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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283750/the-effects-of-simulating-a-realistic-eye-model-on-the-eye-dose-of-an-adult-male-undergoing-head-computed-tomography
#1
Parisa Akhlaghi, Atiyeh Ebrahimi-Khankook, Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan
In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
March 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262147/kerato-lenticular-ocular-deposits-and-visual-impairment-with-prolonged-chlorpromazine-use-a-case-series
#2
Guru S Gowda, Aditya Hegde, Vandita Shanbhag, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, T S Jaisoorya
Chlorpromazine is a low potency "typical" antipsychotic agent used to treat schizophrenia. It continues to be prescribed frequently in India owing to its lower cost. There have been previous reports of ocular adverse effects with prolonged use of chlorpromazine. We report three patients who developed corneal and lenticular opacities secondary to prolonged chlorpromazine use leading to visual impairment. Early detection of ocular deposits and switching over to risperidone from chlorpromazine helped in the reversal of chlorpromazine- induced ocular side effects in one of them...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248385/effect-of-oil-on-an-electrowetting-lenticular-lens-and-related-optical-characteristics
#3
Dooseub Shin, Junoh Kim, Cheoljoong Kim, Gyo Hyun Koo, Jee Hoon Sim, Junsik Lee, Yong Hyub Won
While there are many ways to realize autostereoscopic 2D/3D switchable displays, the electrowetting lenticular lens is superior due to the high optical efficiency and short response time. In this paper, we propose a more stable electrowetting lenticular lens by controlling the quantity of oil. With a large amount of oil, the oil layer was broken and the lenticular lens was damaged at relatively low voltage. Therefore, controlling the amount of oil is crucial to obtain the required dioptric power with stability...
March 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221196/fdg-brain-pet-ct-revealing-bilateral-thalamostriatal-activation-during-a-symptomatic-episode-in-a-patient-with-kleine-levin-syndrome
#4
Clément Drouet, Olivier Morel, Antoine Verger, Eric Guedj, Hatem Boulahdour
We report the case of a 14-year-old girl with clinically diagnosed Kleine-Levin syndrome. Electroencephalogram and brain MRI were unremarkable. An FDG PET/CT scan was acquired during a symptomatic episode, while she was asleep, and another PET scan was obtained when she was asymptomatic, awake, and quiet. Comparison of both examinations demonstrated a bilateral activation of thalami, caudate nuclei, and lenticular nuclei. These findings may be linked to the implication of thalamostriatal structures in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131617/betab2-crystallin-mutations-associated-with-cataract-and-glaucoma-leads-to-mitochondrial-alterations-in-lens-epithelial-cells-and-retinal-neurons
#5
Jennifer E Dulle, Anne Rübsam, Sarah J Garnai, Hemant S Pawar, Patrice E Fort
Crystallin proteins are the most prominent protein of the lens and have been increasingly shown to play critical roles in other tissues, especially the retina. Members of all 3 sub-families of crystallins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins have been reported in the retina during diabetes, traumatic injury and other retinal diseases. While their specific role in the retina is still unclear and may vary, beta-crystallin proteins have been shown to play a critical role in ganglion cell survival following trauma...
January 26, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123513/wilson-s-disease-patient-with-iron-metabolism-discharge-barriers-a-case-report
#6
Guoen Cai, Xinming Huang, Qinyong Ye, Wenting Xiong, Qing Duan
Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disease. In the present study, the patient was a 35-year-old woman who exhibited drinking bucking (bulbar paralysis) and dysphagia for a period of nine years. Genetic analysis of the patient identified the Thr935Met and Pro992Leu mutations, which lead to copper metabolism discharge barriers. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) hyperintense area in the bilateral substantia nigra and lenticular nuclei. These SWI observations indicated that 'mineral deposits' were present...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094105/sonographic-alteration-of-substantia-nigra-is-related-to-parkinsonism-predominant-course-of-x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism
#7
Uwe Walter, Raymond Rosales, Alessandro Rocco, Ana Westenberger, Aloysius Domingo, Criscely L Go, Norbert Brüggemann, Christine Klein, Lillian V Lee, Dirk Dressler
INTRODUCTION: X-linked recessive dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP, DYT3) is highly prevalent in the Philippines and manifests with varying phenotype. We sought to evaluate the significance of transcranial brain sonography as a biomarker for parkinsonism-predominant phenotype. METHODS: 90 Filipino participants were enrolled into a cross-sectional study: 39 patients with XDP, 21 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of XDP patients, and 30 healthy control subjects. Echogenicity of the substantia nigra and the lenticular nuclei was digitally quantified...
January 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070965/the-consequences-of-avian-ocular-trauma-histopathological-evidence-and-implications-of-acute-and-chronic-disease
#8
Bret A Moore, Leandro B C Teixeira, William E Sponsel, Richard R Dubielzig
OBJECTIVE: To present a description and categorization of the histopathological lesions in avian ocular trauma. ANIMAL STUDIED: Seventy-five birds diagnosed with ocular trauma at to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. PROCEDURES: Histological slides were reviewed, and the type of trauma was classified by cause into either (i) blunt trauma or (ii) penetrating trauma and by duration into (i) acute or (ii) chronic. RESULTS: Blunt trauma was the most common source of trauma, and the most frequent lesions were observed in the retina (91%), with 71% of retinas having a tear or detachment and 46% of retinas showing chronic degenerative changes...
January 10, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068443/possible-risk-factors-and-clinical-effects-of-opaque-bubble-layer-in-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile
#9
Gisung Son, Junghyun Lee, Cheolwon Jang, Ki Yong Choi, Beom Jin Cho, Tae Hyung Lim
PURPOSE: To report the development of an opaque bubble layer (OBL) during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and analyze its potential risk factors and the clinical outcome. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of OBL area following a posterior lenticule cut: OBL less than 5% of cornea and OBL greater than 5% of cornea. Preoperative parameters and clinical outcomes were compared...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059382/improving-the-performance-of-an-electrowetting-lenticular-lens-array-by-using-a-thin-polycarbonate-chamber
#10
Junsik Lee, Junoh Kim, Cheoljoong Kim, Dooseub Shin, Gyohyun Koo, Jee Hoon Sim, Yong Hyub Won
In this paper, we used a thin polycarbonate (PC) chamber to improve the performance of an electrowetting lenticular lens array. The polycarbonate chamber changed the radius of curvature (ROC) of the oil acting as a lens, which increased the dioptric power of the liquid lens to 1666.7D. The increase in dioptric power required a reduction in the distance between the optical center of the lens and the display pixels under the chamber, which was accomplished by reducing the thickness of the chamber. The optimal thickness of the chamber was determined to be 0...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044393/cataracts-in-the-norwegian-buhund-current-prevalence-and-characteristics
#11
Elin Kristiansen, Tobias Revold, Frode Lingaas, Kristina Narfström, Pia Bjerre Pedersen, Camilla Kielland, Stein Dahl, Ernst-Otto Ropstad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prevalence and characteristics of cataracts in the Norwegian Buhund breed 20 years after high reported prevalence of especially pulverulent nuclear cataracts (PNCs). ANIMALS STUDIED: Two hundred and fifty Norwegian Buhund dogs in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark (117 males and 133 females) with previously unknown eye health status were included. Forty-five dogs had multiple examinations (two to six times over a 6-year period). Median age was 4...
January 3, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966834/outcomes-of-scleral-buckling-using-chandelier-endoillumination
#12
Yuntao Hu, Shancheng Si, Ke Xu, Huijin Chen, Liang Han, Xin Wang, Zhizhong Ma
PURPOSE: To report the results and complications of scleral buckling for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using 25-gauge chandelier endoillumination. METHODS: A total of 61 patients (61 eyes) with RRD were treated with scleral buckling. For the sclera buckling procedure, a 25-gauge chandelier was inserted through the pars plana for intra-ocular illumination, and retinal tears were identified and treated with episcleral cryotherapy under surgical microscope...
December 14, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930991/identification-of-phytoconstituents-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-putative-anticataractogenic-effect-of-an-ethanolic-root-extract-of-leucas-aspera
#13
Mahalingam Sundararajan, Philip A Thomas, Karuppan Babyshalini, Pitchairaj Geraldine
Modern herbal medicine has played a significant role in treating oxidative stress and related complications. In the present investigation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of ethanolic extracts of the leaf and of the root of Leucas aspera (L. aspera) (Willd.) Link separately showed the presence of various phytoconstituents; major components have already been reported to possess various biological, including antioxidant, activities. Of the two extracts analyzed, the root extract exhibited more potential antioxidant activity than did the leaf extract...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919335/cataractogenesis-following-high-let-radiation-exposure
#14
Nobuyuki Hamada, Tatsuhiko Sato
Biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation differs with its linear energy transfer (LET) such that high-LET radiation is more effective for various biological endpoints than low-LET radiation. Human exposure to high-LET radiation occurs in cancer patients, nuclear workers, aviators, astronauts and other space travellers. From the radiation protection viewpoint, the ocular lens is among the most radiosensitive tissues in the body, and cataract (a clouding of the normally transparent lens) is classified as tissue reactions (formerly called nonstochastic or deterministic effects) with a threshold below which no effect would occur...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916313/influence-of-the-flap-on-outcomes-in-corneal-refractive-surgery-with-femtosecond-laser-smile-vs-flex
#15
J L Alió, M El Bahrawy, A Angelov, D Ortiz, P Yébana
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of creating a flap on the postoperative optical quality of the cornea in terms of predicted corneal curvature and Seidel aberrations after 2 modalities of femtosecond assisted corneal lenticule extraction laser for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism: The flapless procedure small incision lenticular extraction (SMILE) and the flap-based femtosecond lenticular extraction (FLEx). METHODS: The study is a prospective consecutive non-randomised comparative interventional case series including 64 eyes with myopic or myopic astigmatism refractive errors...
December 1, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911425/-biometric-parameters-of-vitrectomized-eyes
#16
S V Asatryan, V K Surguch, S I Kharlap, T A Shchegoleva
AIM: To analyze changes in various biometric parameters after vitrectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients (50 eyes) were followed up. All of them underwent vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal fibrosis and macular hole. In addition to the standard ophthalmic examination, we performed a combined ultrasound study and ultrasound biomicroscopy before and after the surgery (at 2-3 weeks and 6 months). Variation statistics was applied to assess the results using the SPSS Statistica 20 software...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885765/conversion-of-the-native-24-mer-ferritin-nanocage-into-its-non-native-16-mer-analogue-by-insertion-of-extra-amino-acid-residues
#17
Shengli Zhang, Jiachen Zang, Wenming Wang, Hai Chen, Xiaorong Zhang, Fudi Wang, Hongfei Wang, Guanghua Zhao
Protein assemblies with high symmetry are widely distributed in nature. Most efforts so far have focused on repurposing these protein assemblies, a strategy that is ultimately limited by the structures available. To overcome this limitation, methods for fabricating novel self-assembling proteins have received intensive interest. Herein, by reengineering the key subunit interfaces of native 24-mer protein cage with octahedral symmetry through amino acid residues insertion, we fabricated a 16-mer lenticular nanocage whose structure is unique among all known protein cages...
December 23, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863741/shear-targeted-drug-delivery-to-stenotic-blood-vessels
#18
Mark Epshtein, Netanel Korin
In this review we focus on shear targeted drug delivery as a novel strategy to selectively deliver drugs to sites of vascular obstruction. We review the physics of stenotic (abnormally narrowed) blood vessels, while focusing mainly on the hemodynamics and transport phenomena at these sites. We then discuss how the local abnormal levels of shear stress, which can mechanically activate platelets, can be leveraged for localized drug delivery. We describe the development of Shear Activated Nano-particle Aggregates (SA-NPAs) that are designed to release and localize their nanoparticle drug carriers at sites of vascular stenosis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843230/preclinical-cataract-masquerading-as-post-lasik-regression
#19
Rohit Shetty, Nikhil Negalur, Mathew Kurian, Rushad Shroff
The purpose of this case report is to bring forth a rare clinical scenario where preclinical cataract mimics post-LASIK regression and to describe the role of aberrometry in detecting higher order aberrations (HOAs) and early lens changes. A 36-year-old female presented with blurring of vision since 1 year after having undergone an uneventful LASIK surgery 3 years prior. Corneal topography and aberrometry were within normal limits. Although the lens was morphologically normal on slit lamp examination, increased HOAs and lenticular density were detected...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821692/combining-footwear-with-public-health-iconography-to-prevent-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections
#20
Sarah B Paige, Sagan Friant, Lucie Clech, Carly Malavé, Catherine Kemigabo, Richard Obeti, Tony L Goldberg
Shoes are effective for blocking soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) that penetrate the skin. Unfortunately, shoe-wearing is uncommon in many areas where STHs are prevalent, in part because local populations are unaware of the health benefits of wearing shoes. This is especially true in low-literacy populations, where information dissemination through written messages is not possible. We launched a public health intervention that combines a public health image with sandals. The image is a "lenticular image" that combines two alternating pictures to depict the efficacy of shoes for preventing STH infection...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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