna-and-messenger-rna-signatures-in-melanoma-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis
#4
Siqi Wang, Wenliang Fan, Bing Wan, Mengqi Tu, Feng Jin, Fang Liu, Haibo Xu, Ping Han
The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive and life-threatening form of skin cancer, has significantly risen over recent decades. Therefore, it is essential to identify the mechanisms that underlie melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and to explore novel and effective melanoma treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence s uggests that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have vital functions in multiple cancers. However, lncRNA functions in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis remain unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225789/non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-all-cause-dementia
#5
Sigrun A J Schmidt, Anne G Ording, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Henrik T Sørensen, Victor W Henderson
Cancer patients may be at decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease. This hypothesis is best developed for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but supportive epidemiological data are sparse. We therefore conducted a nationwide cohort study of the association between NMSC and Alzheimer's disease (main outcome) and all-cause dementia. Using Danish medical databases, we identified adults diagnosed with NMSC between 1 January 1980 and 30 November 2013 (n = 216,221) and a comparison cohort of five individuals matched to each NMSC patient by sex and birth year (n = 1,081,097)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223185/nanomedicine-as-a-potent-strategy-in-melanoma-tumor-microenvironment
#6
REVIEW
Vincent Pautu, Daniela Leonetti, Elise Lepeltier, Nicolas Clere, Catherine Passirani
Melanoma originated from melanocytes is the most aggressive type of skin cancer. Despite considerable progresses in clinical treatment with the discovery of BRAF or MEK inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, the durability of response to treatment is often limited to the development of acquired resistance and systemic toxicity. The limited success of conventional treatment highlights the importance of understanding the role of melanoma tumor microenvironment in tumor developement and drug resistance. Nanoparticles represent a promising strategy for the development of new cancer treatments able to improve the bioavailability of drugs and increase their penetration by targeting specifically tumours cells and/or tumour environment...
February 18, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222225/daylight-photodynamic-therapy-vs-conventional-photodynamic-therapy-as-skin-cancer-preventive-treatment-in-patients-with-face-and-scalp-cancerization-an-intra-individual-comparison-study
#7
Elena Sotiriou, Demetrios Ioannides, Fotini Vrani, Elizabeth Lazaridou, Efstratios Vakirlis, Aimilios Lallas, Zoe Apalla
BACKGROUND: Individuals with medical history of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) usually develop multiple and/or recurrent malignant lesions around the site of the primary neoplasm. The latter represents the clinical expression of the "field cancerization" theory; supporting the presence of multiple malignant clones of dysplastic keratinocytes over the entire epithelium that potentially can progress into clinical lesions. Taking into consideration that the burden of NMSCs on public health and health-care cost is high, adequate control of recurrences and management of field change is challenging...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221211/a-rare-case-of-ck20-ck7-double-negative-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#8
Mary D Le, Luke H OʼSteen, David S Cassarino
The authors present a case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with unique immunohistochemical staining characteristics. A 57-year-old woman presented with a firm 0.3 cm tan papule on her left nasal-labial fold that was reportedly increasing in size and bleeding. She had a history of multiple head and neck actinic keratoses, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and a family history of an uncle with melanoma. The clinical differential diagnosis was "non-melanoma skin cancer." Histological examination showed a markedly atypical-appearing basaloid neoplasm, present mostly in the dermis, with focal pagetoid spread into the epidermis...
March 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218687/uv-radiation-from-physics-to-impacts
#9
EDITORIAL
Hanns Moshammer, Stana Simic, Daniela Haluza
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has affected life at least since the first life forms moved out of the seas and crawled onto the land. Therefore, one might assume that evolution has adapted to natural UV radiation. However, evolution is mostly concerned with the propagation of the genetic code, not with a long, happy, and fulfilling life. Because rickets is bad for a woman giving birth, the beneficial effects of UV-radiation outweigh the adverse effects like aged skin and skin tumors of various grades of malignancy that usually only afflict us at older age...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218469/diagnostic-accuracy-of-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-using-vivascope-for-detecting-and-monitoring-skin-lesions-a-systematic-review
#10
S J Edwards, G Osei-Assibey, R Patalay, V Wakefield, C Karner
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the UK. Patients with suspicious skin lesions are assessed clinically with/without dermoscopy, and lesions still considered suspicious are then surgically removed or have the diagnosis confirmed by a punch biopsy. AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the in vivo VivaScope(©) reflective confocal microscopy (RCM) system, a noninvasive technology designed to provide a more accurate presurgical diagnosis, leading to fewer biopsies of benign lesions, or to provide greater accuracy for lesion margins...
February 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218345/risk-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-treated-with-oral-immunosuppressive-drugs
#11
Floor M Garritsen, Jorien van der Schaft, Juul M van den Reek, Klaziena Politiek, Harmieke van Os-Medendorp, Marijke van Dijk, Dirk J Hijnen, Marlies de Graaf, Carla A Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Elke M de Jong, Marie-Louise A Schuttelaar, Marjolein S Bruin-Weller
There is uncertainty about the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated with oral immunosuppressive drugs. A total of 557 patients with AD treated with these drugs in the University Medical Center Utrecht and Groningen, the Netherlands, were analysed. NMSC after oral immunosuppressive treatment was reported in 18 patients (3.2%). The standardized incidence ratio for developing SCC was 13...
February 20, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214654/programmed-cell-death-protein-1-pd-1-inhibitor-therapy-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-and-preexisting-autoimmunity-or-ipilimumab-triggered-autoimmunity
#12
Ralf Gutzmer, Anika Koop, Friedegund Meier, Jessica C Hassel, Patrick Terheyden, Lisa Zimmer, Lucie Heinzerling, Selma Ugurel, Claudia Pföhler, Anja Gesierich, Elisabeth Livingstone, Imke Satzger, Katharina C Kähler
AIM: Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors are a common treatment strategy for metastatic melanoma and other tumour entities. Clinical trials usually exclude patients with preexisting autoimmune diseases, thus experience with PD-1 inhibitor (PD-1i) in this patient population is limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Metastatic melanoma patients with preexisting autoimmune disorders or previous ipilimumab-triggered immune-related adverse events (irAE) undergoing treatment with PD-1i from seven German skin cancer centres were evaluated retrospectively with regard to flare of the preexisting autoimmunity and development of new, not preexisting irAE as well as response to PD-1i therapy...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212889/inhibition-of-proliferation-and-invasion-in-2d-and-3d-models-by-2-methoxyestradiol-in-human-melanoma-cells
#13
R R Massaro, F Faião-Flores, V W Rebecca, S Sandri, D K Alves-Fernandes, P C Pennacchi, K S M Smalley, S S Maria-Engler
Despite the recent advances in the clinical management of melanoma, there remains a need for new pharmacological approaches to treat this cancer. 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) is a metabolite of estrogen that has shown anti-tumor effects in many cancer types. In this study we show that 2ME treatment leads to growth inhibition in melanoma cells, an effect associated with entry into senescence, decreased pRb and CyclinB1 expression, increased p21/Cip1 expression and G2/M cell cycle arrest. 2ME treatment also inhibits melanoma cell growth in colony formation assays, including cell lines with acquired resistance to BRAF and BRAF+MEK inhibitors...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212537/itraconazole-exerts-its-anti-melanoma-effect-by-suppressing-hedgehog-wnt-and-pi3k-mtor-signaling-pathways
#14
Guanzhao Liang, Musang Liu, Qiong Wang, Yongnian Shen, Huan Mei, Dongmei Li, Weida Liu
Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of all skin cancers. Itraconazole, a commonly used systemic antifungal drug, has been tested for its anti-tumor effects on basal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. Whether itraconazole has any specific anti-tumor effect on melanoma remains unknown. However, the goal of this study is to investigate the effect of itraconazole on melanoma and to reveal some details of its underlying mechanism. In the in vivo xenograft mouse model, we find that itraconazole can inhibit melanoma growth and extend the survival of melanoma xenograft mice, compared to non-itraconazole-treated mice...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203671/heat-shock-antagonizes-uva-induced-responses-in-murine-melanocytes-and-melanoma-cells-an-unexpected-interaction
#15
Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Maria Nathália Moraes, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
The skin is under the influence of oscillatory factors such as light and temperature. This organ possesses a local system that controls several aspects in a time-dependent manner; moreover, the skin has a well-known set of opsins whose function is still unknown. We demonstrate that heat shock reduces Opn2 expression in normal Melan-a melanocytes, while the opposite effect is found in malignant B16-F10 cells. In both cell lines, UVA radiation increases the expression of Opn4 and melanin content. Clock genes and Xpa, a DNA repair gene, of malignant melanocytes are more responsive to UVA radiation when compared to normal cells...
February 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198461/risk-of-other-cancers-in-families-with-melanoma-novel-familial-links
#16
Christoph Frank, Jan Sundquist, Akseli Hemminki, Kari Hemminki
A family history of cutaneous melanoma ('melanoma') is a well-established risk factor for melanoma. However, less is known about the possible familial associations of melanoma with other discordant cancers. A risk for discordant cancer may provide useful information about shared genetic and environmental risk factors and it may be relevant background data in clinical genetic counseling. Using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we assessed the relative risk (RR) for any cancer in families with increasing numbers of first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma, including multiple melanoma, and in reverse order RR for melanoma in families of multiple discordant cancers...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198377/nmr-metabolic-fingerprints-of-murine-melanocyte-and-melanoma-cell-lines-application-to-biomarker-discovery
#17
Arquimedes Paixão de Santana-Filho, Thiago Jacomasso, Daniel Suss Riter, Andersson Barison, Marcello Iacomini, Sheila Maria Brochado Winnischofer, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and efforts to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasia are largely based on the use of cell lines. Metabolomics is currently undergoing great advancements towards its use to screening for disease biomarkers. Although NMR metabolomics includes both 1D and 2D methodologies, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding heteronuclear 2D NMR assignments of the metabolome from eukaryotic cell lines. The present study applied NMR-based metabolomics strategies to characterize aqueous and lipid extracts from murine melanocytes and melanoma cell lines with distinct tumorigenic potential, successfully obtaining fingerprints of the metabolites from the extracts of the cell lines by means of 2D NMR HSQC correlation maps...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198367/usp9x-regulates-ets-1-ubiquitination-and-stability-to-control-nras-expression-and-tumorigenicity-in-melanoma
#18
Harish Potu, Luke F Peterson, Malathi Kandarpa, Anupama Pal, Hanshi Sun, Alison Durham, Paul W Harms, Peter C Hollenhorst, Ugur Eskiocak, Moshe Talpaz, Nicholas J Donato
ETS transcription factors are commonly deregulated in cancer by chromosomal translocation, overexpression or post-translational modification to induce gene expression programs essential in tumorigenicity. Targeted destruction of these proteins may have therapeutic impact. Here we report that Ets-1 destruction is regulated by the deubiquitinating enzyme, Usp9x, and has major impact on the tumorigenic program of metastatic melanoma. Ets-1 deubiquitination blocks its proteasomal destruction and enhances tumorigenicity, which could be reversed by Usp9x knockdown or inhibition...
February 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196297/targeting-invasive-properties-of-melanoma-cells
#19
REVIEW
Imanol Arozarena, Claudia Wellbrock
Melanoma is a skin cancer notorious for its metastatic potential. As an initial step of the metastatic cascade melanoma cells part from the primary tumour and invade the surrounding tissue, which is crucial for their dissemination and the formation of distant secondary tumours. Over the last two decades our understanding of both, general and melanoma specific mechanisms of invasion has significantly improved, but to date no efficient therapeutic strategy tackling the invasive properties of melanoma cells has reached the clinic...
February 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195576/the-mole-mapper-study-mobile-phone-skin-imaging-and-melanoma-risk-data-collected-using-researchkit
#20
Dan E Webster, Christine Suver, Megan Doerr, Erin Mounts, Lisa Domenico, Tracy Petrie, Sancy A Leachman, Andrew D Trister, Brian M Bot
Sensor-embedded phones are an emerging facilitator for participant-driven research studies. Skin cancer research is particularly amenable to this approach, as phone cameras enable self-examination and documentation of mole abnormalities that may signal a progression towards melanoma. Aggregation and open sharing of this participant-collected data can be foundational for research and the development of early cancer detection tools. Here we describe data from Mole Mapper, an iPhone-based observational study built using the Apple ResearchKit framework...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
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