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dietary amino acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731826/convergently-evolved-toxic-secondary-metabolites-in-plants-drive-the-parallel-molecular-evolution-of-insect-resistance
#1
Georg Petschenka, Vera Wagschal, Michael von Tschirnhaus, Alexander Donath, Susanne Dobler
Natural selection imposed by natural toxins has led to striking levels of convergent evolution at the molecular level. Cardiac glycosides represent a group of plant toxins that block the Na,K-ATPase, a vital membrane protein in animals. Several herbivorous insects have convergently evolved resistant Na,K-ATPases, and in some species, convergent gene duplications have also arisen, likely to cope with pleiotropic costs of resistance. To understand the genetic basis and predictability of these adaptations, we studied five independent lineages of leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae)...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730972/aoac-smpr-%C3%A2-2017-011-standard-method-performance-requirements-smprs-for-identification-and-quantitation-of-free-alpha-amino-acids-in-dietary-ingredients-and-supplements
#2
Garrett Zielinski, Gisele Atkinson, Sneh Bhandari, Paul Burns, Danielle Citrolo, Christine Farthing, Brandi Glover, Adam Horkey, Holly Johnson, Adam Kuszak, Jeff Lin, J Andreas Lippert, Elizabeth Mudge, Maria Ofitserova, Lars M Reimann, Aniko M Solyom, Darryl M Sullivan, John Szpylka, John Travis, Jason Lynn Wubben, Jinchuan Yang, Hong You, Kurt Young, Scott G Coates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728397/effects-of-dietary-valine-lysine-ratio-on-the-performance-amino-acid-composition-of-tissues-and-mrna-expression-of-genes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-of-weaned-piglets
#3
Yetong Xu, Xiaokang Ma, Chunli Wang, Mingfeng Yuan, Xiangshu Piao
Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods: A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) weaned at 28 ± 4 days of age (8.79 ± 0.02 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine: lysine ratios of 50, 60, 70 or 80%...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728363/effect-of-different-levels-of-protein-concentrates-supplementation-on-the-growth-performance-plasma-amino-acids-profile-and-mtor-cascade-genes-expression-in-early-weaned-yak-calves
#4
Quhani Peng, Nazir Ahmad Khan, B Xue, T H Yan, Z S Ahmad Wang
Objective: Yak is anone of the most important livestock species in the alpine-meadow grasslands of Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. WeThis study evaluated the effects of different levels of protein concentrate supplementation on the growth performance of yak calves, and correlated the growth rate to the changes occurring in the plasma- amino acids, and -insulin profile, and to the signaling activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade, in order to characterize the mechanism through which the protein synthesis can be improved in early weaned yaks...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727234/kynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-that-accumulates-with-age-induces-bone-loss
#5
Mona El Refaey, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Sadanand Fulzele, Eileen J Kennedy, Wendy B Bollag, Mohammed Elsalanty, Qing Zhong, Ke-Hong Ding, Nathaniel G Bendzunas, Xing-Ming Shi, Jianrui Xu, William D Hill, Maribeth H Johnson, Monte Hunter, Jessica L Pierce, Kanglun Yu, Mark W Hamrick, Carlos M Isales
Age-dependent bone loss occurs in humans and in several animal species, including rodents. The underlying causal mechanisms are probably multifactorial, although an age-associated increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species has been frequently implicated. We previously reported that aromatic amino acids function as antioxidants and are anabolic for bone and that they may potentially play a protective role in an aging environment. We hypothesized that upon oxidation the aromatic amino acids would not only lose their anabolic effects but also potentially become a catabolic byproduct...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727119/nitrogen-from-ammonia-is-as-efficient-as-that-from-free-amino-acids-or-protein-for-improving-growth-performance-of-pigs-fed-diets-deficient-in-nonessential-amino-acid-nitrogen
#6
W D Mansilla, J K Htoo, C F M de Lange
Inclusion of NPN in diets may compensate the deficient supply of nonessential AA (NEAA) in very low CP levels. To assess this, 2 studies were conducted to determine the effect of supplementing NPN and specific NEAA to diets severely deficient in NEAA nitrogen (NEAA-N) on growth performance of pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 gilts (initial BW 15.2 ± 1.3 kg; 2 pigs per pen; 6 pens per treatment) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments: 1) positive control (Pos Ctrl), not deficient in essential AA (EAA) and total N, with all N supplied from intact protein (casein and soybean meal) or crystalline EAA, (2) negative control (Neg Ctrl), supplying the same amount of potentially limiting EAA as Pos Ctrl but deficient in NEAA-N, 3) Neg Ctrl plus 1...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727087/effects-of-zilpaterol-hydrochloride-on-methane-production-total-body-oxygen-consumption-and-blood-metabolites-in-finishing-beef-steers
#7
K E Hales, A P Foote, D W Brake, T M Brown-Brandl, V M Artegoitia, H C Freetly
An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) were individually fed at ad libitum intake and used in a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, day, and treatment × day. Dry matter intake did not differ between the treatments ( = 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727075/amino-acid-digestibility-by-weanling-pigs-of-processed-ingredients-originating-from-soybeans-00-rapeseeds-or-a-fermented-mixture-of-plant-ingredients
#8
D M D L Navarro, Y Liu, T S Bruun, H H Stein
An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of processed soybean products, in conventional dehulled soybean meal (SBM-CV), in conventional 00-rapeseed expellers (RSE), and in a fermented coproduct mixture (FCM) that contained rapeseed meal, wheat, soy molasses, and potato peel fed to weanling pigs. The 4 processed soybean products included 2 sources of enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM-1 and ESBM-2), extruded soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC)...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727030/apparent-and-true-ileal-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-fat-in-canola-press-cake-or-canola-oil-and-effects-of-increasing-dietary-fat-on-amino-acid-and-energy-digestibility-in-growing-pigs
#9
X Zhou, E Beltranena, R T Zijlstra
Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726985/influence-of-dietary-crude-protein-and-phosphorus-on-ileal-digestion-of-phosphorus-and-amino-acids-in-growing-pigs
#10
P C Xue, D Ragland, O Adeola
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CP levels on ileal P digestion in growing pigs. A total of 18 ileal-cannulated pigs (44.2 ± 3.2 kg initial BW) were used in a duplicated 9 × 3 incomplete Latin square design, with 9 treatments and three 7-d experimental periods giving 6 replicates per treatment. The 9 treatments consisted of 1 N-free diet to estimate basal endogenous loss of AA and 8 corn-soybean meal-based diets in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, which included 2 CP levels (6.9 or 13...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724701/integrative-physiology-of-transcellular-and-paracellular-intestinal-absorption
#11
REVIEW
William H Karasov
Glucose absorption by the small intestine has been studied for nearly a century. Despite extensive knowledge about the identity, functioning and regulation of the relevant transporters, there has been and there remains controversy about how these transporters work in concert to determine the overall epithelial absorption of key nutrients (e.g. sugars, amino acids) over a wide range of dietary and/or luminal concentrations. Our broader, integrative understanding of intestinal absorption requires more than the reductionist dissection of all the components and their elaboration at molecular and genetic levels...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724349/16s-rrna-gene-based-association-study-identified-microbial-taxa-associated-with-pork-intramuscular-fat-content-in-feces-and-cecum-lumen
#12
Shaoming Fang, Xingwei Xiong, Ying Su, Lusheng Huang, Congying Chen
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fat (IMF) that deposits among muscle fibers or within muscle cells is an important meat quality trait in pigs. Previous studies observed the effects of dietary nutrients and additives on improving the pork IMF. Gut microbiome plays an important role in host metabolism and energy harvest. Whether gut microbiota exerts effect on IMF remains unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the microbial community structure of 500 samples from porcine cecum and feces using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
July 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721839/branched-chain-amino-acid-meat-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#13
Masoud Isanejad, Andrea Z LaCroix, Cynthia A Thomson, Lesley Tinker, Joseph C Larson, Qibin Qi, Lihong Qi, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Lawrence S Phillips, Ross L Prentice, Jeannette M Beasley
Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50-79 years at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data...
June 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717313/study-of-morphology-chemical-and-amino-acid-composition-of-red-deer-meat
#14
Eleonora Okuskhanova, Bahytkul Assenova, Maksim Rebezov, Kumarbek Amirkhanov, Zhanibek Yessimbekov, Farida Smolnikova, Almagul Nurgazezova, Gulnur Nurymkhan, Marilyne Stuart
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713581/short-term-elevation-in-dietary-protein-intake-does-not-worsen-insulin-resistance-or-lipids-in-older-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Il-Young Kim, Scott E Schutzler, Gohar Azhar, Robert R Wolfe, Arny A Ferrando, Robert H Coker
BACKGROUND: There is a great deal of controversy as to whether higher protein intake improves or worsens insulin sensitivity in humans. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of a short-term elevation in dietary protein on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in twelve older subjects (51-70 yrs) with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Individuals were randomly assigned to one of the dietary groups: recommended protein intake (RPI, 10% of daily calorie intake) or elevated protein intake (EPI, 20% of daily calorie intake) for 4 weeks...
2017: BMC Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712055/potential-of-casein-as-a-carrier-for-biologically-active-agents
#16
REVIEW
Tomasz Konrad Głąb, Janusz Boratyński
Casein is the collective name for a family of milk proteins. In bovine milk, casein comprises four peptides: αS1, αS2, β, and κ, differing in their amino acid, phosphorus and carbohydrate content but similar in their amphiphilic character. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of casein show block distribution in the protein chain. Casein peptides carry negative charge on their surface as a result of phosphorylation and tend to bind nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Due to these properties, in suitable conditions, casein molecules agglomerate into spherical micelles...
August 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710783/evaluation-of-vegetable-protein-in-canine-diets-assessment-of-performance-and-apparent-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-using-a-broiler-model
#17
D C Fiacco, J A Lowe, J Wiseman, G A White
Recent technological advances in the human food industry with respect to meat processing have decreased the availability of animal proteins to the pet food industry which typically formulates diets with an excess of animal protein. In the long term, this is not sustainable; thus, alternative protein sources need to be investigated. This study examined three canine diets, comparing a typical animal protein-based diet (control) with two experimental diets where the animal protein was substituted in part with vegetable protein (formulated based either on total protein or amino acid content) using a broiler model...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710408/non-ketogenic-combination-of-nutritional-strategies-provides-robust-protection-against-seizures
#18
Glenn Dallérac, Julien Moulard, Jean-François Benoist, Stefan Rouach, Stéphane Auvin, Angèle Guilbot, Loïc Lenoir, Nathalie Rouach
Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects 1% of the world population. Conventional treatments of epilepsy use drugs targeting neuronal excitability, inhibitory or excitatory transmission. Yet, one third of patients presents an intractable form of epilepsy and fails to respond to pharmacological anti-epileptic strategies. The ketogenic diet is a well-established non-pharmacological treatment that has been proven to be effective in reducing seizure frequency in the pharmaco-resistant patients. This dietary solution is however extremely restrictive and can be associated with complications caused by the high [fat]:[carbohydrate + protein] ratio...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706733/the-effect-of-characteristics-of-proteins-fed-during-gestation-and-lactation-on-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-dams-and-male-offspring-of-wistar-rats
#19
A Jahan-Mihan, C A Labyak, A Y Arikawa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to examine the role of characteristics of proteins in maternal and weaning diets on risk of metabolic syndrome in male offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were allocated to two groups (n = 12) and were fed the AIN-93G diets based on either intact protein-based diet (IPD) or mixed amino acid-based diet (AAD) from day 3 of gestation throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to either an IPD or AAD diet for 18 weeks...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700715/the-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-with-network-meta-analyses-of-randomised-trials
#20
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Amparo Núñez-Beltrán, Matthew J Page, Manuel Ridao, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Miguel A Catalá, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, David Moher
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses...
2017: PloS One
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