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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455533/effect-of-dietary-protein-level-on-the-expression-of-proteins-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-young-pigs
#1
Xianyong Ma, Xianyong Ma, Zhimei Tian, Dun Deng, Yiyan Cui, Yueqin Qiu
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of protein level on proteins expression in the gastrointestinal tract of young pigs. Eighteen piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) were weaned at 28 days of age and randomly assigned to 3 diets with 20%, 17%, and 14% CP level and four essential AA: Lys, Met, Thr and Trp in three diets meet the requirements of weaned piglets. The experimental period lasts 45d. RESULTS: Compared with the control (20% CP level), the average daily feed intake, the average daily gain and gain feed ratio of the 17% CP group did not decrease (P > 0...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452407/dietary-l-glutamine-supplementation-improves-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-serum-biochemical-indices-of-broiler-chickens-during-necrotic-enteritis-challenge
#2
G D Xue, R Barekatain, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a factorial arrangement of treatments with factors: NE challenge, no or yes; dietary Gln inclusion, 0 g/kg in starter (S), d 0 to 10, grower (G) d 10 to 24, and finisher (F) d 24 to 35; 10 g/kg in S, G, F, or 10 g/kg in S, G only...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445454/rumen-protected-methionine-during-the-peripartal-period-in-dairy-cows-and-its-effects-on-abundance-of-major-species-of-ruminal-bacteria
#3
Mohamed K Abdelmegeid, Ahmed A Elolimy, Zheng Zhou, Vincenzo Lopreiato, Joshua C McCann, Juan J Loor
Background: Extensive degradation of amino acids in the rumen via microbial deamination decreases the post-ruminal availability of dietary indispensable amino acids. Together with the normal decrease in voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) around parturition in dairy cows, microbial metabolism contributes to a markedly negative balance of indispensable amino acids, including methionine which may be the first-limiting for milk production. The main objective of the current study was to profile changes in major bacterial species with key functions in cellulose and hemicellulose digestion, xylan breakdown, proteolytic action, propionic acid production, lactate utilization and ruminal biohydrogenation in cows supplemented with rumen-protected Methionine (SM; Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA, USA) from -23 through 30 d relative to parturition...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442227/complete-coding-sequence-of-a-novel-picorna-like-virus-in-a-blackbird-infected-with-usutu-virus
#4
Steven Van Borm, Mieke Steensels, Elisabeth Mathijs, Claude Kwe Yinda, Jelle Matthijnssens, Bénédicte Lambrecht
Using random high-throughput RNA sequencing, the complete coding sequence of a novel picorna-like virus (a 9,228-nt contig containing 212,202 reads) was determined from a blackbird (Turdus merula) infected with Usutu virus. This sequence shares only 36% amino acid sequence identity with its closest homolog, arivirus 1, (an unclassified member of the order Picornavirales), and shares its dicistronic genome arrangement. The new virus was therefore tentatively named "blackbird arilivirus" (ari-like virus). The nearly complete genome sequence consists of at least 9,228 nt and contains two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the nonstructural polyprotein (2235 amino acids) and structural polyprotein (769 amino acids)...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439854/rapid-sensing-of-l-leucine-by-human-and-murine-hypothalamic-neurons-neurochemical-and-mechanistic-insights
#5
Nicholas Heeley, Peter Kirwan, Tamana Darwish, Marion Arnaud, Mark L Evans, Florian T Merkle, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Clemence Blouet
OBJECTIVE: Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. METHODS: We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423216/dietary-proline-supplementation-alters-colonic-luminal-microbiota-and-bacterial-metabolite-composition-between-days-45-and-70-of-pregnancy-in-huanjiang-mini-pigs
#6
Yujiao Ji, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin, Francois Blachier, Xiangfeng Kong
Background: Pregnancy is associated with important changes in gut microbiota composition. Dietary factors may affect the diversity, composition, and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota. Among amino acids, proline is known to play important roles in protein metabolism and structure, cell differentiation, conceptus growth and development, and gut microbiota re-equilibration in case of dysbiosis. Results: Dietary supplementation with 1% proline decreased (P < 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417318/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-enzyme-activities-in-juvenile-silvery-black-porgy-sparidentex-hasta-fed-essential-amino-acid-deficient-diets
#7
Morteza Yaghoubi, Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh, Omid Safari, Jasem G Marammazi
As amino acids (AAs) are vital molecules in the metabolism of all living organisms and are the building blocks of enzymes, a 6-week feeding trial was conducted for determining the influence of dietary essential amino acid (EAA) deficiencies on pancreatic, plasma, and hepatic enzyme activities in silvery-black porgy (initial weight 4.7 ± 0.01 g) juveniles. Eleven isoproteic (ca. 47%) and isoenergetic (ca. 20.5 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated including a control diet, in which 60% of dietary nitrogen were provided by intact protein (fish meal, gelatin, and wheat meal) and 40% by crystalline AA...
February 7, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414946/asparagine-bioavailability-governs-metastasis-in-a-model-of-breast-cancer
#8
Simon R V Knott, Elvin Wagenblast, Showkhin Khan, Sun Y Kim, Mar Soto, Michel Wagner, Marc-Olivier Turgeon, Lisa Fish, Nicolas Erard, Annika L Gable, Ashley R Maceli, Steffen Dickopf, Evangelia K Papachristou, Clive S D'Santos, Lisa A Carey, John E Wilkinson, J Chuck Harrell, Charles M Perou, Hani Goodarzi, George Poulogiannis, Gregory J Hannon
Using a functional model of breast cancer heterogeneity, we previously showed that clonal sub-populations proficient at generating circulating tumour cells were not all equally capable of forming metastases at secondary sites. A combination of differential expression and focused in vitro and in vivo RNA interference screens revealed candidate drivers of metastasis that discriminated metastatic clones. Among these, asparagine synthetase expression in a patient's primary tumour was most strongly correlated with later metastatic relapse...
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414855/recent-perspectives-regarding-the-role-of-dietary-protein-for-the-promotion-of-muscle-hypertrophy-with-resistance-exercise-training
#9
REVIEW
Tanner Stokes, Amy J Hector, Robert W Morton, Chris McGlory, Stuart M Phillips
Skeletal muscle supports locomotion and serves as the largest site of postprandial glucose disposal; thus it is a critical organ for physical and metabolic health. Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by the processes of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), both of which are sensitive to external loading and aminoacidemia. Hyperaminoacidemia results in a robust but transient increase in rates of MPS and a mild suppression of MPB. Resistance exercise potentiates the aminoacidemia-induced rise in MPS that, when repeated over time, results in gradual radial growth of skeletal muscle (i...
February 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401702/bioactive-dietary-vdr-ligands-regulate-genes-encoding-biomarkers-of-skin-repair-that-are-associated-with-risk-for-psoriasis
#10
Amitis Karrys, Islam Rady, Roxane-Cherille N Chamcheu, Marya S Sabir, Sanchita Mallick, Jean Christopher Chamcheu, Peter W Jurutka, Mark R Haussler, G Kerr Whitfield
Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D) improves psoriasis symptoms, possibly by inducing the expression of late cornified envelope (LCE)3 genes involved in skin repair. In psoriasis patients, the majority of whom harbor genomic deletion of LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3C_LCE3B-del), we propose that certain dietary analogues of 1,25D activate the expression of residual LCE3A/LCE3D/LCE3E genes to compensate for the loss of LCE3B/LCE3C in the deletant genotype. Herein, human keratinocytes (HEKn) homozygous for LCE3C_LCE3B-del were treated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and curcumin, two low-affinity, nutrient ligands for the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
February 4, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401695/influence-of-graded-levels-of-l-theanine-dietary-supplementation-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-meat-quality-organs-histomorphometry-blood-chemistry-and-immune-response-of-broiler-chickens
#11
Muhammad Saeed, Xu Yatao, Faiz-Ul Hassan, Muhammad Asif Arain, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Ahmed E Noreldin, Chao Sun
l-theanine is a water-soluble non-proteinous amino acid mainly found in green tea leaves. Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of l-theanine as a feed additive in animals, and especially broilers are limited. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of l-theanine on meat quality, growth performance, immune response, and blood metabolites in broilers. A total of 400 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups using a completely randomized design; C-control, basal diet; 100LT-basal diet + 100 mg l-theanine/kg diet; 200LT-basal diet + 200 mg l-theanine/kg diet; and 300LT-basal diet + 300 mg l-theanine/kg diet...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401631/short-term-methionine-deprivation-improves-metabolic-health-via-sexually-dimorphic-mtorc1-independent-mechanisms
#12
Deyang Yu, Shany E Yang, Blake R Miller, Jaclyn A Wisinski, Dawn S Sherman, Jacqueline A Brinkman, Jay L Tomasiewicz, Nicole E Cummings, Michelle E Kimple, Vincent L Cryns, Dudley W Lamming
Obesity and diabetes are major challenges to global health, and there is an urgent need for interventions that promote weight loss. Dietary restriction of methionine promotes leanness and improves metabolic health in mice and humans. However, poor long-term adherence to this diet limits its translational potential. In this study, we develop a short-term methionine deprivation (MD) regimen that preferentially reduces fat mass, restoring normal body weight and glycemic control to diet-induced obese mice of both sexes...
January 30, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401290/standardized-ileal-digestible-valine-lysine-dose-response-effects-in-25-to-45-kg-pigs-under-commercial-conditions
#13
M A D Gonçalves, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, N M Bello, K J Touchette, R D Goodband, J M DeRouchey, J C Woodworth
Two experiments were conducted to estimate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lys dose response effects in 25- to 45-kg pigs under commercial conditions. In Exp. 1, a total of 1,134 gilts (PIC 337 × 1050), initially 31.2 kg ± 2.0 kg BW (mean ± SD) were used in a 19-d growth trial with 27 pigs/pen and 7 pens/treatment. In Exp. 2, a total of 2,100 gilts (PIC 327 × 1050), initially 25.4 ± 1.9 kg BW were used in a 22-d growth trial with 25 pigs/pen and 12 pens/treatment. Treatments were blocked by initial BW in a randomized complete block design...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399895/leucine-supplementation-attenuates-macrophage-foam-cell-formation-studies-in-humans-mice-and-cultured-macrophages
#14
Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Oren Rom, Shadi Hamoud, Nina Volkova, Tony Hayek, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Michael Aviram
Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages...
February 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399808/disease-prevention-and-delayed-aging-by-dietary-sulfur-amino-acid-restriction-translational-implications
#15
REVIEW
Zhen Dong, Raghu Sinha, John P Richie
Sulfur amino acids (SAAs) play numerous critical roles in metabolism and overall health maintenance. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that SAA-restricted diets have many beneficial effects, including extending life span and preventing the development of a variety of diseases. Dietary sulfur amino acid restriction (SAAR) is characterized by chronic restrictions of methionine and cysteine but not calories and is associated with reductions in body weight, adiposity and oxidative stress, and metabolic changes in adipose tissue and liver resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure...
February 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398487/enzyme-replacement-therapy-ameliorates-multiple-symptoms-of-murine-homocystinuria
#16
Tomas Majtan, Wendell Jones, Jakub Krijt, Insun Park, Warren D Kruger, Viktor Kožich, Steven Bassnett, Erez M Bublil, Jan P Kraus
Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is the most common inherited disorder of sulfur amino acid metabolism caused by deficiency in cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) activity and characterized by severe elevation of homocysteine in blood and tissues. Treatment with dietary methionine restriction is not optimal, and poor compliance leads to serious complications. We developed an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and studied its efficacy in a severe form of HCU in mouse (the I278T model). Treatment was initiated before or after the onset of clinical symptoms in an effort to prevent or reverse the phenotype...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393045/internal-amino-acid-state-modulates-yeast-taste-neurons-to-support-protein-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#17
Kathrin Steck, Samuel J Walker, Pavel M Itskov, Célia Baltazar, José-Maria Moreira, Carlos Ribeiro
To optimize fitness, animals must dynamically match food choices to their current needs. For drosophilids, yeast fulfills most dietary protein and micronutrient requirements. While several yeast metabolites activate known gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in Drosophila melanogaster , the chemosensory channels mediating yeast feeding remain unknown. Here we identify a class of proboscis GRNs required for yeast intake. Within this class, taste peg GRNs are specifically required to sustain yeast feeding. Sensillar GRNs, however, mediate feeding initiation...
February 2, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392418/comparative-effects-of-acute-methionine-loading-on-the-plasma-sulfur-amino-acids-in-nac-supplemented-hiv-patients-and-healthy-controls
#18
Roberto Carlos Burini, Maria Doroteia Borges-Santos, Fernando Moreto, Yong- Ming Yu
In this study, an acute overloading of methionine (MetLo) was used to investigate the trassulfuration pathway response comparing healthy controls and HIV+ patients under their usual diet and dietary N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) supplementation. MetLo (0.1 g Met/kg mass weight) was given after overnight fasting to 20 non-HIV+ control subjects (Co) and 12 HIV+ HAART-treated patients. Blood samples were taken before and after the MetLo in two different 7-day dietary situations, with NAC (1 g/day) or with their usual diet (UD)...
February 1, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388433/annals-express-post-hoc-analysis-of-plasma-amino-acid-profiles-towards-a-specific-pattern-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability
#19
Jean-Baptiste Delaye, Franck Patin, Emmanuelle Lagrue, Olivier Le Tilly, Clement Bruno, Marie-Laure Vuillaume, Martine Raynaud, Isabelle Benz-de Bretagne, Frederic Laumonnier, Patrick Vourc'h, Christian Andres, Helene Blasco
Objectives Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Intellectual Disability (ID) present a challenge for therapeutic and dietary management. We performed a re-analysis of plasma amino acid chromatography (AAC) of children with ASD (n=22) or ID (n=29) to search for a metabolic signature that can distinguish individuals with these disorders from controls (n=30). Methods We performed univariate and multivariate analysis using different machine learning strategies, from the raw data of the AAC. Finally, we analyzed the metabolic pathways associated with discriminant biomarkers...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388001/ppar%C3%AE-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-molecular-characterization-tissue-expression-and-transcriptional-regulation-by-dietary-cu-and-zn
#20
Wen-Jing You, Xiao-Ying Tan, Guang-Hui Chen, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Dan-Dan Li
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays critical roles in the regulation of many important physiological processes. In this study, PPARβ was cloned and characterized in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. PPARβ cDNA was 2350 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1530 bp, encoding 509 amino acids, a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 474 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 346 bp. Similar to mammals, PPARβ protein was predicted to consist of four domains, the A/B domain, DNA-binding domain (DBD), D domain, and ligand-binding domain (LBD)...
February 1, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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