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Mesenchymal stem cell

Jyotsna Joshi, David Brennan, Vince Beachley, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli
Collagen is the major structural protein in myocardium and contributes to tissue strength and integrity, cellular orientation, and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Significant post-myocardial infarction related loss of cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue, and their subsequent replacement with fibrous scar tissue, negatively impacts endogenous tissue repair and regeneration capabilities. To overcome such limitations, tissue engineers are working toward developing a 3D cardiac patch which not only mimics the structural, functional, and biological hierarchy of the native cardiac tissue, but also could deliver autologous stem cells and encourage their homing and differentiation...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Shan-Shan Meng, Feng-Mei Guo, Xi-Wen Zhang, Wei Chang, Fei Peng, Hai-Bo Qiu, Yi Yang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect the endothelial barrier complex and survival, implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) via paracrine hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). However, the mechanism of HGF in endothelial regulation remains unclear. Here, we introduced a coculture protocol of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) and overexpression of the HGF gene of MSCs (MSC-HGF). Immunofluorescence and endothelial permeability analysis revealed that MSC-HGF protected endothelial tight junction protein occludin expression and attenuated cellular permeability as well as endothelial apoptosis...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sushma Yadav, Claudia M Kowolik, Min Lin, Darren Zuro, Susanta K Hui, Arthur D Riggs, David A Horne
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a pressing health challenge in men worldwide. Radiation therapy (RT) is widely considered a standard therapy advanced as well as localised prostate cancer. Although this primary therapy is associated with high cancer control rates, up to one third of patients undergoing radiation therapy becomes radio-resistant and/or has tumor-relapse/recurrence. Therefore, focus on new molecular targets and pathways is essential to develop novel radio-sensitizing agents for the effective and safe treatment of prostate cancer...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Nhat Chau Truong, Khanh Hong-Thien Bui, Phuc Van Pham
INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have become a powerful and potential source for stem cell-based therapy, regenerative medicine, and even drug delivery in cancer treatment. The development of off-the-shelf mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including ASCs, has rapidly advanced in recent years with several clinical trials and approved products. In this technology, ASCs should be expanded long term in order to harvest higher cell number. In this study, senescence of ASCs after long-term expansion was evaluated...
September 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eliska Javorkova, Nicole Matejckova, Alena Zajicova, Barbora Hermankova, Michaela Hajkova, Pavla Bohacova, Jan Kossl, Magdalena Krulova, Vladimir Holan
Pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves several mechanisms resulting in a shift from a neuroprotective to a neurotoxic immune reaction. A promising tool for ALS treatment is represented by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess both regenerative potential and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we aimed to compare the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of patients suffering from ALS and healthy donors. Moreover, the influence of proinflammatory cytokines on the immunoregulatory functions of MSCs was also evaluated...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Agnieszka Pastuła, Janusz Marcinkiewicz
Epithelial cells are one of the most actively cycling cells in a mammalian organism and therefore are prone to malignant transformation. Already during organogenesis, the connective tissue (mesenchyme) provides instructive signals for the epithelium. In an adult organism, the mesenchyme is believed to provide crucial regulatory signals for the maintenance and regeneration of epithelial cells. Here, we discuss the role of intestinal myofibroblasts, α-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal (mesenchymal) cells, as an important regulatory part of the intestinal stem cell niche...
September 21, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Anna Burdzinska, Bartosz Dybowski, Weronika Zarychta-Wiśniewska, Agnieszka Kulesza, Marta Butrym, Radoslaw Zagozdzon, Agnieszka Graczyk-Jarzynka, Piotr Radziszewski, Zdzislaw Gajewski, Leszek Paczek
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy constitutes an attractive alternative to treat stress urinary incontinence. Although promising results have been demonstrated in this field, the procedure requires further optimization. The most commonly proposed cell types for intraurethral injections are muscle derived cells (MDCs) and mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MDC-MSC co-transplantation into the urethra. METHODS: Autologous transplantation of labeled MDCs, bone marrow MSCs or co-transplantation of MDC-MSC were performed in aged multiparous female goats (n = 6 in each group)...
September 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Y S Basmaeil, A M Al Subayyil, T Khatlani, E Bahattab, M Al-Alwan, F M Abomaray, B Kalionis, M A Alshabibi, A S AlAskar, M H Abumaree
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from chorionic villi of human term placentae (pMSCs) protect human endothelial cells from injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In diabetes, elevated levels of glucose (hyperglycaemia) induce H2 O2 production, which causes the endothelial dysfunction that underlies the enhanced immune responses and adverse complications associated with diabetes, which leads to thrombosis and atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the ability of pMSCs to protect endothelial cell functions from the negative impact of high level of glucose...
September 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Deborah Chicharro, Jose M Carrillo, Mónica Rubio, Ramón Cugat, Belén Cuervo, Silvia Guil, Jerónimo Forteza, Victoria Moreno, Jose M Vilar, Joaquín Sopena
BACKGROUND: The use of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ASCs) are today extensively studied in the field of regenerative medicine. In recent years, human and veterinary medicine prefer to avoid using traumatic techniques and choose low or non-invasive procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PRGF, ASCs and the combination of both in wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in rabbits. With this purpose, a total of 144 rabbits were used for this study...
September 21, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Kenta Kubota, Masako Nakano, Eiji Kobayashi, Yuka Mizue, Takako Chikenji, Miho Otani, Kanna Nagaishi, Mineko Fujimiya
Increasing evidence suggests that an enriched environment (EE) ameliorates cognitive impairment by promoting repair of brain damage. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been determined. To address this issue, we investigated whether an EE enhanced the capability of endogenous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) to prevent hippocampal damage due to diabetes by focusing on miRNA carried in BM-MSC-derived exosomes. In diabetic streptozotocin (STZ) rats housed in an EE (STZ/EE), cognitive impairment was significantly reduced, and both neuronal and astroglial damage in the hippocampus was alleviated compared with STZ rats housed in conventional cages (STZ/CC)...
2018: PloS One
Iuliia Golovynska, Olesia Kalmukova, Hanna M Svitina, Vitaliy M Kyryk, Volodimir A Shablii, Nataliya V Senchylo, Galyna V Ostrovska, Mykola Dzerzhinskyi, Yurii V Stepanov, Sergii Golovynskyi, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy, Liwei Liu, Liudmila V Garmanchuk, Junle Qu
This study is aimed to reveal morphological and functional changes in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from the rat bone marrow after: (i) activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with teichoic acid (TA), (ii) impact on epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors with activator EGF or inhibitor Herceptin, and (iii) treatment with DNA intercalator Cisplatin. According to our results, TA and EGF cause an increase in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, c-Myc content, and protein in the MSC cytoplasm...
September 21, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Jennifer E May, Craig Donaldson, Liana Gynn, H Ruth Morse
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) within the bone marrow (BM) are vitally important in forming the micro-environment supporting haematopoiesis after myeloablative chemotherapy. MSCs are known to be damaged phenotypically and functionally by chemotherapy; however, to the best our knowledge, the persistence of genotoxic effects of chemotherapy on the BM micro-environment has not been studied. We therefore aimed to evaluate genotoxic effects of chemotherapy on the BM both in vitro and in vivo, using the comet and micronucleus assays, focussing on the persistence of DNA lesions that may contribute to complications in the patient...
September 17, 2018: Mutagenesis
Fernando Ezquer, María Elena Quintanilla, Paola Morales, Daniela Santapau, Marcelo Ezquer, Marcelo J Kogan, Edison Salas-Huenuleo, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, Yedy Israel
Chronic ethanol consumption leads to brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, conditions known to potentiate and perpetuate each other. Several studies have shown that neuroinflammation results in increases in chronic ethanol consumption. Recent reports showed that the intra-cerebroventricular administration of mesenchymal stem cells to rats consuming alcohol chronically markedly inhibited oxidative-stress, abolished neuroinflammation and greatly reduced chronic alcohol intake and post deprivation relapse-like alcohol intake...
September 21, 2018: Addiction Biology
Ying He, Lijin Zou, Manman Gao, Tangzhao Liang, Xuenong Zou
Objective: To integrate the result of whole genome expression data and whole genome promoter CpG island methylation data, to screen the epigenetic modulated differentially expressed genes from transformed porcine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) after long-term cultivation. Methods: Bone marrow from 6 landrace pigs, 3-month-old about 50 kg weight, was aspirated from the medullary cavity of the proximal tibia. The BMSCs were isolated, and purified by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation combined with adherent culture method...
August 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Federica Marinaro, Eva Pericuesta, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Javier G Casado, Verónica Álvarez, Elvira Matilla, Nuria Hernández, Rebeca Blázquez, Lauro González-Fernández, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán, Beatriz Macías-García
Advanced age reduces the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) being this effect partly mediated by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger apoptosis. It has been demonstrated that extracellular vesicles derived from endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EV-endMSCs) exert an antioxidant effect and can be used as IVF coadjutants. In this work, endMSCs were isolated from human menstrual blood (n = 4) and characterized according to multipotentiality and surface marker expression prior EV-endMSCs isolation...
September 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Sanaz Hasani, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Abbas Aliaghaei, Kaveh Baghai, Amin Rostami
Neural differentiation involves drastic morphological alterations, essentially performed by a cell-homeostasis maintaining process known as autophagy. Here, we used the cocktail of choroid plexus epithelial cell-conditioned medium (CPEC-CM) and 15% knockout serum (KS) to induce human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuron like cells. We showed that upon this induction, autophagy pathway was transcriptionally triggered. The expression levels of autophagy markers mTOR, BECN1 and MAP1LC3 were evidently changed throughout the dopaminergic (DAergic) differentiation of hASCs, highlighting the critical role of autophagy in this process at the level of transcription...
September 20, 2018: Cell Biology International
Eleonora Iacono, Luisa Pascucci, Cinzia Bazzucchi, Marco Cunto, Francesca Ricci, Barbara Rossi, Barbara Merlo
The aim of the present study was to compare canine adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells cultured under normoxic (20% O2 ) and not severe hypoxic (7% O2 ) conditions in terms of marker expression, proliferation rate, differentiation potential and cell morphology. Intra-abdominal fat tissue samples were recovered from 4 dogs and cells isolated from each sample were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Proliferation rate and adhesion ability were determined, differentiation towards chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages was induced; the expression of CD44, CD34, DLA-DQA1, DLA-DRA1 was determined by PCR, while flow cytometry analysis for CD90, CD105, CD45 and CD14 was carried out...
September 20, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Andrzej Golachowski, Sulaiman Al Hashmi, Barbara Golachowska
The Arabian leopard ( Panthera pardus nimr ) is critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, with an effective population of 150-250 across its entire range in the Arabian Peninsula. Isolation and preservation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells is beneficial both for medical and research purposes. The optimal protocol for collection, handling, culturing and preserving the Arabian leopard mesenchymal stem cells acquired from bone marrow was established. Anesthesia with combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zozalepam is the safest option even for old animals with concurrent disease including chronic kidney disease...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Laura Fernández-García, José Pérez-Rigueiro, Ricardo Martinez-Murillo, Fivos Panetsos, Milagros Ramos, Gustavo V Guinea, Daniel González-Nieto
The restitution of damaged circuitry and functional remodeling of peri-injured areas constitute two main mechanisms for sustaining recovery of the brain after stroke. In this study, a silk fibroin-based biomaterial efficiently supports the survival of intracerebrally implanted mesenchymal stem cells (mSCs) and increases functional outcomes over time in a model of cortical stroke that affects the forepaw sensory and motor representations. We show that the functional mechanisms underlying recovery are related to a substantial preservation of cortical tissue in the first days after mSCs-polymer implantation, followed by delayed cortical plasticity that involved a progressive functional disconnection between the forepaw sensory (FLs1 ) and caudal motor (cFLm1 ) representations and an emergent sensory activity in peri-lesional areas belonging to cFLm1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Bo Wang, Peng Li, Lei Shangguan, Jun Ma, Kezheng Mao, Quan Zhang, Yiguo Wang, Zhongyang Liu, Keya Mao
Introduction: Failed back surgery syndrome is a situation where there is failure after lumbar surgery aimed at correcting lumbar disease that is characterized by continuous back and/or leg pain. Epidural fibrosis and adhesions are among the major causes of failed back surgery syndrome. In recent years, several biomaterials have been applied as barriers or deterrents to prevent the compression of neural structures by postsurgical fibrosis. Methods: In this study, a new bacterial cellulose (BC) anti-adhesion membrane, composed of exosomes from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, was developed...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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