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dietary amino acid

Chu Kion Yao, James Fung, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Liver cirrhosis is associated with significant nutritional risks that often result in serious hepatic complications and poor survival rates. Diet is an important but underutilized aspect in the treatment modality of cirrhosis. Therefore, the aims of this review are to ascertain nutritional risks associated with its pathophysiology and to summarize existing evidence that support dietary recommendations for managing this patient population. Alterations in substrate utilization for energy production is a main feature of liver cirrhosis, resulting in increased catabolism of protein stores and a predisposition toward protein-energy malnutrition, even in the early stages of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Weiwei Wang, Zhui Li, Liping Gan, Hao Fan, Yuming Guo
Metabolomics is used to evaluate the bioavailability of food components, as well as to validate the metabolic changes associated with food consumption. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplement Kluyveromyces marxianus on the serum metabolite profile in broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-d-old broilers were divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates. Birds were fed basal diets without or with K. marxianus supplementation (5 × 1010 CFU kg-1 of diet). Serum samples were collected on d 21 and were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of flight/mass spectrometry...
June 18, 2018: Food & Function
Genciana Terova, Simona Rimoldi, Marisol Izquierdo, Cristina Pirrone, Wafa Ghrab, Giovanni Bernardini
Currently, the larviculture of many marine fish species with small-sized larvae depends for a short time after hatching, on the supply of high-quality live zooplankton to ensure high survival and growth rates. During the last few decades, the research community has made great efforts to develop artificial diets, which can completely substitute live prey. However, studies aimed at determining optimal levels of minerals in marine larvae compound feeds and the potential of novel delivery vectors for mineral acquisition has only very recently begun...
June 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Sara Della Torre, Nico Mitro, Clara Meda, Federica Lolli, Silvia Pedretti, Matteo Barcella, Luisa Ottobrini, Daniel Metzger, Donatella Caruso, Adriana Maggi
Sex impacts on liver physiology with severe consequences for energy metabolism and response to xenobiotic, hepatic, and extra-hepatic diseases. The comprehension of the biology subtending sex-related hepatic differences is therefore very relevant in the medical, pharmacological, and dietary perspective. The extensive application of metabolomics paired to transcriptomics here shows that, in the case of short-term fasting, the decision to maintain lipid synthesis using amino acids (aa) as a source of fuel is the key discriminant for the hepatic metabolism of male and female mice...
June 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Inger Ottestad, Stine M Ulven, Linn K L Øyri, Kristin S Sandvei, Gyrd O Gjevestad, Asta Bye, Navida A Sheikh, Anne S Biong, Lene F Andersen, Kirsten B Holven
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids that are necessary for muscle mass maintenance. Little is known about the plasma concentrations of BCAA and the protein intake in relation to sarcopenia. We aimed to compare the non-fasting plasma concentrations of the BCAA and the dietary protein intake between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic older adults. Norwegian older home-dwelling adults (≥70 years) were invited to a cross-sectional study with no other exclusion criteria than age. Sarcopenic subjects were defined by the diagnostic criteria by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People...
June 18, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Mikkel Lykke, Per T Sangild, Johannes B van Goudoever, Dewi van Harskamp, Henk Schierbeek, Berthold Koletzko, Eline M van der Beek, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Bert J M van de Heijning, Barbara Stoll, Douglas G Burrin, Thomas Thymann
Background: Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAAs), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Objective: With the use of a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AAs), we compared the efficacy and safety of a standard formula with a low-AA formula containing an adjusted AA composition. Methods: Female piglets (3-7 d old; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 isoenergetic AA-based formulas for 14 d (700 kJ · kg body weight-1 · d-1)...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
A Jasek, R E Latham, A Mañón, S Llamas-Moya, R Adhikari, R Poureslami, J T Lee
Exogenous enzymatic supplementation of poultry feeds, including α-galactosidase and xylanase, has been shown to increase metabolically available energy, although little information has been published on the impact on amino acid digestibility. An experiment was conducted to investigate a multicarbohydrase containing α-galactosidase and xylanase on amino acid digestibility, ileal digestible energy (IDE), and CP in male broiler chicks. The experiment was a 2 × 2 (diet × enzyme) factorial arrangement with 15 replicates of 8 male broilers per replicate raised for 21 d in a battery setting...
June 8, 2018: Poultry Science
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Meghana D Gadgil, Christopher B Newgard, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Denise M Scholtens, Frank B Hu, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula
Background: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking. Objective: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Rebekah D Alcock, Gregory C Shaw, Louise M Burke
Intake of dietary sources of collagen may support the synthesis of collagen in varying tissues, with the availability of key amino acids being a likely contributor to its effectiveness. This study analyzed commonly consumed preparations of bone broth (BB) to assess the amount and consistency of its amino acid content. Commercial and laboratory prepared samples, made with standardized and variable (non-standardized) protocols were analyzed for key amino acids (glycine, lysine, proline, leucine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine)...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
C Kalpanadevi, Vasudeva Singh, R Subramanian
The nutritional composition of bran from four rice varieties namely, Jyothi/IR64, Basmati and Agonibora representing high amylose, intermediate amylose and waxy, respectively were evaluated with friction and abrasive mills at different degrees of milling (DOM). Fat and protein content of the bran inversely correlated to amylose content of rice variety. The fat and fibre contents reduced with increased DOM due to increasing starch influx from the endosperm. Abrasive milling produced bran with higher protein content and total dietary fibre, resulting in superior quality bran, while friction milling led to higher fat...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jin-Da Wang, Li-Fei Chen, Ya-Ru Wang, Hua-Ying Fu, Ahmad Ali, Da Xiao, Ran Wang, San-Ji Gao
The ryanodine receptors of insects are the main target sites of diamide insecticides, which show highly selective insecticidal activity relative to toxicity in mammals and provide a novel option for managing lepidopteran pests. The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), is a destructive pest of agricultural crops, and great efforts have been undertaken to control this pest including repeated insecticide applications. In this study, full-length cDNA of a ryanodine receptor gene from M. separata (MsRyR) was cloned and characterized...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Cristal M Hill, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Restriction of dietary protein intake increases food intake and energy expenditure, reduces growth, and alters amino acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. While these responses suggest that animals 'sense' insufficient consumption of amino acids, the basic physiological mechanism mediating the adaptive response to protein restriction has been largely undescribed. In this review we make the case that the liver-derived metabolic hormone FGF21 is the key signal which communicates and coordinates the homeostatic response to dietary protein restriction...
June 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Shahram Niknafs, Eugeni Roura
The anatomical structure and function of beaks, bills and tongue together with the mechanics of deglutition in birds have contributed to the development of a taste system denuded of macrostructures visible to the human naked eye. Studies in chickens and other birds have revealed that the avian taste system consists of taste buds not clustered in papillae and located mainly (60 %) in the upper palate hidden in the crevasses of the salivary ducts. That explains the long delay in the understanding of the avian taste system...
June 11, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Feiran Wang, Haitao Shi, Shuxiang Wang, Yajing Wang, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li
Reducing dietary crude protein (CP) and supplementing with certain amino acids (AAs) has been known as a potential solution to improve nitrogen (N) efficiency in dairy production. Thus understanding how AAs are utilized in various sites along the gut is critical. AA flow from the intestine to portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver then to the mammary gland was elaborated in this article. Recoveries in individual AA in PDV and liver seem to share similar AA pattern with input: output ratio in mammary gland, which subdivides essential AA (EAA) into two groups, lysine (Lys) and branched-chain AA (BCAA) in group 1, input: output ratio > 1; methionine (Met), histidine (His), phenylalanine (Phe) etc...
June 10, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Mary E Kelly, Srinivasagan Ramkumar, Weizhong Sun, Crystal Colon Ortiz, Philip D Kiser, Marcin Golczak, Johannes von Lintig
Vitamin A serves essential functions in mammalian biology as a signaling molecule and chromophore. This lipid can be synthesized from more than 50 putative dietary provitamin A precursor molecules which contain at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring. We here scrutinized the enzymatic properties and substrate specificities of the two structurally related carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) which catalyze this synthesis. Recombinant BCO1 split substrates across the C15,C15' double bond adjacent to a canonical β-ionone ring site to vitamin A aldehyde...
June 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Verena Stoeger, Kathrin I Liszt, Barbara Lieder, Martin Wendelin, Muhammet Zopun, Joachim Hans, Jakob P Ley, Gerhard E Krammer, Veronika Somoza
Secretion of gastric acid, aimed at preventing bacterial growth and aiding the digestion of foods in the stomach, is chiefly stimulated by dietary intake of protein and amino acids (AAs). However, AAs' key structural determinants responsible for their effects on mechanisms regulating gastric acid secretion (GAS) have not been identified yet. In this study, AAs have been tested in the parietal cell model HGT-1 on GAS and on mRNA expression of genes regulating GAS. AAs' taste intensities from 0 (not bitter at all) to 10 (very bitter) were assessed in a sensory study, in which ARG (L: 6...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yan-Chuan Li, Yu-Zheng Li, Rui Li, Li Lan, Chun-Long Li, Min Huang, Dan Shi, Ren-Nan Feng, Chang-Hao Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Elevation of plasma sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) is generally associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and unfavorable lipid profiles. It is not known how dietary SAAs relate to these associations in humans. METHODS: A convenient tool named internet-based dietary questionnaire for Chinese (IDQC) was used to estimate dietary SAAs intake. A total of 936 participants were randomly recruited and asked to complete the IDQC. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to perform a subgroup study...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Marion Brandolini-Bunlon, Hélène Fouillet, Charlotte Joly, Jean-François Martin, Jean-François Huneau, Dominique Dardevet, François Mariotti
Background: A meal rich in saturated fatty acids induces a postprandial metabolic challenge. The type of dietary protein may modulate postprandial metabolism. Objective: We studied the effect of dietary protein type on postprandial changes in the metabolome after a high-fat meal. Methods: In a 3-period, crossover, postprandial study, 10 healthy overweight men with an elevated waist circumference (>94 cm) ingested high-fat meals made up of cream fat (70% of energy), sucrose (15% energy), and protein (15% energy) from either casein (CAS), whey protein (WHE), or α-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein (LAC)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Wilfredo D Mansilla, Kayla E Silva, Cuilan Zhu, Charles M Nyachoti, John K Htoo, John P Cant, Cornelis F M de Lange
Background: Dietary ammonia is rapidly absorbed but poorly used for urea synthesis in pigs fed low-crude-protein (low-CP) diets deficient in dispensable amino acid (DAA)-nitrogen. Objective: We explored the effect of dietary ammonia on net amino acid (AA) balances in portal-drained viscera (PDV) and livers of pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA-nitrogen. Methods: Eight barrows with an initial body weight (BW) of 26.5 ± 1.4 kg (mean + SD) were surgically fitted with 4 catheters each (portal, hepatic, and mesenteric veins and carotid artery)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Yuya Tsurutani, Kosuke Inoue, Chiho Sugisawa, Jun Saito, Masao Omura, Tetsuo Nishikawa
Objective To clarify the associations between serum omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and obesity-related metabolic abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Data from 225 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were cross-sectionally analyzed. The serum levels of n-6 PUFAs [dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) ] and n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) were measured, and the estimated Δ-5 desaturase (D5D) activity was calculated based on the AA to DGLA ratio...
June 6, 2018: Internal Medicine
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