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PET IN CHILDREN

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439150/effect-of-pet-dogs-on-children-s-perceived-stress-and-cortisol-stress-response
#1
Darlene A Kertes, Jingwen Liu, Nathan J Hall, Natalie A Hadad, Clive D L Wynne, Samarth S Bhatt
The present study tested whether pet dogs have stress-buffering effects for children during a validated laboratory-based protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Participants were 101 children aged 7-12 years with their primary caregivers and pet dogs. Children were randomly assigned in the TSST-C to a pet present condition or one of two comparison conditions: parent present or no support figure present. Baseline, response, and recovery indices of perceived stress and cortisol levels were computed based on children's self-reported feelings of stress and salivary cortisol...
May 2017: Social Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435146/prognostic-analysis-of-absolute-lymphocyte-and-monocyte-counts-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplant-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-refractory-or-relapsed-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#2
Jorge Galvez Silva, Ossama M Maher, Minjeong Park, Diane Liu, Fiorela Hernandez, Priti Tewari, Yago Nieto
Previous studies in adults have shown that peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte and monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC) after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) can predict outcome in patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (R/R HL). We retrospectively reviewed all of our children, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) patients (age ≤26) transplanted for R/R HL between 2004 and 2015. Seventy-six patients (median age 21, range 10-26 years) who reached d100 (d100) disease free were analyzed; 33% of them had PET-positive tumors prior to ASCT...
April 20, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434272/wideband-acoustic-immittance-in-children-with-down-syndrome-prediction-of-middle-ear-dysfunction-conductive-hearing-loss-and-patent-pe-tubes
#3
Lisa L Hunter, Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, David K Brown, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Alaaeldin M Elsayed, Julia M Amann, Vairavan Manickam, Denis Fitzpatrick, Sally R Shott
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate pressurised wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) tests in children with Down syndrome (DS) and in typically developing children (TD) for prediction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) and patency of pressure equalising tubes (PETs). DESIGN: Audiologic diagnosis was determined by audiometry in combination with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, 0.226 kHz tympanometry and otoscopy. WAI results were compared for ears within diagnostic categories (Normal, CHL and PET) and between groups (TD and DS)...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432449/enteroparasitoses-and-toxocarosis-affecting-children-from-mar-del-plata-city-argentina
#4
Carla Lavallén, Beatriz Brignani, Karina Riesgo, Amalia Rojas, Gabriela Colace, Martín Biscaychipi, Estela Chicote, Cristian Giuntini, Mariela Kifer, María Eugenia Del Río, Guillermo Denegri, Marcela Dopchiz
This study evaluated the existence of enteroparasitoses and toxocarosis in children of peripheral (PC) and urban communities (UC) from Mar del Plata city (Argentina) and their associations with socio-environmental conditions. A Parasite Vulnerability Index (PVI) was elaborated using variables such as overcrowding, floor type, drinking water source, wastewater disposal, solid waste disposal, presence of animals and schooling level. The PC evidenced statistically significant higher frequencies of families with high (38...
April 21, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430740/low-dose-computed-tomography-scans-with-automatic-exposure-control-for-patients-of-different-ages-undergoing-cardiac-pet-ct-and-spect-ct
#5
Ching-Ching Yang, Bang-Hung Yang, Chun-Yuan Tu, Tung-Hsin Wu, Shu-Hsin Liu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of automatic exposure control (AEC) in order to optimize low-dose computed tomography (CT) protocols for patients of different ages undergoing cardiac PET/CT and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). METHODS: One PET/CT and one SPECT/CT were used to acquire CT images for four anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1-year-old, 5-year-old and 10-year-old children and an adult...
April 20, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427520/lymphoblastic-lymphoma
#6
REVIEW
Sergio Cortelazzo, Andrés Ferreri, Dieter Hoelzer, Maurilio Ponzoni
Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is a neoplasm of immature B cells committed to the B-(B-LBL) or T-cell lineage (T-LBL) that accounts for approximately 2% of all lymphomas. Although histological features are usually sufficient to distinguish lymphoblastic from mature B- or T-cell neoplasms, of greater importance for diagnosis is the characterization of immunophenotype by flow cytometry. LBL occurs more commonly in children than in adults, mostly in males. A bone marrow involvement <25% (or 20% according to WHO) formally distinguishes LBL from ALL...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417858/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-of-thoracic-and-extrathoracic-tuberculosis-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Patrick Martineau, Lionel S Zuckier, Xuan Pham, Raymond Lambert, Sophie Turpin
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem, affecting approximately one-third of the world׳s population. The tubercle bacillus can affect virtually any organ of the human body and if left untreated can lead to severe morbidity and death. Diagnosis of active TB is challenging, especially in children. As a "great imitator," the disease can mimic numerous other pathologies, both clinically and at imaging. Although recognition of active TB is crucial to initiate adequate treatment in a timely fashion, thereby preventing transmission of disease, differentiation of active and quiescent disease is not always straightforward...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417857/nuclear-medicine-imaging-in-pediatric-infection-or-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Alberto Signore, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Olivier Gheysens, Chiara Lauri, Onofrio A Catalano
In this review article, we focus on the most recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques (mainly (99m)Tc/(111)In white blood cells (WBC) scan, [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT, [(18)F]-FDG-PET/MRI, and (99m)Tc-IL-2 scintigraphy) in the study of children affected by peripheral bone osteomyelitis, fungal infections, inflammatory bowel diseases, and type 1 diabetes, owing to recent important published evidences of their role in the management of these diseases. For osteomyelitis in children, both bone scintigraphy and [(18)F]-FDG-PET have a major advantage of assessing the whole body in one imaging session to confirm or exclude multifocal involvement, whereas WBC scan has a limited role...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417855/optimization-of-pediatric-pet-ct
#9
REVIEW
Marguerite T Parisi, Mohammed S Bermo, Adam M Alessio, Susan E Sharp, Michael J Gelfand, Barry L Shulkin
PET/CT, the most common form of hybrid imaging, has transformed oncologic imaging and is increasingly being used for nononcologic applications as well. Performing PET/CT in children poses unique challenges. Not only are children more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults but, following radiation exposure, children have a longer postexposure life expectancy in which to exhibit adverse radiation effects. Both the PET and CT components of the study contribute to the total patient radiation dose, which is one of the most important risks of the study in this population...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417852/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-nephro-urology-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Iosif Mendichovszky, Bernardita Troncoso Solar, Naima Smeulders, Marina Easty, Lorenzo Biassoni
In the context of ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis, the vast majority of children with a dilated renal pelvis do not need any surgical treatment, as the dilatation resolves spontaneously with time. Slow drainage demonstrated at Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renography does not necessarily mean obstruction. Obstruction is defined as resistance to urinary outflow with urinary stasis at the level of the pelvic-ureteric junction (PUJ) which, if left untreated, will damage the kidney. Unfortunately this definition is retrospective and not clinically helpful...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417851/nuclear-medicine-techniques-in-pediatric-bone-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Laura A Drubach
An important mandate when imaging pediatric patients is the reduction of radiation exposure to the lowest possible level consistent with good quality diagnostic imaging, so individual selection of radiopharmaceutical dosage and imaging technique is essential. Although the logistics of image acquisition and the approach to interpretation mirror the more common use in adults, the challenges of imaging young children typically require greater attention to patient preparation, positioning, and supervision during imaging, with the use of parental or family engagement in the procedure, gentle restraint, and occasionally the need for sedation...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411336/fdg-pet-for-therapy-monitoring-in-hodgkin-and-non-hodgkin-lymphomas
#12
REVIEW
Sally F Barrington, Regine Kluge
PET using (18)F-FDG for treatment monitoring in patients with lymphoma is one of the most well-developed clinical applications. PET/CT is nowadays used during treatment to assess chemosensitivity, with response-adapted therapy given according to 'interim' PET in clinical practice to adults and children with Hodgkin lymphoma. PET is also used to assess remission from disease and to predict prognosis in the pretransplant setting. Mature data have been reported for the common subtypes of aggressive B-cell lymphomas, with more recent data also supporting the use of PET for response assessment in T-cell lymphomas...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409892/failure-of-mibg-scan-to-detect-metastases-in-sdhb-mutated-pediatric-metastatic-pheochromocytoma
#13
Sameer Sait, Neeta Pandit-Taskar, Shakeel Modak
(123) I-meta-iodo benzyl guanidine (MIBG) scans are considered the gold standard imaging in neuroblastoma; however, flouro deoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans have increased sensitivity in adults with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. We describe a pediatric patient initially considered to have localized neuroblastoma based on anatomical imaging and (123) I-MIBG scan, but subsequent investigations revealed germline succinate dehydrogenase complex iron sulfur subunit B (SDHB) mutation-associated pheochromocytoma with multiple FDG-avid skeletal metastases...
April 14, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406414/review-of-poxvirus-emergence-of-monkeypox
#14
A Morand, S Delaigue, J J Morand
This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Molluscum contagiosum (molluscipoxvirus) causes mild infections, is particularly frequent in children ; in adults it is a marker of the risk of sexually transmitted infections and can, in cases with profuse lesions, reveal AIDS...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399506/timing-and-type-of-hemispherectomy-for-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-analysis-of-45-patients
#15
Yuguang Guan, Sichang Chen, Changqing Liu, Xiuyu Du, Yao Zhang, Shuai Chen, Jie Wang, Tianfu Li, Guoming Luan
OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgery outcomes of RE patients in one centerto identify the indication for surgical treatment that results in the most favorable outcome. METHOD: Forty-five RE patients from a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative evaluations included assessments of clinical manifestations, cognitive status, a physical examination, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397986/clinical-and-metabolic-correlates-of-cerebral-calcifications-in-sturge-weber-syndrome
#16
Vinod K Pilli, Michael E Behen, Jiani Hu, Yang Xuan, James Janisse, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
AIM: To evaluate clinical and metabolic correlates of cerebral calcifications in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). METHOD: Fifteen children (11 females, four males; age range 7mo-9y, mean 4y 1mo) with unilateral SWS underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), glucose metabolism positron emission tomography (PET), and neurocognitive assessment (mean follow-up 1y 8mo). Calcified brain volumes measured on SWI were correlated with areas of abnormal glucose metabolism, seizure variables, and cognitive function (IQ)...
April 11, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394143/she-bought-the-unicorn-from-the-pet-store-six-to-seven-year-olds-are-strongly-inclined-to-generate-natural-explanations
#17
Shaylene E Nancekivell, Ori Friedman
In two experiments (N = 64), we told 6- to 7-year-olds about improbable or impossible outcomes (Experiment 1) and about impossible outcomes concerning ordinary or magical agents (Experiment 2). In both experiments, children claimed that the outcomes were impossible and could not happen, but nonetheless generated realistic and natural explanations for the outcomes. These findings show that 6- to 7-year-olds are strongly inclined to provide natural explanations. The findings are also informative about children's judgments about whether outcomes are possible, and further suggest that asymmetries between children's predictions and explanations may stem from differences in how these 2 forms of reasoning are constrained by possibility...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376713/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-isolated-from-children-and-environmental-sources-in-urban-and-suburban-areas
#18
Bernadeta Szczepanska, Małgorzata Andrzejewska, Dorota Spica, Jacek J Klawe
BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis is a dominant bacterial cause of foodborne infection and is considered the main public health problem in Europe and many other countries worldwide. In the study lasting from 2011 to 2013 we compared the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children, domestic animals, poultry meat and surface water in Northern Poland. RESULTS: During a 3-years study 1973 samples were analysed...
April 4, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368662/assessing-effectiveness-of-a-nonhuman-animal-welfare-education-program-for-primary-school-children
#19
Roxanne D Hawkins, Joanne M Williams
Nonhuman animal welfare education aims to promote positive relationships between children and animals and thus improve animal welfare, yet few scientific evaluations of these programs exist. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an education program developed by the Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) that included 4 interventions focusing on pets (companion animals), wild animals, farm animals, and general animal rescues. Knowledge, attachment to pets, and attitudes and beliefs about animal minds were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest using a questionnaire administered to 1,217 Scottish children aged 7 to 13 years old...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367616/management-of-neuroblastoma-icmr-consensus-document
#20
REVIEW
Deepak Bansal, Sidharth Totadri, Girish Chinnaswamy, Sandeep Agarwala, Tushar Vora, Brijesh Arora, Maya Prasad, Gauri Kapoor, Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Siddharth Laskar, Tanvir Kaur, G K Rath, Sameer Bakhshi
Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in childhood. High-risk NBL is considered challenging and has one of the least favourable outcomes amongst pediatric cancers. Primary tumor can arise anywhere along the sympathetic chain. Advanced disease at presentation is common. Diagnosis is established by tumor biopsy and elevated urinary catecholamines. Staging is performed using bone marrow and mIBG scan (FDG-PET/bone scan if mIBG unavailable or non-avid). Age, stage, histopathological grading, MYCN amplification and 11q aberration are important prognostic factors utilized in risk stratification...
April 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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