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Brain edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926982/trpv4-channels-mediate-na-k-cl-co-transporter-induced-brain-edema-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Kwok-Tung Lu, Tai-Chun Huang, Ya-Hsin Tsai, Yi-Ling Yang
Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) plays an important role in traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced brain edema via the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade. The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channel participates in neurogenic inflammation, pain transmission and edema. In this study, we investigated the relationship between NKCC1 and TRPV4 and the related signaling pathways in TBI-induced brain edema and neuronal damage. TBI was induced by the calibrated weight-drop device...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924525/a-three-day-consecutive-fingolimod-administration-improves-neurological-functions-and-modulates-multiple-immune-responses-of-cci-mice
#2
Chuang Gao, Yu Qian, Jinhao Huang, Dong Wang, Wanqiang Su, Peng Wang, Linyue Guo, Wei Quan, Shuo An, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang
Excessive inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of secondary TBI. Though several inflammatory biomarkers have been postulated as the risk factors of TBI, there has not been any comprehensive description of them. Fingolimod, a new kind of immunomodulatory agent which can diminish various kinds of inflammatory responses, has shown additional therapeutic effects in the treatment of intracranial cerebral hematoma (ICH), ischemia, spinal cord injury (SCI), and many other CNS disorders...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924209/postoperative-respiratory-difficulty-due-to-asymptomatic-anterior-cervical-osteophyte-after-brain-tumor-surgery-a-case-report
#3
Hye Won Shin, Joon Chul Jang, Hyong Hwan Lim, Min Kyung Park, Go Eun Bae, Seung Uk Choi, Ji Yong Park
Anterior cervical osteophytes are commonly found in elderly patients, but rarely produce symptoms. When symptoms occur, they can range from mild symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation to severe symptoms of airway obstruction due to compression of the pharynx or larynx. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who underwent brain tumor surgery, and developed post-operative respiratory difficulty due to progressive pharyngo-laryngeal edema, requiring urgent endotracheal intubation, secondary to the presence of a previously asymptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924180/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-cerebral-tumors-a-case-report
#4
Ioannis Siasios, Varvara Valotassiou, Eftychia Kapsalaki, Ioannis Tsougos, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Aggeliki Fotiadou, Maria Ioannou, Georgios Koukoulis, Vassilios Dimopoulos, Kostas Fountas
In their daily clinical practice, physicians have to confront diagnostic dilemmas which cannot be resolved by the application of only one imaging technique. In this case report, we present a 66-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution for the surgical resection of a recently diagnosed brain tumor. The patient had a history of epileptic seizures and was hospitalized in the past for anti-phospholipid syndrome related to a non-Hodgkin lymphoma in remission. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed an enhancing right parasagittal lesion with significant edema suggestive of a high grade glioma...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923226/intraoperative-tumoral-bleeding-of-hypervascular-medulloblastoma-after-ventricular-drainage-a-case-report
#5
Han-Seung Ryu, Tae-Young Jung, Moon-Soo Han, Seul-Ki Kim, Kyung-Hwa Lee
We report a rare case of intraoperative tumoral bleeding of a hypervascular medulloblastoma. A 12-year-old girl presented with dizziness and nausea. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed an approximately 4.2-cm enhanced mass on the cerebellar vermis associated with mild perilesional edema and increased cerebral blood volume. Angiography showed tumoral staining and developed occipital and circular dural sinuses in the venous phase. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed. To relieve the intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained via a lateral ventricular catheter in the occipital horn...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922461/ipsilateral-ophthalmic-and-cerebral-infarctions-after-cosmetic-polylactic-acid-injection-into-the-forehead
#6
Ashwinee Ragam, Steven A Agemy, Sarita B Dave, Azita S Khorsandi, Rudrani Banik
A 55-year-old woman developed no light perception vision in her right eye 5 days after an injection of polylactic acid cosmetic filler into her right forehead. Diffuse corneal edema and anterior chamber inflammation prohibited any view to the posterior segment to identify the cause of her profound vision loss. MRI of the orbits with diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the right optic nerve with signal reduction on apparent diffusion coefficient mapping, consistent with ischemia. Our patient also was found to have acute infarctions in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery on MRI of the brain despite having no permanent focal neurologic deficits aside from vision loss...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919684/neuroprotective-effects-of-mir-27a-against-traumatic-brain-injury-via-suppressing-foxo3a-mediated-neuronal-autophagy
#7
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Yan Wang, Aihua Liu, Ming Lv, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
MicroRNA-27a (miR-27a) has been reported to be a brain-specific miRNA and aberrantly expressed in the brain suffered from traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study is designed to investigate the potential role and molecular mechanism of miR-27a in the pathogenesis of TBI. The level of miR-27a in brain was manipulated by intracerebroventricular injection of lentiviral-encoding miR-27a before TBI induction. Real-time PCR was used to detected miR-27a and Forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) levels in the hippocampus...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919476/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-complicating-dengue-infection-with-neuroimaging-mimicking-multiple-sclerosis-a-report-of-two-cases
#8
S Viswanathan, N Botross, B N Rusli, A Riad
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918421/decreased-stat3-phosphorylation-mediates-cell-swelling-in-ammonia-treated-astrocyte-cultures
#9
Arumugam R Jayakumar, Kevin M Curtis, Kiran S Panickar, Nagarajarao Shamaladevi, Michael D Norenberg
Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation, are major complications of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated level of brain ammonia has been strongly implicated in the development of astrocyte swelling associated with ALF. The means by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling, however, is incompletely understood. Recently, oxidative/nitrosative stress and associated signaling events, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), have been implicated in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling...
December 2, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917153/intracerebral-hemorrhage-perihemorrhagic-edema-and-secondary-hematoma-expansion-from-bench-work-to-ongoing-controversies
#10
REVIEW
Manoj K Mittal, Aaron LacKamp
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a medical emergency, which often leads to severe disability and death. ICH-related poor outcomes are due to primary injury causing structural damage and mass effect and secondary injury in the perihemorrhagic region over several days to weeks. Secondary injury after ICH can be due to hematoma expansion (HE) or a consequence of repair pathway along the continuum of neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and perihemorrhagic edema (PHE). This review article is focused on PHE and HE and will cover the animal studies, related human studies, and clinical trials relating to these mechanisms of secondary brain injury in ICH patients...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916727/posttraumatic-administration-of-a-sub-anesthestic-dose-of-ketamine-exerts-neuroprotection-via-attenuating-inflammation-and-autophagy
#11
C-Q Wang, Y Ye, F Chen, W-C Han, J-M Sun, X Lu, R Guo, K Cao, M-J Zheng, L-C Liao
As a complex disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in long-term psychiatric changes and sensorimotor and cognitive impairments. The TBI-induced loss of memory and long-term cognitive dysfunction are related to mechanistic factors including an increased inflammatory response, autophagy, edema, and ischemia. Many published studies have offered evidence for the neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory properties of ketamine for TBI patients. Nonetheless, there is a limited understanding of the accurate mechanism that underlies the potential neuroprotective effects of ketamine...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916377/tetrahydrocurcumin-provides-neuroprotection-in-rats-after-traumatic-brain-injury-autophagy-and-the-pi3k-akt-pathways-as-a-potential-mechanism
#12
Yongyue Gao, Jie Li, Lingyun Wu, Chenhui Zhou, Qiang Wang, Xiang Li, Mengliang Zhou, Handong Wang
BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrocurcumin provides neuroprotection in multiple neurologic disorders by modulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and autophagy. However, in traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unclear whether a beneficial effect of tetrahydrocurcumin exists. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of tetrahydrocurcumin provides neuroprotection in a rat model of TBI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Behavioral studies were performed by recording and analyzing beam-walking scores...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916295/association-of-biomarkers-with-serious-cardiac-adverse-events-during-abiraterone-acetate-treatment-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Sara Campora, Eleonora Campazzi, Silvia Zanardi, Matteo Puntoni, Marco Piccininno, Arnoldo Piccardo, Mehrdad Shoushtari Zadeh Naseri, Carlotta Defferrari, Nicoletta Provinciali, Marilena Petrera, Domenico Marra, Ennio Biscaldi, Gian Carlo Antonucci, Damiano Ricci, Matteo Clavarezza, Alessandra Gennari, Alberto Gozza, Mauro D'Amico, Marco Mori, Andrea DeCensi
BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate is an effective drug for castration-resistant prostate cancer, but cardiac serious adverse events (SAEs) may occur. We studied their association with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin T (TnT) during abiraterone therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a single institution, 17 patients were treated with abiraterone acetate 1 g daily with concomitant prednisone and then switched to dexametasone plus canrenone...
December 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916068/-the-correlation-between-cerebral-mri-characteristics-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-and-serum-levels-of-plgf-seng-in-patients-with-pre-eclampsia
#14
K M Jiang, X Zhong, Y Tan, G C Liu, H Mai, S X Wu
Objective: To investigate the MRI characteristics of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in patients with pre-eclampsia(PE) and its correlation with serum placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble endoglin (sEng) and sEng/PlGF ratio. Methods: 34 patients with PE who were admitted to Guangdong Women and Children Hospital from September 2013 to March 2014 were studied retrospectively.13 cases had PRES and 21 cases had normal cerebral MRI. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI scanning...
November 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914998/mathematical-model-in-post-mortem-estimation-of-brain-edema-using-morphometric-parameters
#15
Nemanja Radojevic, Bojana Radnic, Jelena Vucinic, Dragana Cukic, Ranko Lazovic, Bogdan Asanin, Slobodan Savic
Current autopsy principles for evaluating the existence of brain edema are based on a macroscopic subjective assessment performed by pathologists. The gold standard is a time-consuming histological verification of the presence of the edema. By measuring the diameters of the cranial cavity, as individually determined morphometric parameters, a mathematical model for rapid evaluation of brain edema was created, based on the brain weight measured during the autopsy. A cohort study was performed on 110 subjects, divided into two groups according to the histological presence or absence of (the - deleted from the text) brain edema...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914011/activation-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-reduces-brain-edema-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke-and-bone-fracture
#16
Dingquan Zou, Man Luo, Zhenying Han, Lei Zhan, Wan Zhu, Shuai Kang, Chen Bao, Zhao Li, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
Stroke is an important risk factor for bone fracture. We showed previously that bone fracture at the acute stage of ischemic stroke worsens, and activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) improves, stroke recovery by attenuating inflammation. We hypothesized that activation of α-7 nAchR also improves the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed on C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910074/evolutional-characterization-of-photochemically-induced-stroke-in-rats-a-multimodality-imaging-and-molecular-biological-study
#17
Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Yonghua Zhao, Yi-An Chen, Kim-Chuan Chan, David Tat-Wei Tan, Jhih-Shian Lee, You-Yin Chen, Tun-Wei Hsu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Chi-Wei Chang, Bang-Hung Yang, Wen-Sheng Huang, Ren-Shyan Liu
Photochemically induced cerebral ischemia is an easy-manipulated, reproducible, relatively noninvasive, and lesion controllable model for translational study of ischemic stroke. In order to longitudinally investigate the characterization of the model, magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, fluorescence, and bioluminescence imaging system were performed in correlation with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry examinations of glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, NeuN, von willebrand factor, and α-smooth muscle actin in the infarct zone...
December 1, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909732/early-vegf-inhibition-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-ischemic-rat-brains-by-regulating-the-expression-of-mmps
#18
Hai-Tao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yi Gao, Chen-Long Li, Hong-Jun Wang, Ling-Chao Chen, Yan Feng, Rui-Yan Li, Yong-Li Li, Chuan-Lu Jiang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the BBB is the key event associated with morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of VEGF inhibition and the possible mechanism that underlies acute cerebral ischemia in rats was investigated. Following the induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for a 90‑min period, either an anti‑VEGF neutralizing antibody (RB‑222; 5 or 10 µg), or IgG (control), was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 1 h following reperfusion...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907954/today-s-approach-to-treating-brain-swelling-in-the-neuro-intensive-care-unit
#19
Shreyansh Shah, W Taylor Kimberly
Brain swelling is an urgent clinical problem that frequently accompanies ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury; it increases morbidity and mortality associated with them. It occurs due to failure of membrane transporters and leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in combination of cytotoxic, ionic, and vasogenic edema. Currently, decompressive craniectomy and osmotherapy are the mainstays of management, but these therapies do not halt the underlying molecular cascade leading to brain swelling...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907215/cd8-t-cells-induce-fatal-brainstem-pathology-during-cerebral-malaria-via-luminal-antigen-specific-engagement-of-brain-vasculature
#20
Phillip A Swanson, Geoffrey T Hart, Matthew V Russo, Debasis Nayak, Takele Yazew, Mirna Peña, Shahid M Khan, Chris J Janse, Susan K Pierce, Dorian B McGavern
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that results in thousands of deaths each year, mostly in African children. The in vivo mechanisms underlying this fatal condition are not entirely understood. Using the animal model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), we sought mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CM. Fatal disease was associated with alterations in tight junction proteins, vascular breakdown in the meninges / parenchyma, edema, and ultimately neuronal cell death in the brainstem, which is consistent with cerebral herniation as a cause of death...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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