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nutritional epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#1
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724007/-mal-nutrition-and-the-new-epidemiological-trend-in-a-context-of-development-and-inequalities
#2
Nathália Paula de Souza, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Annick Fontbonne, Fernanda Cristina de Lima Pinto, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse
The current context of intense social, economic and political transformations has contributed to changes in the health profile of the population and generated discussions about the impact of these changes on the reorganization of society. At the present moment, the increase in non-communicable illnesses and diseases raises major concerns about the paradox of malnutrition and obesity. Based on an in-depth reading and interpretation of texts, documents and databases, this article discusses issues related to nutrition, considering the dimensions of shortages and excesses, the evolution of nutrition over time, and the connection with the new epidemiological trend...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718295/accelerometer-determined-physical-activity-and-all-cause-mortality-in-a-national-prospective-cohort-study-of-adults-post-acute-stroke
#3
Paul D Loprinzi, Ovuokerie Addoh
PURPOSE: No epidemiological study has examined the association of objectively measured physical activity with all-cause mortality among adults who have had a stroke, which was the purpose of this study. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-four patients with stroke. MEASURES: Physical activity assessed via accelerometry (ActiGraph 7164), with stroke assessed via self-report of physician diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715062/gestational-weight-gain-historical-evolution-of-a-contested-health-outcome
#4
Edmond D Shenassa, Celena Kinsey, Marian Moser Jones, Jenifer Fahey
The history of research on gestational weight gain (GWG) in the United States and United Kingdom provides a context for current clinical practice. We trace the evolution of research on GWG in scientific literature from the 19th century to the present and examine its implications for contemporary clinical and public health practice. Obstetricians, beginning in the late 1800s, recommended dieting during pregnancy in order to limit GWG to 20 lb or less, driven by a belief that excessive weight gain was a cause of toxemia...
July 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714900/a-nutrigenomic-approach-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Paola Dongiovanni, Luca Valenti
Following the epidemics of obesity due to the consumption of high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of liver disease in Western countries. NAFLD is epidemiologically associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and in susceptible individuals it may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genetic factors play a key role in NAFLD predisposition by interacting with nutritional and other environmental factors. To date, there is no drug therapy for the treatment of NAFLD, and the main clinical recommendation is lifestyle modification...
July 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712155/economic-activity-and-patterns-of-infant-growth-in-a-high-altitude-district-of-peru
#6
Morgan K Hoke
OBJECTIVES: Changing economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. METHODS: The length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710972/epidemiology-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-catheter-related-thrombosis-in-children-and-adults
#7
REVIEW
Lisa Baumann Kreuziger, Julie Jaffray, Marc Carrier
In this narrative review, the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention strategies, and management of catheter-related thrombosis are outlined. Central venous catheters have significantly improved the quality of life of patients requiring chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and chronic transfusions. Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) complicates between 1-5% of inserted catheters, with incidence varying between patient population, catheter type, and vein cannulated. Strategies to prevent CRT, including anticoagulation and locking solutions, have largely been ineffective...
July 4, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708104/fruit-and-juice-epigenetic-signatures-are-associated-with-independent-immunoregulatory-pathways
#8
Jessie Nicodemus-Johnson, Robert A Sinnott
Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that fruit consumption promotes many health benefits. Despite the general consensus that fruit and juice are nutritionally similar, epidemiological results for juice consumption are conflicting. Our objective was to use DNA methylation marks to characterize fruit and juice epigenetic signatures within PBMCs and identify shared and independent signatures associated with these groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation marks (Illumina Human Methylation 450k chip) for 2,148 individuals that participated in the Framingham Offspring exam 8 were analyzed for correlations between fruit or juice consumption using standard linear regression...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702205/association-of-arsenobetaine-with-beta-cell-function-assessed-by-homeostasis-model-assessment-homa-in-nondiabetic-koreans-data-from-the-fourth-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-2008-2009
#9
Kiook Baek, Namhoon Lee, Insung Chung
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is known as an endocrine disruptor that people are exposed to through various sources such as drinking water and indigestion of marine products. Although some epidemiological and animal studies have reported a correlation between arsenic exposure and diabetes development, there are limited studies regarding the toxic effects of organic arsenic including arsenobetaine on the human body. Here, we analyzed the association between urine arsenobetaine and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β), which is an index for predicting diabetes development and reflecting the function of pancreatic β-cells...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699629/dietary-intake-of-antioxidant-vitamins-and-risk-of-stroke-the-japan-public-health-center-based-prospective-study
#10
S Uesugi, J Ishihara, H Iso, N Sawada, R Takachi, M Inoue, S Tsugane
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and stroke is limited. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and the incidence of total stroke and ischemic stroke. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The subjects were 82 044 Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years under the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study. Between 1995 and 1997, dietary assessment was done using a food frequency questionnaire...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698345/suboptimal-vitamin-d-status-in-korean-adolescents-a-nationwide-study-on-its-prevalence-risk-factors-including-cotinine-verified-smoking-status-and-association-with-atopic-dermatitis-and-asthma
#11
Eun Jung Byun, Jinyoung Heo, Sang Hyun Cho, Jeong Deuk Lee, Hei Sung Kim
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for suboptimal vitamin D status in Korean adolescents and to assess its relationship with atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma at a national level. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Information regarding socioeconomic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected. Blood and urine samples were taken for vitamin D and cotinine, respectively...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698314/association-of-perceived-tinnitus-with-duration-of-hormone-replacement-therapy-in-korean-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Seong-Su Lee, Kyung-do Han, Young-Hoon Joo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and tinnitus in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) (2010-2012). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a nationwide health survey. METHODS: KNHANES is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of South Korea population. Only postmenopausal women aged 19-65 years were included in the study (n=2736)...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692847/microbial-metabolites-are-associated-with-a-high-adherence-to-a-mediterranean-dietary-pattern-using-a-1-h-nmr-based-untargeted-metabolomics-approach
#13
Enrique Almanza-Aguilera, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Rafael Llorach, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Francesc Carmona, Alex Sanchez, Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Ramon Estruch, Dolores Corella, Cristina Andres-Lacueva
The study of biomarkers of dietary patterns including the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is scarce and could improve the assessment of these patterns. Moreover, it could provide a better understanding of health benefits of dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology. We aimed to determine a robust and accurate biomarker associated with a high adherence to a MedDiet pattern that included dietary assessment and its biological effect. In this cross-sectional study, we included 56 and 63 individuals with high (H-MDA) and low (L-MDA) MedDiet adherence categories, respectively, all from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea trial...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690835/dietary-assessment-methods-in-epidemiological-research-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Androniki Naska, Areti Lagiou, Pagona Lagiou
Self-reported dietary intake is assessed by methods of real-time recording (food diaries and the duplicate portion method) and methods of recall (dietary histories, food frequency questionnaires, and 24-hour dietary recalls). Being less labor intensive, recall methods are more frequently employed in nutritional epidemiological investigations. However, sources of error, which include the participants' inability to fully and accurately recall their intakes as well as limitations inherent in the food composition databases applied to convert the reported food consumption to energy and nutrient intakes, may limit the validity of the generated information...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689765/unanswered-questions-in-contemporary-heart-failure
#15
Lauren G Gilstrap, David Snipelisky, Omar AbouEzzeddine, Justin Vader, Lauren Cooper, Jacob Kelley, Antonio Perez, Kenneth Varian, Anuradha Lala, Monica Shah, Lynne W Stevenson
Background The epidemiology of heart failure (HF) is changing. This study aims to describe questions that arise during the routine care of heart failure (HF) patients that are unanswered by the current literature and describe how the type and focus of these questions has changed over time. Methods Investigators from the NHLBI-sponsored Heart Failure Apprentice Network collected and categorized questions from 5 academic hospitals over 12 months. A total of 174 unanswered questions were collected and analyzed...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686548/roles-of-vitamins-d-and-k-nutrition-and-lifestyle-in-low-energy-bone-fractures-in-children-and-young-adults
#16
Michał Karpiński, Janusz Popko, Katarzyna Maresz, Vladimir Badmaev, Sidney J Stohs
The research on skeletal system health in children and young adults, while recognizing the important role of calcium and vitamin D, goes beyond these nutritional standards. This review focuses on the role of vitamin K in combination with vitamin D and other factors in bone health. The current understanding is that maintaining bone health and prevention of low-energy fractures in any pediatric population includes nutritional factors combined with an active lifestyle. Calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K supplementation contribute independently and collectively to bone health...
July 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681625/coeliac-disease-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-epidemiology-pathophysiological-mechanisms-quality-of-life-and-gluten-free-diet-effects
#17
Giulia Cossu, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Federico Contu, Quirico Mela, Luigi Demelia, Luca Elli, Bernardo Dell'Osso
Coeliac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease in which an environmental factor, gluten, triggers a pathological reaction. It results in intra- and entra-intestinal manifestations of disease, including, most frequently, diarrhoea, weight loss, and anaemia. CD occurs in ∼1% of the western population, being one of the most common autoimmune lifelong disorders, and may present with a variety of psychiatric comorbidities. Psychiatric comorbidity in CD often complicates the diagnosis, reduces the quality-of-life, and worsens the prognosis of affected patients...
July 6, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677072/disparity-in-access-and-outcomes-for-emergency-neonatal-surgery-intestinal-atresia-in-kampala-uganda
#18
Sarah Cairo, Nasser Kakembo, Phyllis Kisa, Arlene Muzira, Maija Cheung, James Healy, Doruk Ozgediz, John Sekabira
BACKGROUND/AIM: Intestinal atresia is one of the leading causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction (NIO). The purpose of this study was to analyze the presentation and outcome of IA and compare with those from both similar and high-income country settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from patient charts and pediatric surgical database for 2012-2015 was performed. Epidemiological data and patient characteristics were analyzed and outcomes were compared with those reported in other LMICs and high-income countries (HICs)...
August 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675886/international-society-for-the-study-of-fatty-acids-and-lipids-2016-debate-for-science-based-dietary-guidelines-on-fats-meta-analysis-and-systematic-reviews-are-decisive
#19
Joyce A Nettleton, Clemens von Schacky, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Berthold Koletzko
This paper summarizes a debate on whether meta-analyses and systematic reviews are decisive in formulating guidelines for dietary fat. Held during the 12th congress of the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids in Stellenbosch, South Africa, September 7, 2016, the debate was hosted by the International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the International Expert Movement to Improve Dietary Fat Quality (IEM, www.theiem.org). Clemens von Schacky, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany, supported the statement, describing the types of weaknesses in individual studies and clinical trials...
July 4, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671616/incidence-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-critically-ill-children-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#20
Ali Amanati, Abdollah Karimi, Alireza Fahimzad, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Fatemeh Fallah, Alireza Mahdavi, Mahshid Talebian
BACKGROUND: Among hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in children, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common after blood stream infection (BSI). VAP can prolong length of ventilation and hospitalization, increase mortality rate, and directly change a patient's outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). OBJECTIVES: The research on VAP in children is limited, especially in Iran; therefore, the identification of VAP incidence and mortality rate will be important for both clinical and epidemiological implications...
July 3, 2017: Children
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