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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163020/what-drives-bird-vision-bill-control-and-predator-detection-overshadow-flight
#1
REVIEW
Graham R Martin
Although flight is regarded as a key behavior of birds this review argues that the perceptual demands for its control are met within constraints set by the perceptual demands of two other key tasks: the control of bill (or feet) position, and the detection of food items/predators. Control of bill position, or of the feet when used in foraging, and timing of their arrival at a target, are based upon information derived from the optic flow-field in the binocular region that encompasses the bill. Flow-fields use information extracted from close to the bird using vision of relatively low spatial resolution...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152570/the-mediterranean-overflow-in-the-gulf-of-cadiz-a-rugged-journey
#2
Ricardo F Sánchez-Leal, María Jesús Bellanco, Luis Miguel Fernández-Salas, Jesús García-Lafuente, Marc Gasser-Rubinat, César González-Pola, Francisco J Hernández-Molina, Josep L Pelegrí, Alvaro Peliz, Paulo Relvas, David Roque, Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Simone Sammartino, José Carlos Sánchez-Garrido
The pathways and transformations of dense water overflows, which depend on small-scale interactions between flow dynamics and erosional-depositional processes, are a central piece in the ocean's large-scale circulation. A novel, high-resolution current and hydrographic data set highlights the intricate pathway travelled by the saline Mediterranean Overflow as it enters the Atlantic. Interaction with the topography constraints its spreading. Over the initial 200 km west of the Gibraltar gateway, distinct channels separate the initial gravity current into several plunging branches depth-sorted by density...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117953/brain-microbleeds-anticoagulation-and-hemorrhage-risk-meta-analysis-in-stroke-patients-with-af
#3
Andreas Charidimou, Christopher Karayiannis, Tae-Jin Song, Dilek Necioglu Orken, Vincent Thijs, Robin Lemmens, Jinkwon Kim, Su Mei Goh, Thanh G Phan, Cathy Soufan, Ronil V Chandra, Lee-Anne Slater, Shamir Haji, Vincent Mok, Solveig Horstmann, Kam Tat Leung, Yuichiro Kawamura, Nobuyuki Sato, Naoyuki Hasebe, Tsukasa Saito, Lawrence K S Wong, Yannie Soo, Roland Veltkamp, Kelly D Flemming, Toshio Imaizumi, Velandai Srikanth, Ji Hoe Heo
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and future spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in ischemic stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) taking oral anticoagulants. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of cohort studies with >50 patients with recent ischemic stroke and documented AF, brain MRI at baseline, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment, and ≥6 months of follow-up. Authors provided summary-level data on stroke outcomes stratified by CMB status...
November 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104650/predictive-factors-of-pancreatic-necrosectomy-following-percutaneous-catheter-drainage-as-a-primary-treatment-of-patients-with-infected-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#4
Xi Cao, Feng Cao, Ang Li, Xiang Gao, Xiao-Hui Wang, Dian-Gang Liu, Yu Fang, Dong-Hai Guo, Fei Li
Pancreatic necrosectomy (PN) following percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) is an effective method of treating patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, however, the predictive factors for PN after PCD have not yet been identified. A total of 74 patients with suspected infected necrotizing pancreatitis (INP) and peripancreatic fluid collection were enrolled in the current study between October 2010 and October 2015. These patients received ultrasound or computer topography guided PCD followed by PN. Patients were divided into two groups: i) A PCD-alone group (n=32) and ii) a PCD+necrosectomy group (n=42)...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075798/microelectrode-array-induced-neuronal-alignment-directs-neurite-outgrowth-analysis-using-a-fast-fourier-transform-fft
#5
Viktorija Radotić, Dries Braeken, Damir Kovačić
Many studies have shown that the topography of the substrate on which neurons are cultured can promote neuronal adhesion and guide neurite outgrowth in the same direction as the underlying topography. To investigate this effect, isotropic substrate-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips were used as one example of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) for directing neurite growth of spiral ganglion neurons. Neurons were isolated from 5 to 7-day-old rat pups, cultured 1 day in vitro (DIV) and 4 DIV, and then fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde...
December 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016430/an-anatomic-and-radiographic-study-of-the-distal-tibial-epiphysis
#6
Cynthia V Nguyen, Janelle D Greene, Daniel R Cooperman, Raymond W Liu
BACKGROUND: Although the undulating shape of the distal tibial epiphysis is well recognized, its anatomic features have not been well quantified in the literature. To guide the placement of surgical implants about the distal tibial physis, we investigated the topographical anatomy of the distal tibial epiphysis and explored the ability of standard radiographs to visualize the physis. METHODS: We studied 30 cadaveric distal tibial epiphyses in specimens 3 to 14 years of age...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994886/is-there-a-real-benefit-of-hyperbaric-oxygenotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-necrotizing-otitis-externa
#7
Ali Mardassi, Senda Turki, Rim Lahiani, Hajer Mbarek, Sonia Benzarti, Hédi Gharsallah
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing otitis externa remains a severe and sometimes life-threatening disease in diabetic patient. Many therapeutic approaches have been described but what about the real benefit of hyperbaric oxygenotherapy in the management of this disease? METHODS: The authors reported a retrospective study about 42 patients treated for necrotizing external otitis over a period of 9 years (2006 to 2014). The patients were treated either by only antibiotherapy (23 cases) or with both antibiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygenotherapy (19 cases)...
December 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991336/four-stage-procedure-for-keratoconus-icrs-implantation-corneal-cross-linking-toric-phakic-intraocular-lens-implantation-and-topography-guided-photorefractive-keratectomy
#8
Efekan Coskunseven, Daya Papalkar Sharma, Michael A Grentzelos, Onurcan Sahin, George D Kymionis, Ioannis Pallikaris
PURPOSE: To evaluate a four-stage combined treatment for keratoconus including intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation followed by corneal cross-linking (CXL), toric phakic intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (TG-PRK). METHODS: In this retrospective interventional case series, 11 eyes of 7 patients with progressive keratoconus were treated with a four-stage procedure including the following: Keraring ICRS (Mediphacos Ltda, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) implantation followed by CXL, phakic IOL implantation, and TG-PRK (minimum 6 months between each stage)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979199/empathy-pain-and-attention-cues-that-predict-pain-stimulation-to-the-partner-and-the-self-capture-visual-attention
#9
Lingdan Wu, Ursula Kirmse, Tobias Flaisch, Ganna Boiandina, Anna Kenter, Harald T Schupp
Empathy motivates helping and cooperative behaviors and plays an important role in social interactions and personal communication. The present research examined the hypothesis that a state of empathy guides attention towards stimuli significant to others in a similar way as to stimuli relevant to the self. Sixteen couples in romantic partnerships were examined in a pain-related empathy paradigm including an anticipation phase and a stimulation phase. Abstract visual symbols (i.e., arrows and flashes) signaled the delivery of a Pain or Nopain stimulus to the partner or the self while dense sensor event-related potentials (ERPs) were simultaneously recorded from both persons...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945581/terrain-model-reconstruction-from-terrestrial-lidar-data-using-radial-basis-functions
#10
Jules Morel, Alexandra Bac, Cedric Vega
The presence of vegetation and the terrain topography itself generate strong occlusions causing large gaps in terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data at the ground level as well as a risk of integrating above-ground objects. This article introduces a surface-approximation algorithm dedicated to extracting digital terrain models (DTMs) from terrestrial TLS data acquired in forest areas. The proposed method is based on the combination of a quadtree subdivision of space guided by the local density and distribution of data together with a surface modeling via radial basis functions, which are used as partitions of unity for merging local quadratic approximating patches...
2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940157/climbing-fiber-development-is-impaired-in-postnatal-car8-wdl-mice
#11
Lauren N Miterko, Roy V Sillitoe
The cerebellum is critical for an array of motor functions. During postnatal development, the Purkinje cells (PCs) guide afferent topography to establish the final circuit. Perturbing PC morphogenesis or activity during development can result in climbing fiber (CF) multi-innervation or mis-patterning. Structural defects during circuit formation typically have long-term effects on behavior as they contribute to the phenotype of movement disorders such as cerebellar ataxia. The Car8 (wdl) mouse is one model in which early circuit destruction influences movement...
September 22, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927933/azopolymer-photopatterning-for-directional-control-of-angiogenesis
#12
Chiara Fedele, Maria De Gregorio, Paolo A Netti, Silvia Cavalli, Chiara Attanasio
Understanding cellular behavior in response to microenvironmental stimuli is central to tissue engineering. An increasing number of reports emphasize the high sensitivity of cells to the physical characteristics of the surrounding milieu and in particular, topographical cues. In this work, we investigated the influence of dynamic topographic signal presentation on sprout formation and the possibility to obtain a space-time control over sprouting directionality without growth factors, in order to investigate the contribution of just topography in the angiogenic process...
November 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914632/stepwise-guided-photorefractive-keratectomy-in-treatment-of-irregular-astigmatism-after-penetrating-keratoplasty-and-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty
#13
Nir Sorkin, Adi Einan-Lifshitz, Sagi Abelson, Tanguy Boutin, Mahmood Showail, Armand Borovik, Zach Ashkenazy, Clara C Chan, David S Rootman
PURPOSE: To report the outcome of stepwise ablation using topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy to treat irregular astigmatism after either penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). METHODS: This is a retrospective, interventional analysis including patients with irregular astigmatism after either PKP or DALK, who underwent topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy. The entire cohort was analyzed, as well as the PKP and DALK groups separately...
September 12, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902914/oxidative-stress-induces-dysregulated-autophagy-in-corneal-epithelium-of-keratoconus-patients
#14
Rohit Shetty, Anupam Sharma, Natasha Pahuja, Priyanka Chevour, Neeraja Padmajan, Kamesh Dhamodaran, Chaitra Jayadev, Rudy M M A Nuijts, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Jeyabalan Nallathambi
Oxidative stress is one of the key factors that contributes to the pathogenesis of keratoconus (KC). Macroautophagy is a vital cellular mechanism that is activated in response to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to understand the role of the autophagic lysosomal pathway in the oxidative damage of KC corneal epithelium and the human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE).The corneal epithelium was collected from 78 KC patients undergoing corneal cross-linking or topography guided photorefractive keratectomy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885543/3d-printed-microgroove-pattern-driven-generation-of-oriented-ligamentous-architectures
#15
Chan Ho Park, Kyoung-Hwa Kim, Yong-Moo Lee, William V Giannobile, Yang-Jo Seol
Specific orientations of regenerated ligaments are crucially required for mechanoresponsive properties and various biomechanical adaptations, which are the key interplay to support mineralized tissues. Although various 2D platforms or 3D printing systems can guide cellular activities or aligned organizations, it remains a challenge to develop ligament-guided, 3D architectures with the angular controllability for parallel, oblique or perpendicular orientations of cells required for biomechanical support of organs...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884680/thigmo-responses-the-fungal-sense-of-touch
#16
Mariana Cruz Almeida, Alexandra C Brand
The growth and development of most fungi take place on a two-dimensional surface or within a three-dimensional matrix. The fungal sense of touch is therefore critical for fungi in the interpretation of their environment and often signals the switch to a new developmental state. Contact sensing, or thigmo-based responses, include thigmo differentiation, such as the induction of invasion structures by plant pathogens in response to topography; thigmonasty, where contact with a motile prey rapidly triggers its capture; and thigmotropism, where the direction of hyphal growth is guided by physical features in the environment...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880340/topography-guided-photorefractive-keratectomy-in-the-treatment-of-corneal-scarring
#17
Nir Sorkin, Adi Einan-Lifshitz, Tanguy Boutin, Mahmood Showail, Armand Borovik, Clara C Chan, David S Rootman
PURPOSE: To report the outcome of topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (TG-PRK) in the treatment of patients with corneal scarring. METHODS: A retrospective, interventional case series including 6 eyes of 6 patients with corneal scarring and irregular astigmatism who underwent TG-PRK. The etiologies for scarring were: infectious corneal ulcers, foreign body trauma, LASIK flap buttonhole, and lamellar keratoplasties performed to correct corneal perforation secondary to corneal melting...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841184/experimental-investigation-on-surface-quality-processed-by-self-excited-oscillation-pulsed-waterjet-peening
#18
Xiaolong Ding, Yong Kang, Deng Li, Xiaochuan Wang, Dongping Zeng
High-speed waterjet peening technology has attracted a lot of interest and is now being widely studied due to its great ability to strengthen metal surfaces. In order to further improve the mechanical properties of metals, self-excited oscillation pulsed waterjets (SOPWs) were used for surface peening with an experimental investigation focused on the surface topography and properties. By impinging the aluminum alloy (5052) specimens with SOPWs issuing from an organ-pipe oscillation nozzle, the hardness and roughness at various inlet pressures and stand-off distances were measured and analyzed, as well as the residual stress...
August 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836025/anatomical-topography-of-the-inferior-lumbar-triangle-for-transversus-abdominis-block
#19
Gkionoul Nteli Chatzioglou, Hassan Bagheri, Yelda Pinar, Figen Govsa
BACKGROUND: Rapid development of anesthetic techniques of thoracic paravertebral block required to redefine anatomical landmarks of the inferior lumbar (Petit) triangle (ILT). Anesthesiologists are mainly interested in the ILT to perform the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. The aim of this study was to provide comprehensive information of the ILT to improve the success of TAP block. METHODS: Descriptional anatomy of ILTs such as dimensions, space, area, and types was analyzed in 25 preserved adult male cadavers...
August 23, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831306/polar-value-analysis-of-low-to-moderate-astigmatism-with-wavefront-guided-sub-bowman-keratomileusis
#20
Pisong Yan, Zhiyu Du, Yu Zhang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the astigmatic outcomes of wavefront-guided sub-Bowman keratomileusis (WFG-SBK) for low to moderate myopic astigmatism. METHODS: This study enrolled 100 right eyes from 100 patients who underwent WFG-SBK for the correction of myopia and astigmatism. The polar value method was performed with anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism measured with Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido corneal topography (Sirius, CSO) and refractive astigmatism preoperatively and 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
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