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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#1
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629307/tumor-reversion-mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-as-a-critical-step-in-managing-the-tumor-microenvironment-cross-talk
#2
Mariano Bizzarri, Alessandra Cucina, Sara Proietti
Tumour reversion represents a promising field of investigation. The occurrence of cancer reversion both in vitro and in vivo has been ascertained by an increasing number of reports. The reverting process may be triggered in a wide range of different cancer types by both molecular and physical cues. This process encompasses mandatorily a change in the cell-stroma interactions, leading to profound modification in tissue architecture. Indeed, cancer reversion may be obtained by only resetting the overall burden of biophysical cues acting on the cell-stroma system, thus indicating that conformational changes induced by cell shape and cytoskeleton remodelling trigger downstream the cascade of molecular events required for phenotypic reversion...
June 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615711/identification-and-characterization-of-a-rich-population-of-cd34-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-in-human-parotid-sublingual-and-submandibular-glands
#3
Padma Priya Togarrati, Robson T Sasaki, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Nuntana Dinglasan, Xutao Deng, Shivani Desai, Elaine Emmerson, Elizabeth Yee, William R Ryan, Marcelo C P da Silva, Sarah M Knox, Satish K Pillai, Marcus O Muench
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) play crucial roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis during physiological turnovers and injuries. Very little is known about the phenotype, distribution and molecular nature of MSCs in freshly isolated human salivary glands (SGs) as most reports have focused on the analysis of cultured MSCs. Our results demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule CD34 was widely expressed by the MSCs of human major SGs, namely parotid (PAG), sublingual (SLG) and submandibular (SMG) glands...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607802/developmental-pathways-associated-with-cancer-metastasis-notch-wnt-and-hedgehog
#4
Armel Herve Nwabo Kamdje, Paul Takam Kamga, Richard Tagne Simo, Lorella Vecchio, Paul Faustin Seke Etet, Jean Marc Muller, Giulio Bassi, Erique Lukong, Raghuveera Kumar Goel, Jeremie Mbo Amvene, Mauro Krampera
Master developmental pathways, such as Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog, are signaling systems that control proliferation, cell death, motility, migration, and stemness. These systems are not only commonly activated in many solid tumors, where they drive or contribute to cancer initiation, but also in primary and metastatic tumor development. The reactivation of developmental pathways in cancer stroma favors the development of cancer stem cells and allows their maintenance, indicating these signaling pathways as particularly attractive targets for efficient anticancer therapies, especially in advanced primary tumors and metastatic cancers...
May 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589925/mesenchymal-stem-cells-support-growth-and-organization-of-host-liver-colorectal-tumor-organoids-and-possibly-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#5
Mahesh Devarasetty, Edina Wang, Shay Soker, Aleksander Skardal
Despite having yielded extensive breakthroughs in cancer research, traditional 2D cell cultures have limitations in studying cancer progression and metastasis and screening therapeutic candidates. 3D systems can allow cells to grow, migrate, and interact with each other and the surrounding matrix, resulting in more realistic constructs. Furthermore, interactions between host tissue and developing tumors influence the susceptibility of tumors to drug treatments. Host-liver colorectal-tumor spheroids composed of primary human hepatocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were created in simulated microgravity rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors...
June 7, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575019/clinicopathologic-significance-of-the-cxcl1-cxcr2-axis-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-of-gastric-carcinoma
#6
Hiroaki Kasashima, Masakazu Yashiro, Hirohisa Nakamae, Go Masuda, Haruhito Kinoshita, Tamami Morisaki, Tatsunari Fukuoka, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Takahiko Nakane, Masayuki Hino, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
PURPOSE: It was reported that the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) from cancer cells stimulated the recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BM-MCs) into tumor stroma via chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) signaling. We conducted this retrospective study to determine the clinicopathologic significance of the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis in human gastric cancer. METHODS: The correlations between the clinicopathological features of 270 primary gastric carcinomas and CXCL1 in cancer cells and CXCR2 in stromal cells were analyzed in immunohistochemical studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571791/unus-pro-omnibus-omnes-pro-uno-a-novel-evidence-based-unifying-theory-for-the-pathogenesis-of-endometriosis
#7
Antonio Simone Laganà, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Francesca Maria Salmeri, Onofrio Triolo, Helena Ban Frangež, Eda Vrtačnik-Bokal, Lily Stojanovska, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Roberta Granese, Vincenza Sofo
The theory of retrograde menstruation as aetiopathogenesis of endometriosis formulated by John Sampson in 1927 shows clear shortcomings: this does not explain why retrograde menstruation is a physiological process that affects 90% of women, while endometriosis occurs in only 10% of cases; it also does not explain the endometriotic foci distant from the pelvis, nor explains the cases of endometriosis in male patients. The immunological alterations of the peritoneal fluid explains the effects of disease, such as the inhibition of the physiological processes of cytolysis, but does not explain the cause...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560691/role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-metastatic-colon-cancer-it-is-finally-time-for-targeted-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Maria Villalba, Stephanie R Evans, Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha, Alfonso Calvo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent tumor types in Western countries. Approximately 20 % of patients show metastasis at the time of diagnosis, with the liver being one of the most affected organs. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) plays a regulatory role not only in the physiology of the normal colon but also in the development of CRC and its metastatic process. In this review, we analyze the molecular mechanisms leading to TGF-β dysregulation in tumor and stroma cells and the modification of the microenvironment that fosters CRC metastasis...
May 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549030/p40-immunostain-does-not-outperform-p63-as-a-myoepithelial-cell-marker-in-the-daily-practice-of-breast-pathology
#9
Laila Khazai, Emmanuel Agosto-Arroyo, Marilin Rosa
P40 antibody has been shown to be a more specific squamous and basal cell marker compared with p63. As detection of myoepithelial cells (MECs) plays a critical role in breast pathology, and the fact that p40 targets an isoform of p63, this study was designed to compare these antibodies in a variety of lesions, especially those with an sclerotic stroma and carcinoma in situ. All studied lesions were selected from the daily cases of the 3 authors and stained with p63, p40, and calponin immunohistochemical stains...
May 25, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548126/microrna-dysregulation-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-influences-the-phenotype-of-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Eva Karamitopoulou, Stefan Haemmig, Ulrich Baumgartner, Cornelia Schlup, Martin Wartenberg, Erik Vassella
Cellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment influence neoplastic progression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. One underlying mechanism is the induction of the prognostically unfavorable epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-like tumor budding. Our aim is to explore the expression of microRNAs implicated in the regulation of tumor budding focusing on the microenvironment of the invasive front. To this end, RNA from laser-capture-microdissected material of the main tumor, tumor buds, juxta-tumoral stroma, tumor-remote stroma, and non-neoplastic pancreatic parenchyma from pancreatic cancer cases with (n=7) and without (n=6) tumor budding was analyzed by qRT-PCR for the expression of a panel of miRNAs that are known to be implicated in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including miR-21, miR-183, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-203, miR-205, miR-210, and miR-217...
May 26, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544627/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-transcription-factors-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#11
REVIEW
Josep Baulida
Beyond inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transcription (EMT), transcriptional factors of the Snail, ZEB and Twist families (EMT-TFs) control global plasticity programs affecting cell stemness and fate. Literature addressing the reactivation of these factors in adult tumour cells is very extensive, as they enable cancer cell plasticity and fuel both tumour initiation and metastatic spread. Incipient data reveal that EMT-TFs are also expressed in fibroblasts, providing these with additional properties. Here, I will review recent reports on the expression of EMT-TFs in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544498/cancer-metastasis-through-the-prism-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-circulating-tumor-cells
#12
REVIEW
Douglas S Micalizzi, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
Metastasis of epithelial cancer cells to distal sites is a particularly critical stage of cancer progression that typically marks the incurability of the disease. It is governed by a complex series of events including invasion and intravasation of tumor cells into the stroma and blood, respectively. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenotypic change marked by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of invasive mesenchymal properties, is implicated in the dissemination of tumor cells...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542126/human-mscs-promotes-colorectal-cancer-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-progression-via-ccl5-%C3%AE-catenin-slug-pathway
#13
Ke Chen, Qianqian Liu, Lai Ling Tsang, Qiao Ye, Hsiao Chang Chan, Yunwei Sun, Xiaohua Jiang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) extensively interact with cancer cells and other stroma cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, the role of MSCs in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis is controversial. This study was designed to identify the role of inflammation-activated-MSCs in CRC development. Our results show that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-preactivated-hMSCs significantly promote the progression of colon cancer cells by enhancing cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527294/activation-of-hypoxia-signaling-in-stromal-progenitors-impairs-kidney-development
#14
Katharina Gerl, Dominik Steppan, Michaela Fuchs, Charlotte Wagner, Carsten Willam, Armin Kurtz, Birgül Kurt
Intrauterine hypoxia is a reason for impaired kidney development. The cellular and molecular pathways along which hypoxia exerts effects on nephrogenesis are not well understood. They are likely triggered by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), and their effects appear to be dependent on the cell compartment contributing to kidney formation. In this study, we investigated the effects of HIF activation in the developing renal stroma, which also essentially modulates nephron development from the metanephric mesenchyme...
July 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526992/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-in-omani-women
#15
Ritu Lakhtakia, Adil Aljarrah, Muhammad Furrukh, Shyam S Ganguly
Breast cancer (BC) in Oman affects younger women and has a more aggressive course. Clinical and biological variables like age, pregnancy, tumor size, type, grade, receptor expression and proliferation predict disease aggression but there is no direct predictor of metastasis except lymphovascular invasion. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is characterized by epithelial cells losing epithelial and acquiring mesenchymal morpho-immunophenotypic characteristics. In tumors, EMT-like transitions may signify a metastatic phenotype and have features in common with cancer stem cells (CSC) which show resistance to chemotherapy...
May 19, 2017: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524929/xeno-free-cultivation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-the-corneal-stroma
#16
Steffi Matthyssen, Sorcha Ní Dhubhghaill, Veerle Van Gerwen, Nadia Zakaria
Purpose: The human cornea has recently been described as a source of corneal stroma-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vitro expansion of these cells involves basal medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). As animal-derived serum can confer a risk of disease transmission and can be subject to considerable lot-to-lot variability, it does not comply with newer Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-required animal component-free culture protocols for clinical translation. Methods: This study investigated animal-free alternatives to FBS for cultivation of human corneal stromal MSCs...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514770/mm-bmscs-induce-na%C3%A3-ve-cd4-t-lymphocytes-dysfunction-through-fibroblast-activation-protein-%C3%AE
#17
Xiaofei Wu, Yadan Wang, Jian Xu, Ting Luo, Jun Deng, Yu Hu
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays a major role in multiple myelomas (MM). MM-BMSCs (bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells) can support tumor growth and immune surveillance escape. On the other hand, fibroblast activation protein α, expressed by cancer stroma cells including BMSCs, has been shown to potentiate epithelial cancers growth and immune suppression. RESULTS: MM-BMSC inhibited proliferation of T cells (P = 0.0138), promoted senescence of T cells (P < 0...
April 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511222/cellular-angiofibroma-of-the-spermatic-cord
#18
M Aydin, H Uzuner, E Akgunes, A Bitkin, M Kadihasanoglu
Cellular angiofibromas are rare, slow-growing mesenchymal tumours, most often localised in the vulva and perineum of women. We present a case of a 60-year-old male with a 7-cm large cellular angiofibroma in the inguinal canal extending toward the testis, detected after inguinal herniorraphy. Inguinal orchiectomy was performed and the pathology report revealed a cellular angiofibroma containing a lot of mast cells in the stroma, which was collagenised with spindle-shaped cells and characterised by hyalinised vascular structures...
April 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491279/-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fact-or-fiction-and-implications-in-their-therapeutic-use
#19
REVIEW
Pamela Robey
The concept of a post-natal "mesenchymal stem cell" ("MSC") originated from studies focused on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), which are non-hematopoietic adherent cells, a subset of which are skeletal stem cells (SSCs), able to form cartilage, bone, hematopoiesis-supportive stroma, and marrow adipocytes based on rigorous clonal and differentiation assays. Subsequently, it was speculated that BMSCs could form other mesodermal derivatives and even cell types from other germ layers. Based on BMSC surface markers, representative of fibroblastic cells, and imprecise differentiation assays, it was further imagined that "MSCs" are ubiquitous and equipotent...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483704/genome-wide-analysis-of-ar-binding-and-comparison-with-transcript-expression-in-primary-human-fetal-prostate-fibroblasts-and-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#20
REVIEW
Claire Nash, Nadia Boufaied, Ian G Mills, Omar E Franco, Simon W Hayward, Axel A Thomson
The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor, and key regulator of prostate development and cancer, which has discrete functions in stromal versus epithelial cells. AR expressed in mesenchyme is necessary and sufficient for prostate development while loss of stromal AR is predictive of prostate cancer progression. Many studies have characterized genome-wide binding of AR in prostate tumour cells but none have used primary mesenchyme or stroma. We applied ChIPseq to identify genomic AR binding sites in primary human fetal prostate fibroblasts and patient derived cancer associated fibroblasts, as well as the WPMY1 cell line overexpressing AR...
May 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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