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Pediatric obesity and anesthesia

Janelle D Vaughns, Victoria C Ziesenitz, Elaine F Williams, Alvina Mushtaq, Ricarda Bachmann, Gisela Skopp, Johanna Weiss, Gerd Mikus, Johannes N van den Anker
BACKGROUND: The number of obese pediatric patients requiring anesthesia is rapidly increasing. Although fentanyl is a commonly used narcotic during surgery, there are no pharmacokinetic (PK) data available for optimal dosing of fentanyl in adolescents with clinically severe obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutional review board-approved exploratory pilot study was conducted in six adolescents aged 14-19 years undergoing bariatric surgery. Mean total body weight (TBW) and mean BMI were 137...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
T K Pandian, Daniel S Ubl, Elizabeth B Habermann, Christopher R Moir, Michael B Ishitani
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn)...
March 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Daisuke Tokuhara, Yuki Cho, Haruo Shintaku
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pediatric use of liver transient elastography (TE) is attractive for its non-invasiveness, but reference values have not been established. We aimed to determine reference values for TE in children. METHODS: In pediatric patients (1 to 18 years), TE (FibroScan®) with an M probe was used for both liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measurement of hepatic fat deposition by using a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The patients were divided into three relevant age groups: preschoolers (1 to 5 years), elementary school children (6 to 11 years), and adolescents (12 to 18 years)...
2016: PloS One
J Ulrici, G Hempel, M Sasse, J Vollrath, C Höhne
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing problems in pediatric anesthesia. This observational study was designed to examine how airway-related complications occur in overweight children and adolescents during general anesthesia and if this is a relevant problem in Germany. METHODS: From October 2008 until August 2009, at the university clinic in Leipzig, 504 in- and outpatients, aged 2-18 years, ASA I-III, undergoing elective procedures (ENT and pediatric surgery), were observed...
December 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Rajeev Subramanyam, Samrat Yeramaneni, Mohamed Monir Hossain, Amy M Anneken, Anna M Varughese
BACKGROUND: Perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAEs) are the most common cause of serious adverse events in children receiving anesthesia. Our primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction tool for the occurrence of PRAE from the onset of anesthesia induction until discharge from the postanesthesia care unit in children younger than 18 years undergoing elective ambulatory anesthesia for surgery and radiology. The incidence of PRAE was studied. METHODS: We analyzed data from 19,059 patients from our department's quality improvement database...
May 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Paul J Samuels, Matthew D Sjoblom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric obesity has become commonplace in our clinical practice, and presents anesthesia providers with numerous challenges. This study provides an up-to-date review of their perioperative care, including the measurement of pediatric obesity, rational drug dosing in obese children, and recent data on bariatric outcomes in adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric obesity is associated with a number of relevant comorbidities that impact anesthesia care, and specific children are at particularly high risk...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Panagiotis Kiekkas, Nikolaos Stefanopoulos, Nick Bakalis, Antonios Kefaliakos, Evangelos Konstantinou
Childhood obesity is associated with numerous respiratory disorders, which may be aggravated when general anesthesia is administered. This systematic review aimed to investigate and synthesize the published literature on the associations between childhood obesity and perioperative adverse respiratory events (PAREs). By using key terms, observational studies published between 1990 and 2014 in English-language journals indexed by Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and EMBASE were searched for reports of relevant associations...
February 2016: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Daryl J McLeod, Lindsey Asti, Justin B Mahida, Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci
BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment is standard in adult surgery, but often these risk assessments cannot be applied to children. Previous studies emphasize the differences between pediatric and adult populations and variability by surgical procedure types. OBJECTIVE: We investigated preoperative risk factors for several outcomes in children undergoing major urologic surgery using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Pediatric. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of 2-18-year-old children who underwent major urologic surgery was identified by Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes in the 2012-2013 NSQIP-Pediatric...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Janelle D Vaughns, Victoria C Ziesenitz, John N van den Anker
Obesity represents one of the most important public health issues according to the World Health Organization. Additionally, in a recent National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2011-2012, approximately 17 % of children and adolescents in the United States were considered obese. The obesity rate is higher within the adolescent age group as compared to preschool children. Childhood obesity is particularly problematic, because the co-morbid disease states which accompany obesity may require frequent pharmacotherapy and/ or surgical intervention...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jennifer L Biber, Veerajalandhar Allareddy, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Susan M Gallagher, Kevin G Couloures, David G Speicher, Joseph P Cravero, Anne G Stormorken
OBJECTIVES: Procedural sedation/anesthesia outside the operating room for a variety of procedures is well described with an overall low adverse event rate in certain settings. Adverse event associated with procedural sedation/anesthesia outside the operating room for gastrointestinal procedures have been described, albeit in small, single-center studies with wide variance in outcomes. Predictors of such outcomes are unclear. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse event in children undergoing procedural sedation/anesthesia outside the operating room for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, or both to identify predictors of adverse event...
October 2015: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Charles J Coté
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent evidence-based data regarding outcomes associated with children who have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). RECENT FINDINGS: Internet surveys conducted by pediatric otolaryngologists and pediatric anesthesiologists have reported a disturbing number of deaths within 24 h of tonsillectomy attributed to postsurgical/anesthesia apnea. Several occurred in the post anesthesia care unit after routine monitors had been removed. In addition, a number of deaths also have been attributed to children who have duplicated cytochromes allowing the rapid conversion of codeine to morphine, thus producing a relative drug overdose...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Patricia D Scherrer, Michael D Mallory, Joseph P Cravero, Lia Lowrie, James H Hertzog, John W Berkenbosch
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of obesity on adverse events and required interventions during pediatric procedural sedation. METHODS: The Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium database of prospectively collected procedural sedation encounters was queried to identify patients for whom body mass index (BMI) could be calculated. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥95th percentile for age and gender. Sedation-related outcomes, adverse events, and therapeutic interventions were compared between obese and nonobese patients...
July 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Alvina Mushtaq, Janelle D Vaughns, Victoria C Ziesenitz, Evan P Nadler, John N van den Anker
BACKGROUND: Obese patients have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism when immobilized due to surgery. The objective of this study was to assess anti-factor Xa activity in adolescent bariatric surgical patients receiving prophylactic enoxaparin. METHODS: Four morbidly obese adolescents undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy were enrolled. Enoxaparin was administered (40 mg subcutaneous (SC) if BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) or 60 mg SC if BMI >50 kg/m(2)) for prevention of venous thromboembolism every 12 h starting after induction of anesthesia until discharge...
October 2015: Obesity Surgery
Jianfei Cui, Youping Bai, Meng Li, Xiaodong Xu, Yuanyuan Dai, Jing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effects of different intensity exercise on blood glucose, adolescent obesity rats insulin sensitivity and RBP4. METHODS: The model of rats after 7 weeks, 32 rabbits of obesity prone rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, 8 rats in each group, respectively, control group, low intensity exercise group, moderate intensity exercise group, high intensity exercise group. High strength low in animal treadmill running speed respectively for 15 - 18, 21 - 25 and 28 - 32 m/min, 5 times/week, 60 min/times, for 8 consecutive weeks...
July 2014: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Jocelyn R Grunwell, Courtney McCracken, James Fortenberry, Jana Stockwell, Pradip Kamat
OBJECTIVES: Deep sedation enables effective performance of imaging or procedures in children, but failed sedation still occurs. We desired to determine the factors that were associated with failed sedation in children receiving deep sedation by a dedicated nonanesthesia sedation service and hypothesized that the presence of an upper respiratory infection (URI) and/or other risk factors would increase the probability of failing sedation. METHODS: Patient sedation records from January 2007 to December 2011 were reviewed to identify 83 failed sedations...
June 2014: Pediatric Emergency Care
Jennifer J Lee, Lena S Sun, Brian Gu, Minjae Kim, Shuang Wang, Sena Han
OBJECTIVES: To report the epidemiology of obesity in a pediatric surgical population and determine whether obesity is a risk factor for longer anesthesia duration. BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem in the United States. Epidemiologic studies on pediatric surgical populations have been limited to states with very high prevalence of adult obesity (Michigan, Texas). Data from other states and more recent data since 2006 are unavailable...
October 2014: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Elizabeth E Halvorson, Megan B Irby, Joseph A Skelton
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric obesity affects more than 16% of American children and is associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized patients. A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies of adverse care events affecting obese pediatric patients in the emergency room, operating room, or inpatient wards. EVIDENCE REVIEW: We systematically searched Medline for articles published from 1970 to 2013 regarding obesity and patient safety events in pediatric acute care settings...
September 2014: Clinical Pediatrics
Constance N Burke, Terri Voepel-Lewis, Deborah Wagner, Irwin Lau, Andrew Baldock, Shobha Malviya, Olubukola Nafiu
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric obesity is a major health concern in the United States and as many as 34% of those who require general anesthesia are overweight or obese (OW). The lack of data and recommendations for dosing medications in obese children leaves significant gaps in the understanding of correct dosing in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether OW children were more likely to receive doses of medications outside the recommended range. METHODS: Following IRB approval, patient medical records were queried to identify children 2 through 17 years who underwent noncardiac surgeries and received at least one medication of interest...
August 2014: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Deborah A Schwengel, Nicholas M Dalesio, Tracey L Stierer
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder of airway obstruction with multisystem implications and associated complications. OSAS affects children from infancy to adulthood and is responsible for behavioral, cognitive, and growth impairment as well as cardiovascular and perioperative respiratory morbidity and mortality. OSAS is associated commonly with comorbid conditions, including obesity and asthma. Adenotonsillectomy is the most commonly used treatment option for OSAS in childhood, but efforts are underway to identify medical treatment options...
March 2014: Anesthesiology Clinics
Rieko Sumiyoshi
Preoperative fasting is principally intended to minimize the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents and facilitate the safe and efficient conduct of anesthesia. Liberalization of fasting guidelines has been implemented in most countries. In general, clear fluids are allowed up to 2h before anesthesia, and light meals up to 6h. In infants, most recommendations now allow breast milk feeding up to 4h and other kinds of milk up to 6h. Recently, the concept of preoperative oral rehydration using a carbohydrate-rich beverage up to 2h has also gained support...
September 2013: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
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