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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035970/emerging-perspectives-on-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-during-adipocyte-differentiation
#1
Daniela Salinas-Rubio, Armando R Tovar, Lilia G Noriega
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipogenesis has been extensively studied in the context of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, little information exists on the role of amino acid metabolism during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we review how branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is modified during adipogenesis and, due to the limited information in the area, address questions that remain to be answered with further research. RECENT FINDINGS: BCAAs are rapidly consumed during adipocyte differentiation and are indispensable for this process...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035969/effects-of-medical-food-leucine-content-in-the-management-of-methylmalonic-and-propionic-acidemias
#2
Jennifer G Myles, Irini Manoli, Charles P Venditti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights the varied effects of medical foods high in leucine (Leu) and devoid of valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) in the management of methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia and cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, aiming to advance dietary practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Leu is a key metabolic regulator with a multitude of effects on different organ systems. Recent observational studies have demonstrated that these effects can have unintended consequences in patients with MMA as a result of liberal use of medical foods...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035319/nutritional-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Ahmed Hammad, Toshimi Kaido, Vusal Aliyev, Claudia Mandato, Shinji Uemoto
Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032949/correction-of-hyperleucinemia-in-msud-patients-on-leucine-free-dietary-therapy
#4
Anna I Scott, Kristina Cusmano-Ozog, Gregory M Enns, Tina M Cowan
PURPOSE: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acid catabolism associated with encephalopathy from accumulation of leucine. Leucine is closely monitored during normal growth and particularly during acute illness. As most hospitals do not have access to rapid plasma amino acid quantification, the initial management is often empirical. A model describing the reduction of plasma leucine in hyperleucinemic patients on leucine-free formula would help to guide management and optimize testing frequency...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032780/prediction-of-the-amino-acid-digestibility-of-legume-seeds-in-growing-pigs-a-meta-analysis-approach
#5
F Messad, M P Létourneau-Montminy, E Charbonneau, D Sauvant, F Guay
On pig farms, a high proportion of the cost of production comes from feed costs. However, the use of alternative ingredients such as legume seeds may help to reduce this cost. In fact, legume seeds are an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) and can therefore be an alternative to oilseed meals. However, the accurate use of these legume seeds requires a precise knowledge of the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of EAA, which may vary depending on its botanical variety. A meta-analysis was performed on a database compiling data from 41 studies published between 1981 and 2013 and 178 dietary treatments...
October 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032464/nutritional-composition-of-honey-bee-food-stores-vary-with-floral-composition
#6
Philip Donkersley, Glenn Rhodes, Roger W Pickup, Kevin C Jones, Eileen F Power, Geraldine A Wright, Kenneth Wilson
Sufficiently diverse and abundant resources are essential for generalist consumers, and form an important part of a suite of conservation strategies for pollinators. Honey bees are generalist foragers and are dependent on diverse forage to adequately meet their nutritional needs. Through analysis of stored pollen (bee bread) samples obtained from 26 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives across NW-England, we quantified bee bread nutritional content and the plant species that produced these stores from pollen...
October 14, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029202/a-metabolomic-signature-of-acute-caloric-restriction
#7
Tinh-Hai Collet, Takuhiro Sonoyama, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Brian Ingram, Sarah Kelway, Lining Guo, I Sadaf Farooqi
Context: The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction followed by refeeding can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Objective: Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute caloric restriction...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028650/fast-digestive-proteins-and-sarcopenia-of-aging
#8
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021961/dietary-practices-in-propionic-acidemia-a-european-survey
#9
A Daly, A Pinto, S Evans, M F Almeida, M Assoun, A Belanger-Quintana, S M Bernabei, S Bollhalder, D Cassiman, H Champion, H Chan, J Dalmau, F de Boer, C de Laet, A de Meyer, A Desloovere, A Dianin, M Dixon, K Dokoupil, S Dubois, F Eyskens, A Faria, I Fasan, E Favre, F Feillet, A Fekete, G Gallo, C Gingell, J Gribben, K Kaalund Hansen, N M Ter Horst, C Jankowski, R Janssen-Regelink, I Jones, C Jouault, G E Kahrs, I L Kok, A Kowalik, C Laguerre, S Le Verge, R Lilje, C Maddalon, D Mayr, U Meyer, A Micciche, U Och, M Robert, J C Rocha, H Rogozinski, C Rohde, K Ross, I Saruggia, A Schlune, K Singleton, E Sjoqvist, R Skeath, L H Stolen, A Terry, C Timmer, L Tomlinson, A Tooke, K Vande Kerckhove, E van Dam, T van den Hurk, L van der Ploeg, M van Driessche, M van Rijn, A van Wegberg, C Vasconcelos, H Vestergaard, I Vitoria, D Webster, F J White, L White, H Zweers, A MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The definitive dietary management of propionic acidaemia (PA) is unknown although natural protein restriction with adequate energy provision is of key importance. AIM: To describe European dietary practices in the management of patients with PA prior to the publication of the European PA guidelines. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey consisting of 27 questions about the dietary practices in PA patients circulated to European IMD dietitians and health professionals in 2014...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021795/neuroendocrine-and-immune-responses-undertake-different-fates-following-tryptophan-or-methionine-dietary-treatment-tales-from-a-teleost-model
#10
Rita Azeredo, Marina Machado, António Afonso, Camino Fierro-Castro, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluis Tort, Manuel Gesto, Marta Conde-Sieira, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas, Eva Kreuz, Sven Wuertz, Helena Peres, Aires Oliva-Teles, Benjamin Costas
Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level) or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021372/ammonia-nitrogen-added-to-diets-deficient-in-dispensable-amino-acid-nitrogen-is-poorly-utilized-for-urea-production-in-growing-pigs
#11
Wilfredo D Mansilla, Kayla E Silva, Cuilan L Zhu, Charles M Nyachoti, John K Htoo, John P Cant, Cornelis Fm de Lange
Background: Including ammonia in low-crude protein (CP) diets deficient in dispensable amino acid (DAAs) increases nitrogen retention in growing pigs.Objective: We investigated the absorption and metabolism of dietary ammonia nitrogen in the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver of pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen.Methods: Eight pigs with an initial mean ± SD body weight (BW) of 26.5 ± 1.4 kg were surgically fitted with 4 catheters each (portal, hepatic and mesenteric veins, and carotid artery)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017627/mycoprotein-represents-a-bioavailable-and-insulinotropic-non-animal-derived-dietary-protein-source-a-dose-response-study
#12
Mandy V Dunlop, Sean P Kilroe, Joanna L Bowtell, Tim J A Finnigan, Deborah L Salmon, Benjamin T Wall
The anabolic potential of a dietary protein is determined by its ability to elicit postprandial rises in circulating essential amino acids and insulin. Minimal data exist regarding the bioavailability and insulinotropic effects of non-animal-derived protein sources. Mycoprotein is a sustainable and rich source of non-animal-derived dietary protein. We investigated the impact of mycoprotein ingestion, in a dose-response manner, on acute postprandial hyperaminoacidaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. In all, twelve healthy young men completed five experimental trials in a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design...
October 11, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994235/lipo-protein-emulsion-structure-in-the-diet-affects-protein-digestion-kinetics-intestinal-mucosa-parameters-and-microbiota-composition
#13
Marion Oberli, Véronique Douard, Martin Beaumont, Daphné Jaoui, Fabienne Devime, Sandy Laurent, Catherine Chaumontet, Damien Mat, Steven Le Feunteun, Camille Michon, Anne-Marie Davila, Gilles Fromentin, Daniel Tomé, Isabelle Souchon, Marion Leclerc, Claire Gaudichon, François Blachier
SCOPE: Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We tested the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. METHODS & RESULTS: Rats (n = 40) were fed for 3 weeks two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and micro-structure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingested a (15) N-labeled LFE or GCE test meal and were euthanized 0, 15min, 1h and 5h later...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986165/metabolic-phenotyping-using-kinetic-measurements-in-young-and-older-healthy-adults
#14
Nicolaas E P Deutz, John J Thaden, Gabriella A M Ten Have, Dillon K Walker, Mariëlle P K J Engelen
BACKGROUND: The aging process is often associated with the presence of sarcopenia. Although changes in the plasma concentration of several amino acids have been observed in older adults, it remains unclear whether these changes are related to disturbances in whole body production and/or interconversions. METHODS: We studied 10 healthy young (~22.7 y) and 17 older adults (~64.8 y) by administering a mixture of stable amino acid tracers in a pulse and in a primed constant infusion...
October 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981381/effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-serum-leptin-levels-appetite-sensations-and-intake-of-energy-and-macronutrients-in-obese-people-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
L Payahoo, A Ostadrahimi, N Farrin, Y Khaje-Bishak
Obesity is a common health problem. Appetite is one of the main obesity-controlling factors that can be influenced by leptin. Leptin reduces food intake and accelerates energy expenditure. Leptin levels can be affected by dietary factors such as fats, special amino acids, and fructose. This study aimed to determine the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (PUFA n-3) supplementation on serum leptin levels, appetite sensations, and dietary intakes in obese people. This study was performed on 60 obese individuals with body mass index (BMI) 30 (kg/m(2)) and above in 2012 in Tabriz, Iran...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970255/dietary-methionine-restriction-modulates-renal-response-and-attenuates-kidney-injury-in-mice
#16
Diana Cooke, Amadou Ouattara, Gene P Ables
Methionine restriction (MR) extends the lifespan across several species, such as rodents, fruit flies, roundworms, and yeast. MR studies have been conducted on various rodent organs, such as liver, adipose tissue, heart, bones, and skeletal muscle, to elucidate its benefits to the healthspan; however, studies of the direct effect of MR on kidneys are lacking. To investigate the renal effects of MR, we used young and aged unilateral nephrectomized and 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) mice. Our studies indicated that MR mice experienced polydipsia and polyuria compared with control-fed counterparts...
September 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969557/impact-of-high-protein-intake-on-viral-load-and-hematological-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients
#17
Evgeny Vlad Butorov
BACKGROUND: The impact of protein intake level leads to considerable alterations of the host essential amino acid profiles in the context of chronic viral infectious process. Amino acids play an important role in the pathogenesis of virus-related infections both as basic substrates for constant protein synthesis and as regulators in many metabolic pathways. The excess or deficiency of these host essential nutritional elements can play a limiting role in the life cycle of some viruses...
October 2, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969367/erratum-for-potential-impact-of-the-digestible-indispensable-amino-acid-score-as-a-measure-of-protein-quality-on-dietary-regulations-and-health-nutrition-reviews-2017-75-8-658-667
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969364/potential-impact-of-the-digestible-indispensable-amino-acid-score-as-a-measure-of-protein-quality-on-dietary-regulations-and-health
#19
Christopher P F Marinangeli, James D House
Regulatory frameworks for protein content claims in Canada and the United States are underpinned by the protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), respectively, which are used to assess the protein quality of a given food. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) is a novel approach to measuring the protein quality of foods and is supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Methodological concerns about the PDCAAS are addressed by the DIAAS through introduction of the use of ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients and untruncated protein scores...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965404/effects-of-long-term-protein-restriction-on-meat-quality-muscle-amino-acids-and-amino-acid-transporters-in-pigs
#20
Jie Yin, Yuying Li, Xiaotong Zhu, Hui Han, Wenkai Ren, Shuai Chen, Peng Bin, Gang Liu, Xingguo Huang, Rejun Fang, Bin Wang, Kai Wang, Liping Sun, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of protein restriction from piglets to finishing pigs for 16 weeks on meat quality, muscle amino acids, and amino acid transporters. Thirty-nine piglets were randomly divided into three groups: a control (20-18-16% crude protein, CP) and two protein restricted groups (17-15-13% CP and 14-12-10% CP). The results showed that severe protein restriction (14-12-10% CP) inhibited feed intake and body weight, while moderate protein restriction (17-15-13% CP) had little effect on growth performance in pigs...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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