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primordial follicles start growth

Radoslava Vlčková, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Drahomíra Sopková, Zdenka Hertelyová, Katarzyna Kozioł, Marek Koziorowski, Soňa Gancarčíková
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of dietary flaxseed on the endocrine and ovarian functions of weanling gilts challenged with E. coli and Coronavirus infections treated with dietary probiotic cheeses and to understand the possible mechanisms of its effects on ovarian function. Probiotics were used as a natural substitution for antibiotics and 10% dietary flaxseed is an effective prebiotic which supports the action of probiotics and has other beneficial effects on the organism. Probiotics with or without flaxseed were fed to weanling gilts starting 10 days before and lasting up until 14 days after weaning...
June 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Kento Miura, Chiharu Murata, Kyoko Harikae, Hitomi Suzuki, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Masamichi Kurohmaru, Naoki Tsunekawa, Yoshiakira Kanai
In mouse ovaries, the first wave of folliculogenesis perinatally starts near the medullary region, which directs the initial round of follicular growth soon after birth. At the same time, cortical primordial follicles start forming in the ovarian surface region, and then some are cyclically recruited for the second and subsequent rounds of follicular growth. Recent studies suggest different dynamics between the first and subsequent waves of follicular growth in postnatal ovaries. However, the phenotypic differences between these phases remain unclear...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Tatiana D Saccon, Fabiana Moreira, Luis A Cruz, Rafael G Mondadori, Yimin Fang, Carlos C Barros, L Spinel, A Bartke, Michal M Masternak, A Schneider
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth hormone (GH) in the maintenance of the ovarian primordial follicle reserve. Ovaries from 16 mo old GH-deficient Ames Dwarf (df/df) and Normal (N/df) mice were used. A subgroup of df/df and N mice received GH or saline injections for six weeks starting at 14 mo of age. In addition, ovaries from 12 mo old mice overexpressing bovine GH (bGH) and controls were used. df/df mice had higher number of primordial and total follicles than N/df mice (p < 0...
November 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sandhya Anand, Hiren Patel, Deepa Bhartiya
BACKGROUND: Extensive research is ongoing to empower cancer survivors to have biological parenthood. For this, sperm are cryopreserved prior to therapy and in younger children testicular biopsies are cryopreserved with a hope to mature the germ cells into sperm later on for assisted reproduction. In addition, lot of hope was bestowed on pluripotent embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into sperm and oocytes. However, obtaining functional gametes from pluripotent stem cells still remains a distant dream and major bottle-neck appears to be their inefficient differentiation into primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
I R Brito, A D Sales, G Q Rodrigues, C H Lobo, S V Castro, A W B Silva, A A A Moura, J R V Silva, A P R Rodrigues, J R Figueiredo
This study evaluated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and immunolocalization of all members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family in caprine ovaries by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Detectable levels of PDGF-A mRNA were not observed in primordial follicles. Higher levels of PDGF-B mRNA were observed in primary follicles than in primordial follicles (P < 0.05). PDGF-D mRNA levels were higher in secondary follicles than in the other preantral follicle categories (P < 0...
April 2015: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Katarzyna Knapczyk-Stwora, Malgorzata Grzesiak, Malgorzata Duda, Marek Koziorowski, Jerzy Galas, Maria Slomczynska
INTRODUCTION: We have recently demonstrated that antiandrogen treatment during fetal life resulted in delayed folliculogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of androgen deficiency induced by flutamide on the expression of TGFβ superfamily members and their receptors which are involved in follicle formation and its transition to the primary stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide (for seven days, 50 mg/day/kg b...
2014: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Katarzyna Knapczyk-Stwora, Malgorzata Grzesiak, Malgorzata Duda, Marek Koziorowski, Maria Slomczynska
In pigs, primordial to primary follicle transition occur in the late pregnancy. The interactions between Kit ligand (KL) and its receptor (c-Kit), as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and cognate receptor (IGF1R) are crucial for the primordial follicle activation. It is well established that hormonal disruption induces abnormalities in the developing reproductive system. Hence, this study investigated the influence of antiandrogen, flutamide, on genes involved in the primordial to primary follicle transition...
November 30, 2013: Animal Reproduction Science
Maurizio Zuccotti, Carlo Alberto Redi, Silvia Garagna
The sequence of papers starts with an interview of David Albertini and his extraordinary contribution to the knowledge of 'the most wondrous of cells--the oocyte' and follows with a road map of the life of an oocyte from its origin as a primordial germ cell (PGC) to completion of maturation, evidencing the hurdles encountered during this troubled journey. The female gamete is followed during its migration as a PGC towards the gonadal ridge (Mamsen et al.) and during its entry into meiosis (Spiller et al.), when, for the first time, we are able to read a whole genome transcriptional portrait of precious human PGCs in a comparative analysis with that of the mouse (Diedrichs et al...
2012: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Niannian Chen, Yu Li, Wenjun Wang, Yun Ma, Dongzi Yang, Qingxue Zhang
Recruitment of primordial follicles is essential for female fertility. Some of the intraovarian growth factors involved in the initiation of primordial follicle growth have been identified, but the exact mechanisms regulating follicle activation are poorly understood. Strong evidence indicates that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide found in ovarian nerves, plays a role in the physiology of follicle development and function. The aim of the present study was to determine whether VIP might regulate the activation and growth of neonatal rat primordial follicles in an in vitro culture system...
January 2013: Biology of Reproduction
J E Hornick, F E Duncan, L D Shea, T K Woodruff
BACKGROUND: In vitro follicle growth is a promising fertility preservation strategy in which ovarian follicles are cultured to produce mature and fertilization-competent oocytes. However, in primates, there has been limited success with in vitro follicle growth starting from primordial and primary follicles because adequate isolation methods and culture strategies have not been established. Understanding how to use primordial follicles for fertility preservation has significant implications because these follicles are the most abundant in the ovary, are found in all females and are fairly resistant to cryopreservation and chemotherapeutics...
June 2012: Human Reproduction
Céline J Guigon, Michel Cohen-Tannoudji
The production of fertilizable ova is the consequence of multiple events that start as soon as ovarian development and culminate at the time of ovulation. Throughout their development, germ cells are associated with companion somatic cells, which ensure germ cell survival, growth and maturation. Data obtained in vitro and in vivo on several animal models of germ cell depletion have led to uncover the many roles of germ cells on both ovarian development and folliculogenesis. During ovarian development, germ cells become progressively enclosed within epithelial structures called "ovigerous cords" constituted by pregranulosa cells, lined by a basement membrane...
2011: Biologie Aujourd'hui
Sergio Parco, Caterina Novelli, Fulvia Vascotto, Tanja Princi
BACKGROUND: The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric protein secreted by the female ovaries and has two fundamental roles in follicle genesis. It delays the entrance of the primordial follicle into the pool of follicles in growth and diminishes the sensitivity of the ovarian follicle towards follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The purpose of this work was to study the AMH (nv 2.0-6.8 ng/mL) as a marker during assisted reproductive technology (ART), in order to identify cases of infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)...
2011: International Journal of General Medicine
Catherine Poirot, Benoît Schubert
Gonadotoxic therapies during childhood may impair future fertility in adult life and fertility preservation techniques should be discussed before starting gonadotoxic therapies. In both sexes, fertility preservation often means immature gametes cryopreservation. For girls, ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only existing option to preserve fertility in prepubertal girls at risk of premature ovarian failure. This promising approach involves the storage of a large number of follicles, which could subsequently be transplanted or cultured to obtain mature oocytes...
May 2011: Bulletin du Cancer
Malgorzata E Skaznik-Wikiel, Rakesh K Sharma, Kaisa Selesniemi, Ho-Joon Lee, Jonathan L Tilly, Tommaso Falcone
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), stem cell factor (SCF), or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improve the outcome of ovarian grafting. DESIGN: Experimental animal study. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital, animal facilities. ANIMAL(S): Young adult (6- to 8-week-old) C57BL/6 female mice. INTERVENTION(S): Orthotopic transplantation of the frozen-thawed ovary...
March 15, 2011: Fertility and Sterility
Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Takashi Miyano
Mammalian ovaries are endowed with a huge number of small oocytes (primordial oocytes) in primordial follicles. A small number of primordial oocytes start to grow, while others remain quiescent. Little is known about the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes. Recently, we found that primordial follicles in mature cows and prepubertal pigs took longer to initiate growth in xenografts compared with those in neonatal animals. We think that primordial oocytes in adult mammals are different from those in neonatal mammals...
December 2010: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Fiona J Stansfield, Helen M Picton, J O Nöthling
Information on the ovarian follicle reserve in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is lacking. This study set out to determine the ratios of early preantral follicles and their relative dimensions in the ovaries of 16 African elephant aged 10-34 years. The ovaries were sectioned histologically. Follicles were counted and classified according to expansion of the pre-granulosa cells. Early primary follicles were the most common (75.8%±11.8%), followed by true primary follicles (23.8%±11.8%), whereas primordial follicles were the most rare (<2%)...
January 2011: Animal Reproduction Science
Jason Pacchiarotti, Chad Maki, Thomas Ramos, Joel Marh, Kyle Howerton, Jadelind Wong, Jane Pham, Sandra Anorve, Yung-Chiong Chow, Fariborz Izadyar
General belief in reproductive biology is that in most mammals female germ line stem cells are differentiated to primary oocytes during fetal development and oogenesis starts from a pool of primordial follicles after birth. This idea has been challenged previously by using follicle kinetics studies and demonstration of mitotically active germ cells in the postnatal mouse ovary (Johnson et al., 2004; Kerr et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2008). However, the existence of a population of self-renewing ovarian germ line stem cells in postnatal mammals is still controversial (Eggan et al...
March 2010: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Jibak Lee, Mai Zengyo, Takashi Miyano
Mammalian ovaries are endowed with a large number of primordial follicles, each containing a nongrowing oocyte. Only a small population of primordial oocytes (oocytes in primordial follicles) is activated to enter the growth phase throughout a female's reproductive life. Little is known about the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes. Here, we found that the primordial oocytes from infant pigs (10- to 20-day-old) grew to full size at 2 months after xenografting to immunodeficient mice, whereas those from prepubertal pigs (6-month-old) survived without initiation of their growth even after 4 months; thereafter, they started to grow and reached full size after 6 months...
February 2010: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Manuela Monti, CarloAlberto Redi
Using a semi-quantitative, single-cell sensitive RT-PCR method, we studied the expression of oogenesis specific genes (Nobox, Oct4, Bmp15, Gdf9, Oogenesin1 and Oogenesin2) in single oocytes collected from primordial, primary, secondary, preantral and antral follicles during natural and gonadotropin-induced mouse follicular development. We compared the number of transcripts of these genes, showing that they are differentially expressed, both in natural conditions and under gonadotropin-induction throughout the assessed developmental stages...
October 2009: Molecular Reproduction and Development
P Da Silva-Buttkus, G Marcelli, S Franks, J Stark, K Hardy
Female mammals are born with a lifetime's supply of oocytes individually enveloped in flattened epithelial cells to form primordial follicles. It is not clear how sufficient primordial follicles are maintained to sustain the reproductive lifespan, while providing an adequate supply of mature oocytes for ovulation. Locally produced growth factors are thought to be critical regulators of early follicle growth, but knowledge of their identity and source remains incomplete. Here, we have used a simple approach of spatial analysis of structures in histological tissue sections to identify likely sources of such regulatory molecules, narrowing the field for future screening for candidate growth factors or antagonists...
January 13, 2009: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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