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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138111/recent-advances-in-melanoma-research-via-omics-platforms
#1
REVIEW
Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira, Alberto Molares-Vila, Miguel Carnero-Gregorio, Alberte Corbalán-Rivas
Melanoma has a high mortality rate and metastatic melanoma is highly resistant to conventional therapies. "Omics" fields such as proteomics and microRNA and exosome studies have provided new knowledge to complement the information generated by genomic studies. This work aimed to review the current status of biomarker discovery for melanoma through multi-"omics" platforms. A few sets of novel microRNAs and proteins are described, some of them with important implications in suppressing melanoma at different stages...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137675/human-hyaluronic-acid-synthase-1-promotes-malignant-transformation-via-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-micronucleation-and-centrosome-abnormalities
#2
Nguyet Nguyen, Awanit Kumar, Simi Chacko, Rodney J Ouellette, Anirban Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Human hyaluronic acid (HA) molecules are synthesized by three membrane spanning Hyaluronic Acid Synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3). Of the three, HAS1 is found to be localized more into the cytoplasmic space where it synthesizes intracellular HA. HA is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan, mainly present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the cell surface, but are also detected intracellularly. Accumulation of HA in cancer cells, the cancer-surrounding stroma, and ECM is generally considered an independent prognostic factors for patients...
November 14, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137349/tumor-trp53-status-and-genotype-affect-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#3
Rodrigo Jacamo, R Eric Davis, Xiaoyang Ling, Sonali Sonnylal, Zhiqiang Wang, Wencai Ma, Min Zhang, Peter Ruvolo, Vivian Ruvolo, Rui-Yu Wang, Teresa McQueen, Scott Lowe, Johannes Zuber, Steven M Kornblau, Marina Konopleva, Michael Andreeff
The genetic heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the variable responses of individual patients to therapy suggest that different AML genotypes may influence the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in different ways. We performed gene expression profiling of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) isolated from normal C57BL/6 mice or mice inoculated with syngeneic murine leukemia cells carrying different human AML genotypes, developed in mice with Trp53 wild-type or nullgenetic backgrounds...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116032/single-cell-transcriptomics-suggest-that-human-adipocyte-progenitor-cells-constitute-a-homogeneous-cell-population
#4
Juan R Acosta, Simon Joost, Kasper Karlsson, Anna Ehrlund, Xidan Li, Myriam Aouadi, Maria Kasper, Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén, Jurga Laurencikiene
Regulation of adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs) and adipogenesis impact the development of excess body fat-related metabolic complications. Animal studies have suggested the presence of distinct subtypes of ASCs with different differentiation properties. In addition, ASCs are becoming the biggest source of mesenchymal stem cells used in therapies, which requires deep characterization. Using unbiased single cell transcriptomics we aimed to characterize ASC populations in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT)...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108245/reversion-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-a-novel-agent-dz-50-via-igf-binding-protein-3-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#5
Zheng Cao, Shahriar Koochekpour, Stephen E Strup, Natasha Kyprianou
Dysregulation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been linked to reactive stroma dynamics in prostate cancer progression. IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) induction is initiated by stroma remodeling and could represent a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer. In previous studies a lead quinazoline-based Doxazosin® derivative, DZ-50, impaired prostate tumor growth by targeting proteins involved in focal adhesion, anoikis resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070148/molecular-mechanisms-driving-cholangiocarcinoma-invasiveness-an-overview
#6
Simone Brivio, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Luca Fabris, Mario Strazzabosco
The acquisition of invasive functions by tumor cells is a first and crucial step towards the development of metastasis,which nowadays represents the main cause of cancer-related death. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a primary liver cancer originating from the biliary epithelium, typically develops intrahepatic or lymph node metastases at early stages, thus preventing the majority of patients from undergoing curative treatments, consistent with their very poor prognosis. As in most carcinomas, CCA cells gradually adopt a motile, mesenchymal-like phenotype, enabling them to cross the basement membrane, detach from the primary tumor, and invade the surrounding stroma...
October 25, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034543/pd-l1-expression-is-mainly-regulated-by-interferon-gamma-associated-with-jak-stat-pathway-in-gastric-cancer
#7
Kousaku Mimura, Jun Liang Teh, Hirokazu Okayama, Kensuke Shiraishi, Ley-Fang Kua, Vivien Koh, Duane T Smoot, Hassan Ashktorab, Takahiro Oike, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Zul Fazreen, Bernadette R Asuncion, Asim Shabbir, Wei-Peng Yong, Jimmy So, Richie Soong, Koji Kono
Despite multidisciplinary treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer, their prognosis remains poor. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic strategies is urgently needed, and immunotherapy utilizing anti-programmed death 1/-programmed death ligand-1 mAb is an attractive approach. However, as there is limited information on how programmed death ligand-1 is upregulated on tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment, we examined the mechanism of programmed death ligand-1 regulation with a particular focus on interferon gamma in an in vitro setting and in clinical samples...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024236/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-provide-long-term-survival-after-total-body-irradiation-without-additional-hematopoietic-stem-cell-support
#8
Jill-Sandra Schoefinius, Bärbel Brunswig-Spickenheier, Thomas Speiseder, Sabrina Krebs, Ursula Just, Claudia Lange
The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in tissue regeneration is based mainly on the secretion of bioactive molecules. Here, we report that the radioprotective effect of mouse bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSC) can be attributed to extracellular vesicles (EV) released from mMSC. The transplantation of mMSC-derived EV into lethally irradiated mice resulted in long-term survival but no improvement in short-term reconstitution of the recipients. Importantly, the radiation rescue was efficient without additional hematopoietic support...
October 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992748/composition-of-the-stroma-in-the-human-endometrium-and-endometriosis
#9
Lutz Konrad, Jessica Kortum, Rai Nabham, Judith Gronbach, Raimund Dietze, Frank Oehmke, Eniko Berkes, Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg
To analyze whether the endometrial and endometriotic microenvironment is involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, we characterized the stromal composition. We used CD90 for fibroblasts, α-smooth muscle actin for myofibroblasts as well as CD10 and CD140b for mesenchymal stromal cells. Quantification of eutopic endometrial stroma of cases without endometriosis showed a high percentage of stromal cells positive for CD140b (80.7%) and CD10 (67.4%), a moderate number of CD90-positive cells (57.9%), and very few α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells (8...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984647/functional-genomics-of-stromal-cells-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#10
Kamil Slowikowski, Kevin Wei, Michael B Brenner, Soumya Raychaudhuri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroma is a broad term referring to the connective tissue matrix in which other cells reside. It is composed of diverse cell types with functions such as extracellular matrix maintenance, blood and lymph vessel development, and effector cell recruitment. The tissue microenvironment is determined by the molecular characteristics and relative abundances of different stromal cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes, and mesenchymal precursor cells. Stromal cell heterogeneity is explained by embryonic developmental lineage, stages of differentiation to other cell types, and activation states...
October 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970051/pdgf-receptors-in-tumor-stroma-biological-effects-and-associations-with-prognosis-and-response-to-treatment
#11
Arne Östman
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and their receptors (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) regulate mesenchymal cells, such as fibroblasts and pericytes. These cells are important constituents of tumor stroma where they impact on tumor growth, metastasis and drug response. Studies in model systems have demonstrated ability of the PDGF system to regulate the tumor-stimulatory effects of fibroblasts, as well as their ability to promote cancer cell migration and invasion. Animal studies imply PDGFR-signaling as a regulator of tumor drug uptake...
September 29, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969269/role-of-cathepsin-b-as-a-marker-of-malignant-transformation-in-oral-lichen-planus-an-immunohistochemical-study
#12
Krishnanand Prakash Satelur, Shiny Bopaiah, Radhika Manoj Bavle, Prashant Ramachandra
INTRODUCTION: Malignant transformation of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) remains a much discussed but very less understood realm. Various hypotheses and theories have been put forward to explain the same. Malignant transformation is a complex interplay of epithelial mesenchymal factors acting in tandem. This study tries to identify and asses the stromal changes that pave the way for epithelial migration using Cathepsin B (CB) a cysteine protease belonging to the Cathepsin family. Various studies have been done to study its role in human cancers which have proven that CB helps mark and identify tissue digestion...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942294/histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-trichoblastoma-in-the-rabbit
#13
M K Kok, J K Chambers, N Ushio, A Watamori, Y Miwa, H Nakayama, K Uchida
Trichoblastoma is the most common skin tumour in the rabbit. The aim of the present study was to characterize the histological and immunohistochemical features of trichoblastoma in 27 rabbits. Common sites of tumour occurrence were the neck (6/30, 20%), head (5/30, 16.7%), flank (4/30, 13.3%) and hindlimb (4/30, 13.3%). Histologically, rabbit trichoblastoma was categorized into ribbon (10/30, 33.3%), trabecular (8/30, 26.7%) and mixed types (12/30, 40%). The tumour tissue showed close interaction with the surrounding stroma where prominent fibroblastic aggregation, known as papillary mesenchymal bodies, was frequently observed (24/30; 80%)...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941454/components-of-the-hepatocellular-carcinoma-microenvironment-and-their-role-in-tumor-progression
#14
REVIEW
M V Novikova, N V Khromova, P B Kopnin
This review summarizes recently published data on the mechanisms of tumor cell interaction with the tumor microenvironment. Tumor stroma influences the processes of hepatocarcinogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment includes both cellular and noncellular components. Main cellular components of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stroma are tumor-associated fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, immune cells, and endothelial cells that produce extracellular components of tumor microenvironment such as extracellular matrix, various proteins, proteolytic enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines...
August 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940884/involvement-of-pdgf-ligands-and-receptors-in-tumorigenesis
#15
REVIEW
Carl-Henrik Heldin, Johan Lennartsson, Bengt Westermark
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms and their receptors have important roles during embryogenesis, particularly in the development of various mesenchymal cell types in different organs. In the adult, PDGF stimulates wound healing and regulates tissue homeostasis. However, over-activity of PDGF signaling is associated with malignancies and other diseases characterized by excessive cell proliferation, such as fibrotic conditions and atherosclerosis. In certain tumors, genetic or epigenetic alterations of the genes for PDGF ligands and receptors drives tumor cell proliferation and survival...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928542/developmental-contribution-of-wnt-signal-responsive-cells-to-mouse-reproductive-tract-formation
#16
Ryuma Haraguchi, Riko Kitazawa, Aki Murashima, Gen Yamada, Sohei Kitazawa
In mammals, the müllerian duct (MD) is an embryonic tubular structure that gives rise to the female reproductive tract (FRT). The MD originates from the coelomic epithelium (CoE) and takes on a rostral to caudal shape to establish the primary structure of the FRT under the regulation of morphogenetic signals. During these developmental processes, the MD and its derivatives require proper regulation of the Wnt-signaling-pathway. Here, to investigate the developmental contribution of FRT primordia under the influence of the Wnt-signaling, genetic lineage tracing was carried out using TopCreER/Rosa-LacZ mice to follow the fate of Wnt-signal-responsive cells during reproductive tract formation...
August 25, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914981/fna-cytology-of-solitary-fibrous-tumors-and-the-diagnostic-value-of-stat6-immunocytochemistry
#17
Edneia Tani, Johan Wejde, Kristina Åström, Inga-Lill Wingmo, Olle Larsson, Felix Haglund
BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors commonly located in the pleura, soft tissues, or meninges and are characterized by the NGFI-A-binding protein 2 (NAB2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) fusion gene. Recent studies have indicated that nuclear STAT6 immunohistochemistry is a specific marker for SFTs. METHODS: The authors reviewed fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from extracranial SFTs diagnosed at their institution between 1993 and 2017...
September 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911825/paving-the-rho-in-cancer-metastasis-rho-gtpases-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Sepp Jansen, Reinoud Gosens, Thomas Wieland, Martina Schmidt
Malignant carcinomas are often characterized by metastasis, the movement of carcinoma cells from a primary site to colonize distant organs. For metastasis to occur, carcinoma cells first must adopt a pro-migratory phenotype and move through the surrounding stroma towards a blood or lymphatic vessel. Currently, there are very limited possibilities to target these processes therapeutically. The family of Rho GTPases is an ubiquitously expressed division of GTP-binding proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics and intracellular signaling...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903357/intratumoral-acidosis-fosters-cancer-induced-bone-pain-through-the-activation-of-the-mesenchymal-tumor-associated-stroma-in-bone-metastasis-from-breast-carcinoma
#19
Gemma Di Pompo, Silvia Lemma, Lorenzo Canti, Nadia Rucci, Marco Ponzetti, Costantino Errani, Davide Maria Donati, Shonagh Russell, Robert Gillies, Tokuhiro Chano, Nicola Baldini, Sofia Avnet
Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is common in patients with bone metastases (BM), significantly impairing quality of life. The current treatments for CIBP are limited since they are often ineffective. Local acidosis derived from glycolytic carcinoma and tumor-induced osteolysis is only barely explored cause of pain. We found that breast carcinoma cells that prefer bone as a metastatic site have very high extracellular proton efflux and expression of pumps/ion transporters associated with acid-base balance (MCT4, CA9, and V-ATPase)...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900337/mammary-myofibroblastoma-with-unusual-morphological-and-immunohistochemical-features
#20
Ons Boudaouara, Chiraz Chaari, Abdelkhalek Hassini, Tahya Sellami Boudaouara
Mammary myofibroblastoma (MFB) is a rare mesenchymal tumor, derived from mammary stromal fibro/myofibroblasts, which has various morphological features and characteristic immunohistochemical staining. The epithelioid morphologic variant is defined, accordingly, as a proliferation of exclusively or predominantly (>50%) epithelioid cells, variably embedded in a myxoid to fibrous stroma. These histological and cytological features may pose a diagnostic challenge mainly with metaplastic carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
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