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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814931/prediction-of-histological-grade-and-completeness-of-resection-of-intracranial-meningiomas-role-of-peritumoural-brain-edema
#1
Kamalanathan Palaniandy, Mohammad Saffari Mohammad Haspani, Norzaini Rose Mohd Zain
BACKGROUND: Meningioma is the commonest primary intracranial tumour in adults. Excision is curative for low grade meningioma, whereas high-grade meningioma requires adjuvant therapy following surgery. Several studies have examined the association between peritumoural brain Edema - a common feature in meningioma - and histological grading with mixed results. The present study attempted to elucidate this association and if peritumoural brain Edema affects the intra-operative judgement of surgeons on the completeness of resection...
May 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813782/urea-cycle-pathway-targeted-therapeutic-action-of-naringin-against-ammonium-chloride-induced-hyperammonemic-rats
#2
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar
Ammonia is a well-known neurotoxin that causes liver disease and urea cycle disorder. Excessive ammonia content in the blood leads to hyperammonemic condition and affects both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission including brain edema and coma. Naringin, a plant bioflavonoid present in various citrus fruits and mainly extracted from the grape fruit. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections (i...
August 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812311/nad-replenishment-with-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-protects-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-attenuates-delayed-tpa-induced-haemorrhagic-transformation-after-cerebral-ischemia
#3
Chun-Chun Wei, Yuan-Yuan Kong, Xia-Hua, Guo-Qiang Li, Si-Li Zheng, Ming-He Cheng, Pei Wang, Chao-Yu Miao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only approved pharmacological therapy for acute brain ischemia; however, a major limitation of tPA is the haemorrhagic transformation followed by tPA treatment. Here, we determine whether nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key intermediate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, would affect tPA-induced haemorrhagic transformation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was achieved in CD1 mice by introducing a filament to the left MCA for 5 hours...
August 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812301/changing-treatment-paradigms-for-brain-metastases-from-melanoma-part-1-diagnosis-prognosis-symptom-control-and-local-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Vyshak Alva Venur, Pauline Funchain, Rupesh Kotecha, Samuel T Chao, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
Melanoma is the third most common cause of brain metastases, after lung and breast cancer. The management of melanoma brain metastases can be broadly divided into symptom control and therapeutic strategies. Supportive treatments include corticosteroids to reduce peritumoral edema, antiepileptics for seizure control, and medications to preserve cognitive function. Until recently, therapeutic strategies consisted primarily of local treatments, including surgery, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)...
August 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#5
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810603/intratracheal-administration-of-isosorbide-dinitrate-improves-pulmonary-artery-pressure-and-ventricular-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-heart-failure-following-myocardial-infarction
#6
Xuelian Wang, Qingqing Xu, Tianqi Li, Yaocong Rong, Weilin Hong, Yan Huang, Xingui Guo
Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease is associated with poor outcomes. This study investigated the beneficial effects of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) inhalation on pulmonary pressure and ventricular remodeling in a rat model of heart failure (HF) following myocardial infarction (MI). To assess the effect of ISDN on pulmonary pressure, 20 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized to four groups: Normal saline (NS) 1 ml/kg, ISDN 1 mg/kg, NS 3 ml/kg or ISDN 3 mg/kg following coronary ligation. Assessments included pulmonary and systemic artery pressure alterations, lung weight/body weight and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810281/-hyponatremia-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
Heiner Mönig, Alexander Arlt
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in hospitalized patients, with up to 30 % having a plasma sodium concentration below 135 mmol/l. It is now clear that the clinical problem extends beyond the neurological symptoms, which can be explained by intracerebral osmotic fluid shifts and brain edema. Instead, chronic hyponatremia is associated with impaired gait stability and an increased risk of bone fragility fractures. Moreover, hyponatremia has been demonstrated to be an indicator of poor prognosis in a variety of conditions...
August 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808605/fatal-cerebral-swelling-immediately-after-cranioplasty-a-case-report
#8
Yuta Kaneshiro, Keiji Murata, Shigeru Yamauchi, Yumiko Urano
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty is a standard neurosurgical procedure which is performed after decompressive craniotomy. Fatal complications associated with this procedure are not well documented. Here, we report a case of fatal cerebral swelling after cranioplasty and discuss the possible mechanism of this complication. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 64-year-old man was admitted with the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage, and emergency surgery for hemorrhage removal and decompressive craniotomy were performed...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807772/streptococcus-agalactiae-impairs-cerebral-bioenergetics-in-experimentally-infected-silver-catfish
#9
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Belisa S Parmeggiani, Roberto C V Santos, Guilhian Leipnitz, Karen L S Moreira, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Marcelo L da Veiga, Bernardo Baldisserotto
It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
August 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805973/experimental-and-clinical-evidence-of-differential-effects-of-magnesium-sulfate-on-neuroprotection-and-angiogenesis-in-the-fetal-brain
#10
Matthieu Lecuyer, Marina Rubio, Clément Chollat, Maryline Lecointre, Sylvie Jégou, Philippe Leroux, Carine Cleren, Isabelle Leroux-Nicollet, Loic Marpeau, Denis Vivien, Stéphane Marret, Bruno J Gonzalez
Clinical studies showed beneficial effects of magnesium sulfate regarding the risk of cerebral palsy. However, regimen protocols fluctuate worldwide and risks of adverse effects impacting the vascular system have been reported for human neonates, keeping open the question of the optimal dosing. Using clinically relevant concentrations and doses of magnesium sulfate, experiments consisted of characterizing, respectively, ex vivo and in vivo, the effects of magnesium sulfate on the nervous and vascular systems of mouse neonates by targeting neuroprotection, angiogenesis, and hemodynamic factors and in measuring, in human fetuses, the impact of a 4-g neuroprotective loading dose of magnesium sulfate on brain hemodynamic parameters...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800329/chronic-verubecestat-treatment-suppresses-amyloid-accumulation-in-advanced-aged-tg2576-a%C3%AE-ppswe-mice-without-inducing-microhemorrhage
#11
Stephanie Villarreal, Fuqiang Zhao, Lynn A Hyde, Daniel Holder, Thomas Forest, Marie Sondey, Xia Chen, Cyrille Sur, Eric M Parker, Matthew E Kennedy
Verubecestat is a potent BACE1 enzyme inhibitor currently being investigated in Phase III trials for the treatment of mild-to-moderate and prodromal Alzheimer's disease. Multiple anti-amyloid immunotherapies have been dose-limited by adverse amyloid related imaging abnormalities such as vasogenic edema (ARIA-E) and microhemorrhage (ARIA-H) observed in human trials and mice. Verubecestat was tested in a 12-week nonclinical study for the potential to exacerbate microhemorrhage (ARIA-H) profiles in 18-22-month-old post-plaque Tg2576-AβPPswe mice...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799704/the-nature-consequences-and-management-of-neurological-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Bahman Jabbari, Nosratola D Vaziri
Perhaps no other organ in the body is affected as often and in as many ways as the brain is in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several factors contribute to the neurological disorders in CKD including accumulation of uremic toxins, metabolic and hemodynamic disorders, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired blood brain barrier among others. The neurological disorders in CKD involve both peripheral and central nervous system. The peripheral neurological symptoms of CKD are due to somatic and cranial peripheral neuropathies as well as a myopathy...
August 11, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798926/rare-case-of-cryptogenic-brain-abscess-caused-by-raoultella-ornithinolityca
#13
Marianna Luongo
Cerebral abscess is a potentially fatal neurosurgical condition, despite improvements in technology, new antimicrobial agents and modern neurosurgical instruments and techniques. I report the case of a 64-year-old woman, affected by a right frontobasal brain abscess, compressing the homolateral frontal horn of lateral ventricle, with a second mass partially occupying the right orbital cavity. She presented also with inflammatory sinusopathy involving the right maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinuses. After 14 d of clinical observation and antimicrobial therapy, the patient received a computed tomography scan, which showed growth of the cerebral mass, with a ring of peripheral contrast enhancement and surrounding edema...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798201/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-prevent-acute-mountain-sickness-after-rapid-ascent-to-3450-m
#14
Marc M Berger, Franziska Macholz, Lukas Lehmann, Daniel Dankl, Marcel Hochreiter, Bernhard Bacher, Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been shown to protect remote organs, such as the brain and the lung, from damage induced by subsequent hypoxia or ischemia. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a syndrome of non-specific neurologic symptoms and in high altitude pulmonary edema excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) plays a pivotal role. We hypothesized that RIPC protects the brain from AMS and attenuates the magnitude of HPV after rapid ascent to 3450 m. Forty non-acclimatized volunteers were randomized into 2 groups...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797981/rhabdoid-meningioma-arising-concurrent-in-pulmonary-and-intracranial-with-a-rare-malignant-clinical-progression-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Peng Zhao, Ning Li, Jinfeng Cao, Xiangtao Lin, Changhu Liang
BACKGROUND: Rhabdoid meningioma (RM) is an unusual variant of meningioma, classified as WHO grade III. Although its recurrence is common, extracranial metastasis is rare and usually misdiagnosed. The transfer mechanism and pathway are ambiguous; once it develops, there is a poor prognosis and no effective management. The present case is the first report on concurrent intracranial and pulmonary RM with rapid and widespread metastasis. We hope this report can be a helpful reference for clinicians and radiologists...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791520/external-ventricular-drain-causes-brain-tissue-damage-an-imaging-study
#16
Fabrizio Ortolano, Marco Carbonara, Antonella Stanco, Vittorio Civelli, Giorgio Carrabba, Tommaso Zoerle, Nino Stocchetti
BACKGROUND: An external ventricular drain (EVD) is used to measure intracranial pressure (ICP) and to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The procedure is generally safe, but parenchymal sequelae are reported as a possible side effect, with variable incidence. We investigated the mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion and their clinical significance in acute brain-injured patients, with a special focus on hemorrhagic lesions. METHODS: Mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion were detected in patients by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed for clinical purposes...
August 8, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790339/preventing-inflammation-inhibits-biopsy-mediated-changes-in-tumor-cell-behavior
#17
Maria Alieva, Andreia S Margarido, Tamara Wieles, Erik R Abels, Burcin Colak, Carla Boquetale, Herke Jan Noordmans, Tom J Snijders, Marike L Broekman, Jacco van Rheenen
Although biopsies and tumor resection are prognostically beneficial for glioblastomas (GBM), potential negative effects have also been suggested. Here, using retrospective study of patients and intravital imaging of mice, we identify some of these negative aspects, including stimulation of proliferation and migration of non-resected tumor cells, and provide a strategy to prevent these adverse effects. By repeated high-resolution intravital microscopy, we show that biopsy-like injury in GBM induces migration and proliferation of tumor cells through chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL-2)-dependent recruitment of macrophages...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790012/mdivi-1-ameliorates-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-via-the-suppression-of-inflammation-related-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-based-apoptosis
#18
Lin-Feng Fan, Ping-You He, Yu-Cong Peng, Qing-Hua Du, Yi-Jun Ma, Jian-Xiang Jin, Hang-Zhe Xu, Jian-Ru Li, Zhi-Jiang Wang, Sheng-Long Cao, Tao Li, Feng Yan, Chi Gu, Lin Wang, Gao Chen
Aberrant modulation of mitochondrial dynamic network, which shifts the balance of fusion and fission towards fission, is involved in brain damage of various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. A recent research has shown that the inhibition of mitochondrial fission alleviates early brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained to be elucidated. This study was undertaken to characterize the effects of the inhibition of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1, a dominator of mitochondrial fission) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuronal apoptosis following SAH and the potential mechanisms...
August 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782716/treatment-with-an-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-mitigates-neuroinflammation-and-brain-damage-after-polytrauma
#19
Mujun Sun, Rhys D Brady, David K Wright, Hyun Ah Kim, Shenpeng R Zhang, Christopher G Sobey, Maddison R Johnstone, Terence J O'Brien, Bridgette D Semple, Stuart J McDonald, Sandy R Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long bone fracture are common in polytrauma. This injury combination in mice results in elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and exacerbated neuropathology when compared to isolated-TBI. Here we examined the effect of treatment with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in mice given a TBI and a concomitant tibial fracture (i.e., polytrauma). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were given sham-injuries or polytrauma and treated with saline-vehicle or IL-1ra (100 mg/kg)...
August 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781802/sorafenib-induced-reversible-posterior-leukoencephalopathy-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-report-of-two-cases
#20
Nobuki Furubayashi, Takahito Negishi, Hidenori Iwai, Kei Nagase, Motonobu Nakamura
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a rare clinicoradiological syndrome that is characterized by neurological symptoms, including seizures, headaches, visual abnormalities, confusion and encephalopathy, accompanied by vasogenic edema of the posterior white matter observed on neuroimaging. Sorafenib is an inhibitor of pro-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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