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mesenchymal stroma cell

Anna Otte, Yuanyuan Yang, Juliane von der Ohe, Catharina Melzer, Peter Hillemanns, Friedrich Feuerhake, Ralf Hass
Chemotherapeutic drug testing of SCCOHT-1 and BIN-67 tumor cells revealed synergistic growth-inhibition of >95% in vitro with a combination of foretinib and FK228. Application of this drug combination in vivo in NODscid mice-induced SCCOHT-1GFP tumors was associated with ~6-fold reduction in tumor mass within 10 days, whereby synergistic effects of the two compounds remained undetectable compared to previous results with foretinib treatment alone. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a reduced vascularization and a lower amount of proliferating cells in the treated tumors...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Chiara Cencioni, Sandra Atlante, Matteo Savoia, Fabio Martelli, Antonella Farsetti, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Andreas M Zeiher, Carlo Gaetano, Francesco Spallotta
Organ-specific mesenchymal cells naturally reside in the stroma, where they are exposed to some environmental variables affecting their biology and functions. Risk factors such as diabetes or aging influence their adaptive response. In these cases, permanent epigenetic modifications may be introduced in the cells with important consequences on their local homeostatic activity and therapeutic potential. Numerous results suggest that mesenchymal cells, virtually present in every organ, may contribute to tissue regeneration mostly by paracrine mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Hiroaki Kasashima, Masakazu Yashiro, Hirohisa Nakamae, Kisyu Kitayama, Go Masuda, Haruhito Kinoshita, Tatsunari Fukuoka, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Takahiko Nakane, Masayuki Hino, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
Tumor stromal cells play a critical role in the progression of diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC). The aim of this study was to clarify where tumor stromal cells originate from and which factor(s) recruits them into the tumor stroma. Immunodeficient mice with bone marrow transplantation from the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein mice were used for the in vivo experiments. An in vitro study analyzed the chemotaxis-stimulating factor from DGC cells using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BM-MCs)...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Michaela Tencerova, Moustapha Kassem
Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage and regulation of BM adipocyte formation are not fully understood...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Dah-Ching Ding, Hwan-Wun Liu, Tang-Yuan Chu
The origin of the majority of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) is regarded as extraovarian, with the ovary being the secondary site. The aim of this study was to explore the possible role of ovarian mesenchymal stem cells (OvMSCs) and secreted IL-6 in the development of EOC. OvMSCs were derived from normal ovarian stroma. Cell surface markers and differentiation capability were determined. The effects of IL-6 and conditioned medium of OvMSCs on the malignant phenotype of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells were tested, and the status of STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation was investigated...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Thomas J Bartosh, Mujib Ullah, Suzanne Zeitouni, Joshua Beaver, Darwin J Prockop
Patients with breast cancer often develop malignant regrowth of residual drug-resistant dormant tumor cells years after primary treatment, a process defined as cancer relapse. Deciphering the causal basis of tumor dormancy therefore has obvious therapeutic significance. Because cancer cell behavior is strongly influenced by stromal cells, particularly the mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are actively recruited into tumor-associated stroma, we assessed the impact of MSCs on breast cancer cell (BCC) dormancy...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Javier Vaquero, Nathalie Guedj, Audrey Clapéron, Thanh Huong Nguyen Ho-Bouldoires, Valérie Paradis, Laura Fouassier
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis due to its late clinical presentation and the lack of effective non-surgical therapies. Unfortunately, most of the patients are not eligible for curative surgery owing to the presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to understand the steps leading to cell dissemination in patients with CCA. To metastasize from the primary site, cancer cells must acquire migratory and invasive properties by a cell plasticity-promoting phenomenon known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Laura E Sidney, Andrew Hopkinson
Keratocytes of the corneal limbal stroma can derive populations of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) when expanded in vitro. However, once a corneal MSC (cMSC) phenotype is achieved, regaining the keratocyte phenotype can be challenging, and there is no standardised differentiation medium. Here, we investigated the transition of keratocytes to cMSC and compared different supplements in their ability to return cMSC to a keratocyte phenotype. Immunofluorescence and RT-qPCR demonstrated in vivo keratocyte expression of ALDH3A1, CD34 and keratocan, but not any of the typical MSC markers (CD73, CD90, CD105)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Jian He, Jie Xu, Hong-Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Uterus-like mass (ULM) is an extremely rare lesion. Gross morphology of ULM resembling a uterus. It can occur in various organs in the abdominal cavity, even in the spinal cord. The histogenesis of ULM remains uncertain. A number of hypotheses have been proposed including metaplasia, congenital anomaly, and heterotopia theory. METHODS: We describe a case of 43-year-old male presented with a complaint of acute low abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasound found a large pelvic mass embedded in the broad ligament...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gwendolyn M Cramer, Dustin P Jones, Hamid El Hamidi, Jonathan P Celli
: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by prominent stromal involvement, which plays complex roles in regulating tumor growth and therapeutic response. The extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich PDAC stroma has been implicated as a barrier to drug penetration, though stromal depletion strategies have had mixed clinical success. It remains less clear how interactions with ECM, acting as a biophysical regulator of phenotype, not only a barrier to drug perfusion, regulate susceptibilities and resistance to specific therapies...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
I Sukhotnik, T Dorfman, Salim Halabi, Y Pollak, H Kreizman Shefer, A G Coran, D Berkowitz
PURPOSE: The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the key regulators of gastrointestinal tract development. Recent studies point to the role of hedgehog signaling in regulating adult stem cells involved in maintenance and regeneration of intestinal stem cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Hh signaling during intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: Male rats were divided into two groups: Sham rats underwent bowel transection and SBS rats underwent a 75 % bowel resection...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Masahiko Kanehira, Tohru Fujiwara, Shinji Nakajima, Yoko Okitsu, Yasushi Onishi, Noriko Fukuhara, Ryo Ichinohasama, Yoshinori Okada, Hideo Harigae
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells and there is much interest in how MSCs contribute to the regulation of the tumor microenvironment. Whether MSCs exert a supportive or suppressive effect on tumor progression is still controversial, but is likely dependent on a variety of factors that are tumor-type dependent. Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by growth of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. It has been shown that the progression of MM is governed by MSCs, which act as a stroma of the myeloma cells...
September 19, 2016: Stem Cells
Jason Y Park, Cynthia Cohen, Dania Lopez, Erica Ramos, Jennifer Wagenfuehr, Dinesh Rakheja
Fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI) is a benign mesenchymal tumor histologically characterized by a mixture of intersecting fascicles of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts in collagenous stroma, nests of primitive oval or stellate cells in basophilic mucoid stroma, and mature adipose tissue. We hypothesized that FHI, because of histologic overlap with mesenchymal overgrowth tumors seen in CLOVES (Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth with Vascular, Epidermal, Skeletal anomalies) and Proteus syndromes, may harbor mutations in signaling pathways associated with cellular proliferation...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Nicole M Aiello, David L Bajor, Robert J Norgard, Amine Sahmoud, Neha Bhagwat, Minh N Pham, Toby C Cornish, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Robert H Vonderheide, Ben Z Stanger
Most cancer-associated deaths result from metastasis. However, it remains unknown whether the size, microenvironment or other features of a metastatic lesion dictate its behaviour or determine the efficacy of chemotherapy in the adjuvant (micrometastatic) setting. Here we delineate the natural history of metastasis in an autochthonous model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), using lineage tracing to examine the evolution of disseminated cancer cells and their associated microenvironment. With increasing size, lesions shift from mesenchymal to epithelial histology, become hypovascular and accumulate a desmoplastic stroma, ultimately recapitulating the primary tumours from which they arose...
2016: Nature Communications
Guilherme Galvão Dos Santos, Shafqat Batool, Araceli Hastreiter, Talita Sartori, Amanda Nogueira-Pedro, Primavera Borelli, Ricardo Ambrosio Fock
Tissues that require a great supply of nutrients and possess high metabolic demands, such as lympho-hemopoietics tissues, are the first to be affected by protein malnutrition (PM). Thus, PM directly affects hemopoiesis and the production and function of immune cells. Consequently, malnourished individuals are more susceptible to infections. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunomodulatory properties and are important in the formation of lympho-hemopoietic stroma. Since an adequate supply of nutrients is essential to sustain stroma formation, which is mainly constituted of MSCs and differentiated cells originated from them, this study investigated whether PM would influence some biological and immunomodulatory aspects of MSCs...
August 13, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Erik S Knudsen, Uthra Balaji, Elizaveta Freinkman, Peter McCue, Agnieszka K Witkiewicz
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis. The aggressiveness and therapeutic recalcitrance of this malignancy has been attributed to multiple factors including the influence of an active desmoplastic stroma. How the stromal microenvironment of PDAC contributes to the fatal nature of this disease is not well defined. In the analysis of clinical specimens, we observed diverse expression of the hypoxic marker carbonic anhydrase IX and the lactate transporter MCT4 in the stromal compartment...
September 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Isabele C Iser, Mariana B Pereira, Guido Lenz, Márcia R Wink
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain cancer due to its highly invasive nature that impedes the surgical removal of all tumor cells, making relapse inevitable. However, the mechanisms used by glioma cells to invade the surrounding tissue are still unclear. In this context, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a key regulator of this invasive state and although the real relevance of this program in malignant glioma is still controversial, it has been strongly associated with GBM malignancy...
September 12, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
Sébastien A B Roy, Joannie M Allaire, Camille Ouellet, Faiza Maloum-Rami, Véronique Pomerleau, Étienne Lemieux, Jean-Philippe Babeu, Jasmin Rousseau, Marilène Paquet, Perrine Garde-Granger, François Boudreau, Nathalie Perreault
Bmps are morphogens involved in various gastric cellular functions. Studies in genetically-modified mice have shown that Bmp disruption in gastric epithelial and stromal cell compartments leads to the development of tumorigenesis. Our studies have demonstrated that abrogation of gastric epithelial Bmp signaling alone was not sufficient to recapitulate the neoplastic features associated with total gastric loss of Bmp signaling. Thus, epithelial Bmp signaling does not appear to be a key player in gastric tumorigenesis initiation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Catharina Melzer, Yuanyuan Yang, Ralf Hass
Tumor development and tumor progression is not only determined by the corresponding tumor cells but also by the tumor microenvironment. This includes an orchestrated network of interacting cell types (e.g. immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC)) via the extracellular matrix and soluble factors such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and various metabolites. Cell populations of the tumor microenvironment can interact directly and indirectly with cancer cells by mutually altering properties and functions of the involved partners...
2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Long Wang, Liang Xie, Francis Tintani, Hui Xie, Changjun Li, Zhuang Cui, Mei Wan, Xiongbing Zu, Lin Qi, Xu Cao
: : Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the overgrowth of prostate tissues with high prevalence in older men. BPH pathogenesis is not completely understood, but it is believed to be a result of de novo overgrowth of prostatic stroma. In this study, we show that aberrant activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mobilizes mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSCs) in circulating blood, which are recruited for the prostatic stromal hyperplasia. Elevated levels of active TGF-β were observed in both a phenylephrine-induced prostatic hyperplasia mouse model and human BPH tissues...
September 7, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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