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Topography guided

Alper Ağca, Ahmet Demirok, Yusuf Yıldırım, Ali Demircan, Dilek Yaşa, Ceren Yeşilkaya, İrfan Perente, Muhittin Taşkapılı
Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) is an alternative to laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. SMILE can be performed for the treatment of myopia ≤-12 D and astigmatism ≤5 D. The technology is currently only available in the VisuMax femtosecond laser platform. It offers several advantages over LASIK and PRK; however, hyperopia treatment, topography-guided treatment, and cyclotorsion control are not available in the current platform...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
David Polcari, Philippe Dauphin-Ducharme, Janine Mauzeroll
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is an electroanalytical scanning probe technique capable of imaging substrate topography and local reactivity with high resolution. Since its inception in 1989, it has expanded into a wide variety of research areas including biology, corrosion, energy, kinetics, instrumental development, and surface modification. In the past 25 years, over 1800 peer-reviewed publications have focused on SECM, including several topical reviews. However, these reviews often omit key details, forcing readers to search the literature...
October 13, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Barbara Zangerl, Andrew Whatham, Juno Kim, Agnes Choi, Nagi N Assaad, Michael P Hennessy, Michael Kalloniatis
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis in patients presenting with lesions at various locations within the visual pathway is challenging. This study investigated functional and structural changes secondary to such lesions to identify patterns useful to guide early and effective management. METHODS: Over 10,000 records from patients referred for optic nerve head assessment were reviewed and 31 patients with a final diagnosis of likely neuropathic lesions posterior to the eye were included in the current study...
October 11, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Oliver Oehlke, Michael Mix, Erika Graf, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, Ursula Nestle, Irina Götz, Sabine Schneider-Fuchs, Astrid Weyerbrock, Irina Mader, Brigitta G Baumert, Susan C Short, Philipp T Meyer, Wolfgang A Weber, Anca-Ligia Grosu
BACKGROUND: The higher specificity of amino-acid positron emission tomography (AA-PET) in the diagnosis of gliomas, as well as in the differentiation between recurrence and treatment-related alterations, in comparison to contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI was demonstrated in many studies and is the rationale for their implementation into radiation oncology treatment planning. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the significant differences between AA-PET and standard MRI concerning the definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV)...
October 5, 2016: BMC Cancer
Arun Kumar Jain, Chintan Malhotra, Anand Pasari, Pawan Kumar, Majid Moshirfar
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of topography-guided and wavefront-optimized treatment in patients having laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. SETTING: Advanced Eye Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. DESIGN: Prospective contralateral-eye case study. METHODS: Patients had topography-guided LASIK in 1 eye and wavefront-optimized LASIK in the contralateral eye using the Customized Refractive Surgery Master software and Mel 80 excimer laser...
September 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Alexandra Cucoş Dinu, Monica I Călugăr, Bety D Burghele, Oana A Dumitru, Constantin Cosma, Bogdan P Onac
A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in seven caves located in the western half of Romania's most significant karst regions. Touristic and non-touristic caves were investigated with the aim to provide a reliable distribution of their radon levels and evaluate the occupational exposure and associated effective doses. Radon gas concentrations were measured with long-term diffusion-type detectors during two consecutive seasons (warm and cold). All investigated caves exceed the European Union reference level of radon gas at workplaces (300 Bq/m(3))...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Sheng Wang, Hong Song Chen, Zhiyong Fu, Kelin Wang
Knowledge of the temporal variability of soil water content (SWC) at the hillslope scale is essential for guiding rehabilitation strategies and for optimizing water resource management in the karst region of southwest China. This study aimed to use temporal stability analysis to upscale point-scale measurements to represent mean areal SWC on two typical karst hillslopes. Based on a grid sampling scheme (10 m × 10 m) applied to two 90 m × 120 m plots located on two hillslops, the SWC at a depth of 0-16 cm was measured 11-12 times across 259 sampling points, using time domain reflectometry (TDR) from April 2011 to October 2012...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Núria Gavara
Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) is becoming a prevalent tool in cell biology and biomedical studies, especially those focusing on the mechanical properties of cells and tissues. The newest generation of bio-AFMs combine ease of use and seamless integration with live-cell epifluorescence or more advanced optical microscopies. As a unique feature with respect to other bionanotools, AFM provides nanometer-resolution maps for cell topography, stiffness, viscoelasticity, and adhesion, often overlaid with matching optical images of the probed cells...
September 27, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Rui Liu, Yun Chen, Jianping Wu, Lei Gao, Damian Barrett, Tingbao Xu, Xiaojuan Li, Linyi Li, Chang Huang, Jia Yu
Regional flood risk caused by intensive rainfall under extreme climate conditions has increasingly attracted global attention. Mapping and evaluation of flood hazard are vital parts in flood risk assessment. This study develops an integrated framework for estimating spatial likelihood of flood hazard by coupling weighted naïve Bayes (WNB), geographic information system, and remote sensing. The north part of Fitzroy River Basin in Queensland, Australia, was selected as a case study site. The environmental indices, including extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, net-water index, soil water retention, elevation, slope, drainage proximity, and density, were generated from spatial data representing climate, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and topography...
September 24, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
M Tallawi, D Dippold, R Rai, D D'Atri, J A Roether, D W Schubert, E Rosellini, F B Engel, A R Boccaccini
Nano- and micro-scale topographical features play a critical role in the induction and maintenance of various cellular properties and functions, including morphology, adhesion, gene regulation, and cell-to-cell communication. In addition, recent studies have indicated that the structure and function of heart tissue are also sensitive to mechanical cues at the nano- and micro-scale. Although fabrication methods exist for generating topographical features on polymeric scaffolds for cell culture, current techniques, especially those with nano-scale resolution, are typically complex, prohibitively expensive and not accessible to most biology laboratories...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Edgar El Chaar, Sarah Oshman, Pooria Fallah Abed
Clinicians have many treatment techniques from which to choose when extracting a failing tooth and replacing it with an implant-supported restoration and when successful management of an extraction socket during the course of tooth replacement is necessary to achieve predictable and esthetic outcomes. This article presents a straightforward, yet thorough, classification for extraction sockets of single-rooted teeth and provides guidance to clinicians in the selection of appropriate and predictable treatment...
September 2016: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Marcus S Niepel, João F Mano, Thomas Groth
Nanosphere lithography (NSL) and the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique are combined here for the first time to design a flexible system to achieve nanotopographical control of cell adhesion. NSL is used to generate regular patterns of tetrahedral gold nanodots of different size and distance. Besides the change in topography, LbL is used to generate a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) system consisting of heparin (HEP) and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) on top of the gold dots. The localized formation of PEM on gold dots is achieved by prior passivation of the surrounding silicon or glass surface...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiangjun Chen, Aleksandar Stojanovic, Xiaorui Wang, Jing Liang, Di Hu, Tor Paaske Utheim
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal epithelial remodeling after topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) combined with corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the treatment of keratoconus. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the epithelial thickness distribution changes in 53 keratoconic eyes of 44 patients. Manifest refraction, maximum (Kmax) and minimum (Kmin) keratometry obtained by Placido topography, corneal irregularity index (IRI) measured by Scheimpflug topography, and the epithelial thickness profile over the central 5-mm zone obtained by anterior-segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 to 3, 3 to 6, and more than 6 months postoperatively...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Farrokh Sharifi, Bhavika B Patel, Adam K Dzuilko, Reza Montazami, Donald S Sakaguchi, Nastaran Hashemi
Fibrous scaffolds have shown promise in tissue engineering due to their ability to improve cell alignment and migration. In this paper, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers are fabricated in different sizes using a microfluidic platform. By using this approach, we demonstrated considerable flexibility in ability to control the size of the fibers. It was shown that the average diameter of the fibers was obtained in the range of 2.6-36.5 μm by selecting the PCL solution flow rate from 1 to 5 μL min(-1) and the sheath flow rate from 20 to 400 μL min(-1) in the microfluidic channel...
October 10, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Natalie Geisel, Jasmin Clasohm, Xudian Shi, Lallepak Lamboni, Junchuan Yang, Kamil Mattern, Guang Yang, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Monika Saumer
Repeated photolithographic and etching processes allow the production of multileveled polymer microstructures that can be used as templates to produce bacterial cellulose with defined surfaces on demand. By applying this approach, the bacterial cellulose surface obtains new properties and its use for culturing neural stem cells cellulose substrate topography influences the cell growth in a defined manner.
October 2016: Small
Anders Hedenström, Susanne Åkesson
Flight is an economical mode of locomotion, because it is both fast and relatively cheap per unit of distance, enabling birds to migrate long distances and obtain food over large areas. The power required to fly follows a U-shaped function in relation to airspeed, from which context dependent 'optimal' flight speeds can be derived. Crosswinds will displace birds away from their intended track unless they make compensatory adjustments of heading and airspeed. We report on flight track measurements in five geometrically similar tern species ranging one magnitude in body mass, from both migration and the breeding season at the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tzu-Hsuan Chang, Shisheng Xiong, Robert M Jacobberger, Solomon Mikael, Hyo Seon Suh, Chi-Chun Liu, Dalong Geng, Xudong Wang, Michael S Arnold, Zhenqiang Ma, Paul F Nealey
Directed self-assembly of block copolymers is a scalable method to fabricate well-ordered patterns over the wafer scale with feature sizes below the resolution of conventional lithography. Typically, lithographically-defined prepatterns with varying chemical contrast are used to rationally guide the assembly of block copolymers. The directed self-assembly to obtain accurate registration and alignment is largely influenced by the assembly kinetics. Furthermore, a considerably broad processing window is favored for industrial manufacturing...
2016: Scientific Reports
Emily S Nichols, Jessica A Grahn
Integration of auditory and visual information is important to both language and music. In the linguistic domain, audiovisual integration alters event-related potentials (ERPs) at early stages of processing (the mismatch negativity (MMN)) as well as later stages (P300(Andres et al., 2011)). However, the role of experience in audiovisual integration is unclear, as reading experience is generally confounded with developmental stage. Here we tested whether audiovisual integration of music appears similar to reading, and how musical experience altered integration...
August 11, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Primoz Petric, Christian Kirisits
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for image guided adaptive brachytherapy (BT) of cervical cancer. Ultrasound is an attractive alternative with reasonable costs and high soft tissue depiction quality. This technical note aims to demonstrate the proof of principle for use of TRAns Cervical Endosonography with rotating transducer in the context of brachytherapy (TRACE BT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: TRACE BT presentation is based on a single stage IIB cervical cancer patient...
June 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Xiaoran Li, Mengyuan Li, Jie Sun, Yan Zhuang, Jiajia Shi, Dongwei Guan, Yanyan Chen, Jianwu Dai
Repair of spinal cord injury will require enhanced recruitment of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) from the central canal region to the lesion site to reestablish neural connectivity. The strategy toward this goal is to provide directional cues, e.g., alignment topography and biological gradients from the rostral and caudal ends toward the center. This study demonstrates a facile method for fabrication of continuous gradients of stromal-cell-derived factor-1α (SDF1α) embedded in the radially aligned electrospun collagen/poly (ε-caprolactone) mats...
September 2016: Small
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