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cofilin rod

Jamie L Wilson, Rod Warburton, Linda Taylor, Deniz Toksoz, Nicholas Hill, Peter Polgar
Contraction of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) isolated from pulmonary arterial hypertensive (PAH) and normal (non-PAH) subject lungs was determined and measured with real-time electrical impedance. Treatment of HPASMC with vasoactive peptides, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and bradykinin (BK) but not angiotensin II, induced a temporal decrease in the electrical impedance profile mirroring constrictive morphological change of the cells which typically was more robust in PAH as opposed to non-PAH cells...
2018: PloS One
F Fattori, C Fiorillo, C Rodolico, G Tasca, M Verardo, E Bellacchio, S Pizzi, A Ciolfi, G Fagiolari, A Lupica, P Broda, M Pedemonte, M Moggio, C Bruno, M Tartaglia, E Bertini, A D'Amico
Congenital myopathies (CMs) caused by mutation in cofilin-2 gene (CFL2) show phenotypic heterogeneity ranging from early-onset and rapid progressive forms to milder myopathy. Muscle histology is also heterogeneous showing rods and/or myofibrillar changes. Here, we report on three new cases, from two unrelated families, of severe CM related to novel homozygous or compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in CFL2. Peculiar histopathological changes showed nemaline bodies and thin filaments accumulations together to myofibrillar changes, which were evocative of the muscle findings observed in Cfl2-/- knockout mouse model...
June 2018: Clinical Genetics
Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Ruchi Malwade, Ravisankar Vanka, Venkata Prasuja Nakka, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Phanithi Prakash Babu
OBJECTIVE: Loss of cognition even after survival is the salient feature of cerebral malaria (CM). Currently, the fate of neuronal morphology is not studied at the ultrastructural level in CM. Recent studies suggest that maintenance of neuronal morphology and dendritic spine density (actin dynamics in particular) are essential for proper cognitive function. LIMK-1/cofilin-1 signaling pathway is known to be involved in the maintenance of actin dynamics through regulation of cofilin-1, and in executing learning and memory functions...
September 2017: Annals of Neurology
Ellen Townes-Anderson, Jianfeng Wang, Éva Halász, Ilene Sugino, Amy Pitler, Ian Whitehead, Marco Zarbin
PURPOSE: Retinal detachment disrupts the rod-bipolar synapse in the outer plexiform layer by retraction of rod axons. We showed that breakage is due to RhoA activation whereas inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK), using Y27632, reduces synaptic damage. We test whether the ROCK inhibitor fasudil, used for other clinical applications, can prevent synaptic injury after detachment. METHODS: Detachments were made in pigs by subretinal injection of balanced salt solution (BSS) or fasudil (1, 10 mM)...
June 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Zofia Ostrowska, Joanna Moraczewska
Cofilins are evolutionary conserved proteins present in all Eukaryotic cells. Their primary function is dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. Two cofilin isoforms are known: cofilin 1, present in all studied non-muscle cells and in embryonic muscle cells, and cofilin 2, which dominates in mature skeletal and cardiac muscles. Polypeptide chains of both isoforms fold into a structure homological to a conservative ADF (actin depolymerizing factor) domain, which is characteristic of actin depolymerizing factor...
May 5, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Alexander Kukalev, Yiu-Ming Ng, Limei Ju, Amal Saidi, Sophie Lane, Angeles Mondragon, Dirk Dormann, Sophie E Walker, William Grey, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, David N Stephens, Antony M Carr, Karri Lamsa, Eric Tse, Veronica P C C Yu
In mitotic cells, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) subunit protein CKS1 regulates S phase entry by mediating degradation of the CDK inhibitor p27. Although mature neurons lack mitotic CDKs, we found that CKS1 was actively expressed in post-mitotic neurons of the adult hippocampus. Interestingly, Cks1 knockout (Cks1-/-) mice exhibited poor long-term memory, and diminished maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal circuits. Furthermore, there was neuronal accumulation of cofilin-actin rods or cofilin aggregates, which are associated with defective dendritic spine maturation and synaptic loss...
January 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Hellen C Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Wioleta Daszkiewicz, Michael Schleicher, Annette Müller-Taubenberger
Intranuclear rods are aggregates consisting of actin and cofilin that are formed in the nucleus in consequence of chemical or mechanical stress conditions. The formation of rods is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, such as certain myopathies and some neurological disorders. It is still not well understood what exactly triggers the formation of intranuclear rods, whether other proteins are involved, and what the underlying mechanisms of rod assembly or disassembly are. In this study, Dictyostelium discoideum was used to examine appearance, stages of assembly, composition, stability, and dismantling of rods...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Leonid A Serebryannyy, Michaela Yuen, Megan Parilla, Sandra T Cooper, Primal de Lanerolle
Actin plays a crucial role in regulating multiple processes within the nucleus, including transcription and chromatin organization. However, the polymerization state of nuclear actin remains controversial, and there is no evidence for persistent actin filaments in a normal interphase nucleus. Further, several disease pathologies are characterized by polymerization of nuclear actin into stable filaments or rods. These include filaments that stain with phalloidin, resulting from point mutations in skeletal α-actin, detected in the human skeletal disease intranuclear rod myopathy, and cofilin/actin rods that form in response to cellular stressors like heatshock...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Weiwei Wang, Ellen Townes-Anderson
The structural plasticity of synaptic terminals contributes to normal nervous system function but also to neural degeneration, in the form of terminal retraction, and regeneration, due to process growth. Synaptic morphological change is mediated through the actin cytoskeleton, which is enriched in axonal and dendritic terminals. Whereas the three RhoGTPases, RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac, function as upstream signaling nodes sensitive to extracellular stimuli, LIMK-cofilin activity serves as a common downstream effector to up-regulate actin turnover, which is necessary for both polymerization and depolymerization...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Daniel J Kelpsch, Christopher M Groen, Tiffany N Fagan, Sweta Sudhir, Tina L Tootle
Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Junjiang Jin, Ying Dong, Ying Wang, Lin Xia, Weihong Gu, Xue Bai, Yanan Chang, Mingyi Zhang, Kui Chen, Juan Li, Lina Zhao, Gengmei Xing
Fullerenol nanoparticles are promising for various biological applications; many studies have shown that they induce variable and diverse biological effects including side effects. Separation and purification of two fractions of fullerenols has demonstrated that they have varied chemical structures on the surfaces of their carbon cages. Actin is an important structural protein that is able to transform functional structures under varied physiological conditions. We assessed the abilities of the two fractions of fullerenols to attach to actin and induce variable morphological features in actin filament structures...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
James R Bamburg, Barbara W Bernstein
Cytoskeletal abnormalities and synaptic loss, typical of both familial and sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD), are induced by diverse stresses such as neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and energetic stress, each of which may be initiated or enhanced by proinflammatory cytokines or amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Extracellular Aβ-containing plaques and intracellular phospho-tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles are postmortem pathologies required to confirm AD and have been the focus of most studies. However, AD brain, but not normal brain, also have increased levels of cytoplasmic rod-shaped bundles of filaments composed of ADF/cofilin-actin in a 1:1 complex (rods)...
September 2016: Cytoskeleton
Buer Sen, Zhihui Xie, Gunes Uzer, William R Thompson, Maya Styner, Xin Wu, Janet Rubin
Depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton induces nuclear trafficking of regulatory proteins and global effects on gene transcription. We here show that in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cytochalasin D treatment causes rapid cofilin-/importin-9-dependent transfer of G-actin into the nucleus. The continued presence of intranuclear actin, which forms rod-like structures that stain with phalloidin, is associated with induction of robust expression of the osteogenic genes osterix and osteocalcin in a Runx2-dependent manner, and leads to acquisition of osteogenic phenotype...
October 2015: Stem Cells
Ben Chen, Yun Wang
Cofilin-1 is a major actin depolymerizer in the central nervous system. It is a member of the ADF/cofilin family that regulates the dynamics of actin filaments. The activity of cofilin-1 is regulated by the modulation of phosphorylation at its Ser3 residue, and its proper function is crucial for the structure and proper function of neurons. Cofilin rods, pathological structures composed of cofilin and actin, form under stress conditions. A high cofilin/F-actin ratio, cofilin dephosphorylation and/or cofilin oxidation are three major mechanisms of cofilin rod formation...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Irina Surgucheva, Shuangteng He, Megan C Rich, Ram Sharma, Natalia N Ninkina, Philip F Stahel, Andrei Surguchov
Synucleins are small prone to aggregate proteins associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), however their role in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an emerging area of investigation. Using in vitro scratch injury model and in vivo mouse weight-drop model we have found that the injury causes alterations in the expression and localization of synucleins near the damaged area. Before injury, α-synuclein is diffused in the cytoplasm of neurons and γ-synuclein is both in the cytoplasm and nucleus of oligodendrocytes...
November 2014: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Keifer P Walsh, Thomas B Kuhn, James R Bamburg
Increasing evidence suggests that proteins exhibiting "prion-like" behavior cause distinct neurodegenerative diseases, including inherited, sporadic and acquired types. The conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to its infectious protease resistant counterpart (PrP(Res)) is the essential feature of prion diseases. However, PrP(C) also performs important functions in transmembrane signaling, especially in neurodegenerative processes. Beta-amyloid (Aβ) synaptotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction in mouse models of Alzheimer disease are mediated by a PrP(C)-dependent pathway...
2014: Prion
Tasnim Rahman, Danielle S Davies, Rudi K Tannenberg, Sandra Fok, Claire Shepherd, Peter R Dodd, Karen M Cullen, Claire Goldsbury
BACKGROUND: Imaging of human brain as well as cellular and animal models has highlighted a role for the actin cytoskeleton in the development of cell pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rods and aggregates of the actin-associated protein cofilin are abundant in grey matter of postmortem AD brain and rods are found inside neurites in animal and cell models of AD. OBJECTIVE: We sought further understanding of the significance of cofilin rods/aggregates to the disease process: Do rods/aggregates correlate with AD progression and the development of hallmark neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads? Are cofilin rods/aggregates found in the same neurites as hyperphosphorylated tau? METHODS: The specificity of rods/aggregates to AD compared with general aging and their spatial relationship to tau protein was examined in postmortem human hippocampus, inferior temporal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex...
2014: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Patrícia Schönhofen, Liana Marengo de Medeiros, Carolina Piletti Chatain, Ivi Juliana Bristot, Fábio Klamt
Cofilin-1 protein, which main function is to regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics, appears to be involved with many steps in the neurotoxicity processes found in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). As the dynamics of actin filaments play a major role in several cellular processes, the primary involvement of cofilin-1 dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of these disorders may be related to a cytoskeleton stress. However, recently cofilin-1 has also been related to other biological processes such as cell death by apoptosis...
May 2014: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Keifer P Walsh, Laurie S Minamide, Sarah J Kane, Alisa E Shaw, David R Brown, Bruce Pulford, Mark D Zabel, J David Lambeth, Thomas B Kuhn, James R Bamburg
Neurites of neurons under acute or chronic stress form bundles of filaments (rods) containing 1∶1 cofilin∶actin, which impair transport and synaptic function. Rods contain disulfide cross-linked cofilin and are induced by treatments resulting in oxidative stress. Rods form rapidly (5-30 min) in >80% of cultured hippocampal or cortical neurons treated with excitotoxic levels of glutamate or energy depleted (hypoxia/ischemia or mitochondrial inhibitors). In contrast, slow rod formation (50% of maximum response in ∼6 h) occurs in a subpopulation (∼20%) of hippocampal neurons upon exposure to soluble human amyloid-β dimer/trimer (Aβd/t) at subnanomolar concentrations...
2014: PloS One
Yan-Ting Zhang, Li-Hui Xu, Qun Lu, Kun-Peng Liu, Pei-Yan Liu, Fang Ji, Xiao-Ming Liu, Dong-Yun Ouyang, Xian-Hui He
Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a potent antineoplastic agent of cucurbitacin triterpenoids, induces rapid disruption of actin cytoskeleton and aberrant cell cycle inhibiting carcinogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of such anticancer effects remains incompletely understood. In this study, we showed that CuB treatment rapidly induced vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation (i.e. activation) at the Ser157 residue and generated VASP clumps which were co-localized with amorphous actin aggregates prior to the formation of highly-ordered cofilin-actin rods in melanoma cells...
2014: PloS One
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