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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323968/impaired-glycine-mia-in-type-2-diabetes-and-potential-mechanisms-contributing-to-glucose-homeostasis
#1
Richard Yan-Do, Patrick E MacDonald
The onset and/or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented if intervention is early enough. As such, much effort has been placed on the search for indicators predictive of pre-diabetes and disease onset or progression. An increasing body of evidence suggests that changes in plasma glycine may be one such biomarker. Circulating glycine levels are consistently low in patients with T2D. Levels of this non-essential amino acid correlate negatively with obesity and insulin resistance. Plasma glycine correlates positively with glucose disposal, and rises with interventions such as exercise and bariatric surgery that improve glucose homeostasis...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318463/decreasing-the-overall-environmental-impact-of-the-dutch-diet-how-to-find-healthy-and-sustainable-diets-with-limited-changes
#2
Gerard Fh Kramer, Marcelo Tyszler, Pieter Van't Veer, Hans Blonk
OBJECTIVE: To find diets optimised on nutrition and environmental impact close to the current Dutch diet and to identify the most effective and acceptable options for mitigating environmental impact. DESIGN: Linear programming was used to optimise diets of Dutch men and women aged 9-69 years, divided into ten age-gender groups. The analysis included nutrient composition, a metric for popularity and life cycle assessments of 207 food products. Greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy use and land occupation were used to calculate a weighted score for the overall environmental impact...
March 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315774/molecular-characterization-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-2-from-herbivorous-fish-megalobrama-amblycephala-and-responsiveness-to-glucose-loading-and-dietary-carbohydrate-levels
#3
Chao Xu, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Si-Lei Xia, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to characterize the full-length cDNA of AMPKα2 in Megalobrama amblycephala, and evaluate its potential role in glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. The cDNA obtained covered 1942bp with an open reading frame of 1635bp encoding 545 amino acids. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology (91-100%) among most fish and higher vertebrates. This AMPKα2 mRNA predominantly expressed in muscle, liver and brain, while little in gill and intestine. Then, the AMPKα2 expressions were determined in the muscle, liver and brain of fish subjected to a glucose load (injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315395/acute-intravenous-administration-of-dietary-constituent-theanine-suppresses-noxious-neuronal-transmission-of-trigeminal-spinal-nucleus-caudalis-in-rats
#4
Shiori Takehana, Yoshiko Kubota, Nobuo Uotsu, Kei Yui, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Theanine is a non-dietary amino acid linked to the modulation of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, although the acute effects of theanine in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The present study investigated whether acute intravenous theanine administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314994/amino-acids-intake-and-physical-fitness-among-adolescents
#5
Luis Gracia-Marco, Silvia Bel-Serrat, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, Yannis Manios, Ascensión Marcos, Denes Molnar, Kurt Widhalm, Angela Polito, Jeremy Vanhelst, Maria Hagströmer, Michael Sjöström, Anthony Kafatos, Stefaan de Henauw, Ángel Gutierrez, Manuel J Castillo, Luis A Moreno
The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test...
March 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303588/dietary-consumption-of-monosodium-l-glutamate-induces-adaptive-response-and-reduction-in-the-life-span-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Amos O Abolaji, Charles O Olaiya, Oluwagbenga J Oluwadahunsi, Ebenezer O Farombi
Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime...
March 16, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300770/transglycosylated-starch-improves-insulin-response-and-alters-lipid-and-amino-acid-metabolome-in-a-growing-pig-model
#7
Monica A Newman, Qendrim Zebeli, Eva Eberspächer, Dietmar Grüll, Timea Molnar, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Due to the functional properties and physiological effects often associated with chemically modified starches, significant interest lies in their development for incorporation in processed foods. This study investigated the effect of transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on blood glucose, insulin, and serum metabolome in the pre- and postprandial phase in growing pigs. Eight jugular vein-catheterized barrows were fed two diets containing 72% purified starch (waxy cornstarch (CON) or TGS). A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood sampling for glucose, insulin, lipids, and metabolome profiling...
March 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299805/novel-ketone-body-therapy-for-managing-alzheimer-s-disease-an-editorial-highlight-for-effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
EDITORIAL
Michelle A Puchowicz, Thomas N Seyfried
Read the highlighted article 'Effects of a dietary ketone ester on hippocampal glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids in a 3xTgAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease' on doi: 10.1111/jnc.13958.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#9
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289215/selective-dietary-supplementation-in-early-postpartum-is-associated-with-high-resilience-against-depressed-mood
#10
Yekta Dowlati, Arun V Ravindran, Zindel V Segal, Donna E Stewart, Meir Steiner, Jeffrey H Meyer
Medical research is moving toward prevention strategies during prodromal states. Postpartum blues (PPB) is often a prodromal state for postpartum depression (PPD), with severe PPB strongly associated with an elevated risk for PPD. The most common complication of childbearing, PPD has a prevalence of 13%, but there are no widespread prevention strategies, and no nutraceutical interventions have been developed. To counter the effects of the 40% increase in monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) levels that occurs during PPB, a dietary supplement kit consisting of monoamine precursor amino acids and dietary antioxidants was created...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285641/effectiveness-of-essential-amino-acid-supplementation-in-stimulating-whole-body-net-protein-anabolism-is-comparable-between-copd-patients-and-healthy-older-adults
#11
Renate Jonker, Nicolaas Ep Deutz, Marcia L Erbland, Paula J Anderson, Mariëlle Pkj Engelen
BACKGROUND: The development of effective nutritional strategies in support of muscle growth for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains challenging. Dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) are the main driver of postprandial net protein anabolism. In agreement, EAA supplements in healthy older adults are more effective than supplements with the composition of complete proteins. In patients with COPD it is still unknown whether complete protein supplements can be substituted with only EAAs, and whether they are as effective as in healthy older adults...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279913/mitigation-of-ammonia-emissions-from-pig-production-using-reduced-dietary-crude-protein-with-amino-acid-supplementation
#12
Shule Liu, Ji-Qin Ni, John S Radcliffe, Caitlin E Vonderohe
To mitigate ammonia (NH3) emissions from pig production and understand dynamic emission profiles, reduced dietary crude protein (CP) with amino acid supplementation was studied with 720 pigs in a 12-room research building for 155days that covered from weaned to finishing stages. The pigs were divided into three 4-room groups and fed with 2.1-3.8% reduced CP (T1), 4.4-7.8% reduced CP (T2), and standard (control) diets, respectively. Compared with the control group, T1 and T2 decreased manure volumes and manure NH4(+)-N concentrations...
February 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275552/dietary-practices-in-isovaleric-acidemia-a-european-survey
#13
A Pinto, A Daly, S Evans, M F Almeida, M Assoun, A Belanger-Quintana, S Bernabei, S Bollhalder, D Cassiman, H Champion, H Chan, J Dalmau, F de Boer, C de Laet, A de Meyer, A Desloovere, A Dianin, M Dixon, K Dokoupil, S Dubois, F Eyskens, A Faria, I Fasan, E Favre, F Feillet, A Fekete, G Gallo, C Gingell, J Gribben, K Kaalund-Hansen, N Horst, C Jankowski, R Janssen-Regelink, I Jones, C Jouault, G E Kahrs, I L Kok, A Kowalik, C Laguerre, S Le Verge, R Lilje, C Maddalon, D Mayr, U Meyer, A Micciche, M Robert, J C Rocha, H Rogozinski, C Rohde, K Ross, I Saruggia, A Schlune, K Singleton, E Sjoqvist, L H Stolen, A Terry, C Timmer, L Tomlinson, A Tooke, K Vande Kerckhove, E van Dam, T van den Hurk, L van der Ploeg, M van Driessche, M van Rijn, A van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A van Wegberg, C Vasconcelos, H Vestergaard, I Vitoria, D Webster, F J White, L White, H Zweers, A MacDonald
BACKGROUND: In Europe, dietary management of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) may vary widely. There is limited collective information about dietetic management. AIM: To describe European practice regarding the dietary management of IVA, prior to the availability of the E-IMD IVA guidelines (E-IMD 2014). METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire was sent to all European dietitians who were either members of the Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism Dietitians Group (SSIEM-DG) or whom had responded to previous questionnaires on dietetic practice (n = 53)...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275381/dietary-risk-assessment-of-v-atpase-a-dsrnas-on-monarch-butterfly-larvae
#14
Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith Bidne, Richard L Hellmich, Blair D Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou
By suppressing the expression of genes with essential biological functions, in planta RNAi can negatively affect the development and survival of target pests. As a part of a concerted effort to assess the risks of RNAi transgenic crops on non-target organisms, we developed an in vivo toxicity assay to examine the impacts of ingested dsRNAs incurred to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), an iconic eco-indicator in North America. To create the worst case scenario, the full-length v-ATPase A cDNAs from the target pest, western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the non-target D...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274839/dietary-protein-aging-and-nutritional-geometry
#15
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur, David Raubenheimer, Samantha M Solon-Biet, Gregory J Cooney, Victoria C Cogger, Luigi Fontana
Nearly a century of research has shown that nutritional interventions can delay aging and age- related diseases in many animal models and possibly humans. The most robust and widely studied intervention is caloric restriction, while protein restriction and restriction of various amino acids (methionine, tryptophan) have also been shown to delay aging. However, there is still debate over whether the major impact on aging is secondary to caloric intake, protein intake or specific amino acids. Nutritional geometry provides new perspectives on the relationship between nutrition and aging by focusing on calories, macronutrients and their interactions across a landscape of diets, and taking into account compensatory feeding in ad libitum-fed experiments...
March 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274233/newborn-screening-for-tyrosinemia-type-1-using-succinylacetone-a-systematic-review-of-test-accuracy
#16
REVIEW
Chris Stinton, Julia Geppert, Karoline Freeman, Aileen Clarke, Samantha Johnson, Hannah Fraser, Paul Sutcliffe, Sian Taylor-Phillips
BACKGROUND: Tyrosinemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism. Without treatment, death in childhood is common. Treatment with nitisinone and dietary restrictions are associated with improved outcomes; some studies suggest better outcomes when treatment begins at an asymptomatic stage. Newborn screening allows for earlier identification, but there is uncertainty regarding the test accuracy of the current method: succinylacetone measurement in dried blood spots using tandem mass spectrometry...
March 9, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273481/matching-dietary-amino-acid-balance-to-the-in-silico-translated-exome-optimizes-growth-and-reproduction-without-cost-to-lifespan
#17
Matthew D W Piper, George A Soultoukis, Eric Blanc, Andrea Mesaros, Samantha L Herbert, Paula Juricic, Xiaoli He, Ilian Atanassov, Hanna Salmonowicz, Mingyao Yang, Stephen J Simpson, Carlos Ribeiro, Linda Partridge
Balancing the quantity and quality of dietary protein relative to other nutrients is a key determinant of evolutionary fitness. A theoretical framework for defining a balanced diet would both reduce the enormous workload to optimize diets empirically and represent a breakthrough toward tailoring diets to the needs of consumers. Here, we report a simple and powerful in silico technique that uses the genome information of an organism to define its dietary amino acid requirements. We show for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster that such "exome-matched" diets are more satiating, enhance growth, and increase reproduction relative to non-matched diets...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273468/feeding-the-genome-in-silico-optimization-of-dietary-amino-acid-composition
#18
Michael R MacArthur, James R Mitchell
Optimizing dietary amino acid ratios to achieve maximal growth and reproduction has historically required tedious empirical studies. In this issue, Piper et al. (2017) present an in silico method of essential amino acid optimization based on the translated portion of an organism's genome, or exome.
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263002/arginine-for-gestating-sows-and-foetal-development-a-systematic-review
#19
J Y P Palencia, M A G Lemes, C A P Garbossa, M L T Abreu, L J Pereira, M G Zangeronimo
The use of functional amino acids during pregnancy has been linked to improved reproduction in mammals. In this context, arginine is a precursor in the synthesis of numerous molecules, such as nitric oxide and polyamines, which play an important role during reproduction. However, contradictory studies are found in the literature, particularly regarding the amount of supplementation and the period of pregnancy in which it is used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary arginine supplementation for pregnant sows on foetal development via a systematic review...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261952/concentration-dependent-linkage-of-dietary-methionine-restriction-to-the-components-of-its-metabolic-phenotype
#20
Laura A Forney, Desiree Wanders, Kirsten P Stone, Alicia Pierse, Thomas W Gettys
OBJECTIVE: Restricting dietary methionine to 0.17% produces a series of physiological responses through coordinated transcriptional effects in liver and adipose tissue. The goal of the present work was to determine the threshold concentrations above and below 0.17% at which the beneficial responses to 0.17% dietary methionine are preserved. METHODS: Diets were formulated to restrict methionine to different degrees, followed by evaluation of the transcriptional and physiological responses to the different diets...
March 6, 2017: Obesity
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