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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227398/radiomic-analysis-of-multi-contrast-brain-mri-for-the-prediction-of-survival-in-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme
#1
Ahmad Chaddad, Christian Desrosiers, Matthew Toews, Ahmad Chaddad, Christian Desrosiers, Matthew Toews, Christian Desrosiers, Ahmad Chaddad, Matthew Toews
Image texture features are effective at characterizing the microstructure of cancerous tissues. This paper proposes predicting the survival times of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients using texture features extracted in multi-contrast brain MRI images. Texture features are derived locally from contrast enhancement, necrosis and edema regions in T1-weighted post-contrast and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MRIs, based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix representation. A statistical analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test is used to identify the texture features related with the overall survival of GBM patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219400/alleviation-of-secondary-brain-injury-posttraumatic-inflammation-and-brain-edema-formation-by-inhibition-of-factor-xiia
#2
Sarah Hopp, Marc W Nolte, Christian Stetter, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Anna-Leena Sirén, Christiane Albert-Weissenberger
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological condition and a frequent cause of permanent disability. Posttraumatic inflammation and brain edema formation, two pathological key events contributing to secondary brain injury, are mediated by the contact-kinin system. Activation of this pathway in the plasma is triggered by activated factor XII. Hence, we set out to study in detail the influence of activated factor XII on the abovementioned pathophysiological features of TBI...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218643/diffusion-assessment-of-cortical-changes-induced-by-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Peng Sun, Rory K J Murphy, Paul Gamble, Ajit George, Sheng-Kwei Song, Wilson Z Ray
Promising treatments are being developed to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Magnetic resonance imaging, specifically Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been shown to non-invasively measure both axonal and myelin integrity following traumatic brain and SCI. A novel data-driven model-selection algorithm known as Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging (DBSI) has been proposed to more accurately delineate white matter injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether DTI/DBSI changes that extend to level of the cerebral peduncle and internal capsule following a SCI could be correlated with clinical function...
February 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214828/role-for-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-signal-pathway-in-regulating-neuronal-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#4
Jie-Ping Wang, Meng-Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase and activation of its signal pathway plays an important role in regulating protein growth and synthesis as well as cell proliferation and survival. In the present study, we examined the contribution of mTOR signal and its downstream products to brain injuries induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. METHODS: Western Blot analysis was employed to examine the protein expression of mTOR and its downstream pathway and Caspase-3...
January 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214641/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-causing-vision-loss-following-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-pituitary-adenoma-a-case-report
#5
Nicolas W Villelli, Daniel M Prevedello, Daniel S Ikeda, Alaa S Montaser, Bradley A Otto, Ricardo L Carrau
BACKGROUND: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is characterized by headache, altered mental status, visual changes, and seizure combined with brain imaging consistent with cerebral edema without infarction. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of PRES following an endoscopic endonasal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 59-year-old female was diagnosed with a pituitary macroadenoma, for which she underwent endoscopic endonasal extracapsular resection...
February 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210956/mdivi-1-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibition-of-drp1-activated-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Pei Wu, Yuchen Li, Shiyi Zhu, Chunlei Wang, Jiaxing Dai, Guang Zhang, Bingjie Zheng, Shancai Xu, Ligang Wang, Tongyu Zhang, PeiQuan Zhou, John H Zhang, Huaizhang Shi
Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208150/acute-and-subacute-presentations-of-cerebral-edema-following-deep-brain-stimulation-lead-implantation
#7
Albert J Fenoy, Sebastian J Villarreal, Mya C Schiess
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postoperative cerebral edema around a deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode is an uncommon reported complication. The goal of this study was to identify instances of postoperative edema based on clinical presentation, and to remark on their management. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent DBS electrode implantation over a 3-year period. Routine CT imaging on postoperative day (POD) 1 was negative. Patients were identified based on clinical neurological changes, leading to imaging and subsequent diagnosis...
February 17, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207526/restoration-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-compressed-by-hematoma-in-a-stroke-patient
#8
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: We report on restoration of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), compressed by an intracerebral hematoma and perihematomal edema following a stroke. The restoration of the ARAS was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: In a 60-year-old male, a brain MRI taken at 2 weeks after the surgery showed a hematoma and perihematomal edema in the left posterolateral pons and cerebellum, which were markedly resolved on a brain MRI after 5 weeks...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202821/-pres-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#9
Kouichirou Okamoto, Kunio Motohashi, Hidemoto Fujiwara, Tomohiko Ishihara, Itaru Ninomiya, Osamu Onodera, Yukihiko Fujii
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is suggested in patients with acute neurological symptoms in the appropriate clinical context, including acute hypertension, blood pressure fluctuations, renal failure, blood transfusion, immunosuppression, autoimmune disorders, and eclampsia. PRES is a clinical syndrome, and refers to a disorder with reversible subcortical vasogenic brain edema caused by endothelial dysfunction, predominantly involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions. Although the clinical course and prognosis are favorable in most cases, intracranial hemorrhage and/or restricted diffusion similar to acute infarction could be seen in some lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202293/therapeutic-hypothermia-attenuates-brain-edema-in-a-pig-model-of-cardiac-arrest-possible-role-of-the-angiopoietin-tie-2-system
#10
Jiebin Li, ChunSheng Li, Wei Yuan, JunYuan Wu, Jie Li, ZhenHua Li, YongZhen Zhao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify whether therapeutic hypothermia protects against cerebral edema following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a porcine model via regulating the angiopoietin-Tie-2 ligand-receptor system. METHODS: Male pigs were randomized into the therapeutic hypothermia group, the normothermia group or the sham control group. CA was induced in pigs by untreated ventricular fibrillation for 8min. Brain edema was determined by measuring the cerebral cortical water content at 24h after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC)...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199737/inhibition-of-trpv1-confers-neuroprotection-reduces-tnf-%C3%AE-and-increases-il-10-in-a-rat-stroke-model
#11
Elham Hakimizadeh, Ali Shamsizadeh, Ali Roohbakhsh, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh, Mehdi Shariati, Mohammad Reza Rahmani, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability in adults. TRPV1 plays a crucial role in neuroinflammation. In the current study, the effects of TRPV1 agonist (capsaicin) and antagonist (AMG9810) on cerebral ischemia were investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to the following experimental groups: sham, vehicle) ischemic), AMG9810 (selective TRPV1 antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg; 3 h after stroke), and capsaicin (1 mg/kg; 3 h after stroke). Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and neurological deficits were evaluated 1, 3, and 7 days after stroke...
February 15, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192195/puerarin-provides-a-neuroprotection-against-transient-cerebral-ischemia-by-attenuating-autophagy-at-the-ischemic-penumbra-in-neurons-but-not-in-astrocytes
#12
He Hongyun, Guo Tao, Zhang Pengyue, Yang Liqiang, Deng Yihao
Puerarin is an isoflavone derived from the Chinese medical herb of Radix puerariae (kudzu root), and has been widely used in the treatment for ischemic stroke in China. However, its underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still not understood. This study was to investigate the efficacy of puerarin on autophagy in the ischemic penumbra after cerebral stroke. A model of cerebral stroke in Sprague-Dawley rats was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); rats were then randomly divided into 5 groups: MCAO+Pue group (rats were treated with puerarin), MCAO+Pue+Tat-Beclin-1 group (rats were administrated with both puerarin and autophagy inducer Tat-Beclin-1), MCAO+Tat-Beclin-1 group (rats were treated with Tat-Beclin-1), MCAO+saline group (rats were administrated with the same volume of physiological saline), and sham surgery group...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190553/cervical-spine-imaging-for-young-children-with-inflicted-trauma-expanding-the-injury-pattern
#13
Joanne Baerg, Arul Thirumoorthi, Rosemary Vannix, Asma Taha, Amy Young, Alexander Zouros
AIM: The purpose of this study was to document the incidence and pattern of cervical spine (c-spine) injuries in children below 36months with inflicted trauma. METHODS: An IRB approved, prospective cohort study was performed between July 2011 and January 2016. Inclusion criteria were: age below 36months, loss of consciousness after inflicted trauma, and one initial head computed tomography finding: a subdural, intraventricular, intraparenchymal, subarachnoid hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury, hypoxic injury, or cerebral edema...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190444/management-of-neuro-oncologic-emergencies
#14
J T Jo, D Schiff
Patients with brain tumors and systemic malignancies are subject to diverse neurologic complications that require urgent evaluation and treatment. These neurologic conditions are commonly due to the tumor's direct effects on the nervous system, such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures, spinal cord compression, and leptomeningeal metastases. In addition, neurologic complications can develop as a result of thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hyperviscosity syndromes, infection, immune-related disorders, and adverse effects of treatment...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190443/neurologic-manifestations-of-major-electrolyte-abnormalities
#15
M Diringer
The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190431/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#16
M Toledano, J E Fugate
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is increasingly diagnosed in the emergency department, and medical and surgical intensive care units. PRES is characterized by acute onset of neurologic symptoms in the setting of blood pressure fluctuations, eclampsia, autoimmune disease, transplantation, renal failure, or exposure to immunosuppressive or cytotoxic drugs, triggers known to admit patients to the intensive care unit (ICU). Although the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, there is growing consensus that PRES results from endothelial dysfunction...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187865/a-new-threshold-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-values-in-white-matter-after-successful-tissue-plasminogen-activator-treatment-for-acute-brain-ischemia
#17
Atsushi Sato, Yusaku Shimizu, Junichi Koyama, Kazuhiro Hongo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is effective for the treatment of acute brain ischemia, but may trigger fatal brain edema or hemorrhage if the brain ischemia results in a large infarct. Herein, we attempted to predict the extent of infarcts by determining the optimal threshold of ADC values on DWI that predictively distinguishes between infarct and reversible areas, and by reconstructing color-coded images based on this threshold. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 36 patients with acute brain ischemia in whom MRA had confirmed reopening of the occluded arteries in a short time (mean: 99min) after tPA treatment...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187807/neuropulmonology
#18
A Balofsky, J George, P Papadakos
Neuropulmonology refers to the complex interconnection between the central nervous system and the respiratory system. Neurologic injury includes traumatic brain injury, hemorrhage, stroke, and seizures, and in each there are far-reaching effects that can result in pulmonary dysfunction. Systemic changes can induce impairment of pulmonary function due to changes in the core structure and function of the lung. The conditions and disorders that often occur in these patients include aspiration pneumonia, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but also several abnormal respiratory patterns and sleep-disordered breathing...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187804/decompressive-craniectomy-in-acute-brain-injury
#19
D A Brown, E F M Wijdicks
Decompressive surgery to reduce pressure under the skull varies from a burrhole, bone flap to removal of a large skull segment. Decompressive craniectomy is the removal of a large enough segment of skull to reduce refractory intracranial pressure and to maintain cerebral compliance for the purpose of preventing neurologic deterioration. Decompressive hemicraniectomy and bifrontal craniectomy are the most commonly performed procedures. Bifrontal craniectomy is most often utilized with generalized cerebral edema in the absence of a focal mass lesion and when there are bilateral frontal contusions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183451/the-novel-exercise-induced-hormone-irisin-protects-against-neuronal-injury-via-activation-of-the-akt-and-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-and-contributes-to-the-neuroprotection-of-physical-exercise-in-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Dong-Jie Li, Yong-Hua Li, Hong-Bin Yuan, Le-Feng Qu, Pei Wang
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a novel exercise-induced myokine involved in the regulation of adipose browning and thermogenesis. In this study, we investigated the potential role of irisin in cerebral ischemia and determined whether irisin is involved in the neuroprotective effect of physical exercise in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used to produce cerebral ischemia in mice. First, the plasma irisin levels and changes in expression of the irisin precursor protein FNDC5 in skeletal muscle were determined post ischemic stroke...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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