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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553069/the-use-of-wavelight-%C3%A2-contoura-to-create-a-uniform-cornea-the-lyra-protocol-part-1-the-effect-of-higher-order-corneal-aberrations-on-refractive-astigmatism
#1
Manoj Motwani
PURPOSE: To demonstrate how higher-order corneal aberrations can cancel out, modify, or induce lower-order corneal astigmatism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six representative eyes are presented that show different scenarios in which higher-order aberrations interacting with corneal astigmatism can affect the manifest refraction. WaveLight(®) Contoura ablation maps showing the higher-order aberrations are shown, as are results of correction with full measured correction using the LYRA (Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism) Protocol...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549087/thalamic-alterations-remote-to-infarct-appear-as-focal-iron-accumulation-and-impact-clinical-outcome
#2
Grégory Kuchcinski, Fanny Munsch, Renaud Lopes, Antoine Bigourdan, Jason Su, Sharmila Sagnier, Pauline Renou, Jean-Pierre Pruvo, Brian K Rutt, Vincent Dousset, Igor Sibon, Thomas Tourdias
Thalamic alterations have been observed in infarcts initially sparing the thalamus but interrupting thalamo-cortical or cortico-thalamic projections. We aimed at extending this knowledge by demonstrating with in vivo imaging sensitive to iron accumulation, one marker of neurodegeneration, that (i) secondary thalamic alterations are focally located in specific thalamic nuclei depending on the initial infarct location; and (ii) such secondary alterations can contribute independently to the long-term outcome. To tackle this issue, 172 patients with an infarct initially sparing the thalamus were prospectively evaluated clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging to quantify iron through R2* map at 24-72 h and at 1-year follow-up...
May 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532939/guiding-flying-spot-laser-transepithelial-phototherapeutic-keratectomy-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
REVIEW
Yan Li, Hideaki Yokogawa, Maolong Tang, Winston Chamberlain, Xinbo Zhang, David Huang
PURPOSE: To analyze transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) results using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and develop a model to guide the laser dioptric and depth settings. SETTING: Casey Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA. DESIGN: Prospective nonrandomized case series. METHODS: Patients with superficial corneal opacities and irregularities had transepithelial PTK with a flying-spot excimer laser by combining wide-zone myopic and hyperopic astigmatic ablations...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532926/sequential-segmental-terminal-lenticular-side-cut-dissection-for-safe-and-effective-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-in-thin-lenticules
#4
Soosan Jacob, Amar Agarwal, Cosimo Mazzotta, Athiya Agarwal, John Michael Raj
Small-incision lenticule extraction may be associated with complications such as partial lenticular dissection, torn lenticule, lenticular adherence to cap, torn cap, and sub-cap epithelial ingrowth, some of which are more likely to occur during low-myopia corrections. We describe sequential segmental terminal lenticular side-cut dissection to facilitate minimally traumatic and smooth lenticular extraction. Anterior lamellar dissection is followed by central posterior lamellar dissection, leaving a thin peripheral rim and avoiding the lenticular side cut...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525556/transcriptome-of-the-gsh-depleted-lens-reveals-changes-in-detoxification-and-emt-signaling-genes-transport-systems-and-lipid-homeostasis
#5
Jeremy A Whitson, Xiang Zhang, Mario Medvedovic, Jenny Chen, Zongbo Wei, Vincent M Monnier, Xingjun Fan
Purpose: To understand the effects of glutathione (GSH)-deficiency on genetic processes that regulate lens homeostasis and prevent cataractogenesis. Methods: The transcriptome of lens epithelia and fiber cells was obtained from C57BL/6 LEGSKO (lens GSH-synthesis knockout) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)-treated LEGSKO mice and compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice using RNA-Seq. Transcriptomic data were confirmed by qPCR and Western blot/ELISA on a subset of genes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515637/ultrasound-biomicroscopy-value-in-evaluation-of-restoration-of-ciliary-muscles-contractility-after-cataract-extraction
#6
Ayser Abd El-Hameed Fayed
PURPOSE: To assess the changes in the contractility of the ciliary muscle in eyes with presbyopia before and after phacoemulsification and intracapsular lens implantation using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 50 eyes of 30 consecutive subjects operated at the Department of Ophthalmology. Patients with any ocular disorder affecting visual acuity, corneal surface irregularities, had posterior capsular perforation or intensive postoperative corneal edema, or were <35 years of age, were excluded...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507388/congenital-nuclear-cataracts-in-a-holstein-dairy-herd
#7
Stephanie Osinchuk, Lyall Petrie, Marina Leis, Fritz Schumann, Bianca Bauer, Lynne Sandmeyer, Kayla Madder, Fiona Buchanan, Bruce Grahn
This report describes congenital nuclear cataracts and posterior lenticonus in a closed purebred Holstein dairy herd in Canada. Ophthalmic examinations were completed on 30 male and 249 female cattle aged newborn to 10 years old. Nutritional, infectious, and toxic etiologies were investigated. Necropsies of 3 affected calves were performed and eyes of 2 additional affected calves were examined with light microscopy. Bilateral nuclear cataracts were identified in 53/279 (19%) animals. Additional congenital anomalies observed included posterior lenticonus, iris to lens persistent pupillary membranes (n = 7), and lenticular colobomata (n = 1)...
May 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506806/selective-associative-phonagnosia-after-right-anterior-temporal-stroke
#8
Simona Luzzi, Michela Coccia, Gabriele Polonara, Carlo Reverberi, Gabriella Ceravolo, Mauro Silvestrini, Fabio Fringuelli, Sara Baldinelli, Leandro Provinciali, Guido Gainotti
We report the case of a 48 year old men who developed a selective impairment in famous voice recognition after ischemic stroke in right subcortical structures (lenticular nucleus and head of the caudate) and right anterior temporal lobe. He underwent fibrinolytic treatment. During the following days he progressively recovered and was discharged without neurological focal sign. Patent foramen ovale was found. When he got back to his house he noticed that he was unable to recognize the voice of his favoured singers and needed to ask who was the singer to his relatives...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441229/preliminary-model-for-the-design-of-a-custom-middle-ear-prosthesis
#9
Brandon Kamrava, Jonathan A Gerstenhaber, Mamta Amin, Yah-El Har-El, Pamela C Roehm
HYPOTHESIS: Custom prostheses could be used to recreate the ossicular chain and improve hearing. BACKGROUND: Ossicular discontinuity or fixation occurs in 55% of cases of conductive hearing loss, with most cases involving the incus. Reconstruction has been achieved by a variety of methods; however, there has been little improvement in hearing outcomes in decades. METHODS: Precise measurements of anatomic dimensions, weight, and center of gravity were taken from 19 cadaveric incudes...
July 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424206/extending-the-fossil-record-of-polytrichaceae-early-cretaceous-meantoinea-alophosioides-gen-et-sp-nov-permineralized-gametophytes-with-gemma-cups-from-vancouver-island
#10
Alexander C Bippus, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell, Alexandru M F Tomescu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404798/alterations-of-functional-connectivity-of-the-motor-cortex-in-fabry-disease-an-rs-fmri-study
#11
Sirio Cocozza, Antonio Pisani, Gaia Olivo, Francesco Saccà, Lorenzo Ugga, Eleonora Riccio, Silvia Migliaccio, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Arturo Brunetti, Mario Quarantelli, Enrico Tedeschi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of functional connectivity (FC) alterations of the motor circuits in patients with Fabry disease (FD) and their possible correlation with clinical variables with a resting-state (RS) fMRI analysis. METHODS: In our cross-sectional study, 32 patients with FD with genetically confirmed classic diagnosis of FD (12 men, mean age 43.3 ± 12.2 years) were enrolled along with 35 healthy controls (HCs) of comparable age and sex (14 men, mean age 42...
May 9, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393055/outcome-of-incus-interposition-after-preservation-in-soft-tissue
#12
Mohammad Faramarzi, Sareh Roosta, Mahboobe Dianat
INTRODUCTION: The lenticular process of the incus succumbs to necrosis in chronic otitis media. Few researchers have addressed the issue of autograft incus preservation in the soft tissue of the tragus or mastoid cavity. Nonetheless, preservation of the incus in this method during the second stage of ossiculoplasty is a subject that is still up for debate. This study was carried out to demonstrate the hearing outcome after a modification of the incus interposition technique, which involved preserving it in the periauricular soft tissue...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379648/cap-lenticular-adhesion-during-small-incision-lenticular-extraction-surgery-causative-factors-and-outcomes
#13
Rohit Shetty, Nikhil Negalur, Rushad Shroff, Kalyani Deshpande, Chaitra Jayadev
PURPOSE: To study the factors causing cap lenticular adhesion (CLA), a rare complication of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery, and its effect on surgical outcomes. DESIGN: A prospective, observational, cross-sectional study involving 550 eyes of 285 subjects. METHODS: SMILE was performed using the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) with a minimum of 3 months follow-up. Preoperative visual quality assessment, measurement of corneal biomechanics, and Bowman membrane imaging were performed...
May 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375243/autostereoscopic-3d-display-with-high-brightness-and-low-crosstalk
#14
Guo-Jiao Lv, Bai-Chuan Zhao, Fei Wu, Wu-Xiang Zhao, Ya-Zhi Yang, Qiong-Hua Wang
An autostereoscopic 3D display with high brightness and low crosstalk is proposed. This display consists of a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel, a reflective light source (RLS), and a parallax barrier or lenticular lens. The RLS behind the LCD panel consists of a light source, a light guide plate, and a reflection cavity. The RLS can make light reflect continuously in the reflection cavity and exit from the slits on the cavity surface. The widths of these slits are narrower than those of the subpixels, so they can provide a low aperture ratio, which is helpful in obtaining low crosstalk...
April 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366360/vitrectomy-assisted-phacoemulsification-for-lenticular-coloboma
#15
Ashvin Agarwal, Priya Narang, Amar Agarwal
We describe a technique to prevent continuous vitreous hydration during phacoemulsification in eyes with lenticular coloboma. The hydration results from communication between the anterior and posterior chambers from the edges of the colobomatous defect. To avoid this, a valved trocar is placed at the pars plana site around the area of the lenticular defect, which allows a limited dry vitrectomy during phacoemulsification. Intermittent vitrectomy with a moderate cutting rate and low vacuum parameters accompanied by temporary halting of the phacoemulsification procedure prevents vitreous herniation into the anterior chamber and limits the extension of zonular compromise, facilitating safe phacoemulsification with appropriate capsule expansion and fixation devices and implantation of an intraocular lens...
February 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353199/lenticular-nucleus-correlates-of-general-self-efficacy-in-young-adults
#16
Seishu Nakagawa, Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Takamitsu Shinada, Tsukasa Maruyama, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Daniele Magistro, Kohei Sakaki, Hyeonjeong Jeong, Yukako Sasaki, Ryuta Kawashima
General self-efficacy (GSE) is an important factor in education, social participation, and medical treatment. However, the only study that has investigated the direct association between GSE and a neural correlate did not identify specific brain regions, rather only assessed brain structures, and included older adult subjects. GSE is related to motivation, physical activity, learning, the willingness to initiate behaviour and expend effort, and adjustment. Thus, it was hypothesized in the present study that the neural correlates of GSE might be related to changes in the basal ganglia, which is a region related to the abovementioned self-efficacy factors...
March 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352978/transcranial-sonography-in-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-associated-neurodegeneration
#17
Marta Skowronska, Tomasz Kmiec, Anna Czlonkowska, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska
INTRODUCTION: Although the nature of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity in transcranial sonography (TCS) examinations remains unclear, many studies have shown associations between hyperechogenicity and iron accumulation. The role of iron in basal ganglia hyperechogenicity raises interest in the use of TCS in forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Here we analyzed TCS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among patients affected by one type of NBIA, mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN)...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350848/reduction-of-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-underlies-anticataract-effect-of-topically-applied-tocotrienol-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Nurul Alimah Abdul Nasir, Renu Agarwal, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Sushil Vasudevan, Minaketan Tripathy, Igor Iezhitsa, Aqil Mohammad Daher, Mohd Ikraam Ibrahim, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is of special concern in diabetics as it occurs at earlier onset. Polyol accumulation and increased oxidative-nitrosative stress in cataractogenesis are associated with NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP depletion, loss of ATPase functions, calpain activation and proteolysis of soluble to insoluble proteins. Tocotrienol was previously shown to reduce lens oxidative stress and inhibit cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats. In current study, we investigated anticataract effects of topical tocotrienol and possible mechanisms involved in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331285/refraction-outcomes-after-suction-loss-during-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile
#19
Amr A Gab-Alla
PURPOSE: To evaluate refractive outcomes of two management approaches after suction loss during the small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective and comparative study was conducted at the El-Gowhara Private Eye Center. It included 26 consecutive eyes of patients who experienced suction loss during the SMILE technique. Patients were divided into two groups by the technical difficulties in redocking: in group A (12 eyes) suction loss occurred after the posterior lenticular cut and the creation of side-cuts, then suction was reapplied, and the procedure was completed; in group B (14 eyes) suction loss occurred after the posterior lenticular cut and the creation of side-cuts, then the procedure was postponed for 24 hours and completed with the same parameters...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283750/the-effects-of-simulating-a-realistic-eye-model-on-the-eye-dose-of-an-adult-male-undergoing-head-computed-tomography
#20
Parisa Akhlaghi, Atiyeh Ebrahimi-Khankook, Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan
In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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