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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421032/spasticity-motor-recovery-and-neural-plasticity-after-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Sheng Li
Spasticity and weakness (spastic paresis) are the primary motor impairments after stroke and impose significant challenges for treatment and patient care. Spasticity emerges and disappears in the course of complete motor recovery. Spasticity and motor recovery are both related to neural plasticity after stroke. However, the relation between the two remains poorly understood among clinicians and researchers. Recovery of strength and motor function is mainly attributed to cortical plastic reorganization in the early recovery phase, while reticulospinal (RS) hyperexcitability as a result of maladaptive plasticity, is the most plausible mechanism for poststroke spasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396651/descending-influences-on-vestibulospinal-and-vestibulosympathetic-reflexes
#2
REVIEW
Andrew A McCall, Derek M Miller, Bill J Yates
This review considers the integration of vestibular and other signals by the central nervous system pathways that participate in balance control and blood pressure regulation, with an emphasis on how this integration may modify posture-related responses in accordance with behavioral context. Two pathways convey vestibular signals to limb motoneurons: the lateral vestibulospinal tract and reticulospinal projections. Both pathways receive direct inputs from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and also integrate vestibular, spinal, and other inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394483/corticobulbar-projections-from-distinct-motor-cortical-areas-to-the-reticular-formation-in-macaque-monkeys
#3
Michela Fregosi, Alessandro Contestabile, Adja Hamadjida, Eric M Rouiller
Corticospinal and corticobulbar descending pathways act in parallel with brainstem systems, such as the reticulospinal tact, to ensure the control of voluntary movements via direct or indirect influences onto spinal motoneurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the corticobulbar projections from distinct motor cortical areas onto different nuclei of the reticular formation. Seven adult macaque monkeys were analyzed for the location of corticobulbar axonal boutons, and one monkey for reticulospinal neurons' location...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304238/remote-motor-system-metabolic-profile-and-surgery-outcome-in-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#4
Sorin C Craciunas, Mircea R Gorgan, Bogdan Ianosi, Phil Lee, Joseph Burris, Carmen M Cirstea
OBJECTIVE In patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), the motor system may undergo progressive functional/structural changes rostral to the lesion, and these changes may be associated with clinical disability. The extent to which these changes have a prognostic value in the clinical recovery after surgical treatment is not yet known. In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to test 2 primary hypotheses. 1) Based on evidence of corticospinal and spinocerebellar, rubro-, or reticulospinal tract degeneration/dysfunction during chronic spinal cord compression, the authors hypothesized that the metabolic profile of the primary motor cortices (M1s) and cerebellum, respectively, would be altered in patients with CSM, and these alterations would be associated with the extent of the neurological disabilities...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216318/circuit-homology-between-decussating-pathways-in-the-ciona-larval-cns-and-the-vertebrate-startle-response-pathway
#5
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Comparing synaptic circuits and networks between brains of different animal groups helps us derive an understanding of how nervous systems might have evolved. The circuits of the startle response pathway in the brains of tailed vertebrates are known from electrophysiological studies on the giant reticulospinal Mauthner cells (M-cells). To identify morphological counterparts in chordate tunicates, a sister group of vertebrates [1, 2], we have compiled a densely reconstructed connectome (defined in [3]) for the CNS in the tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis (L...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216316/local-spinal-cord-circuits-and-bilateral-mauthner-cell-activity-function-together-to-drive-alternative-startle-behaviors
#6
Yen-Chyi Liu, Melina E Hale
The reticulospinal Mauthner cells (M-cells) of the startle circuit have been considered to be dedicated to one basic motor output and the C-type startle response in fish. The neural circuit underlying the C-start, a startle behavior in which the fish forms a "C"-shaped body bend has been described in depth in goldfish and zebrafish [1, 2] and is thought to occur in other species [3, 4]. However, previous research has shown that some species can perform a second type of startle called the S-start [5-7]. This startle response, in which the first movement creates an "S"-shaped body bend achieved with regional muscle activity on left and right sides, cannot be explained by M-cell circuit models...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188328/neurons-in-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-receive-converging-inputs-from-the-hindlimb-and-labyrinth
#7
Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Samuel R Wittman, Bill J Yates, Andrew A McCall
The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122432/functional-neuroanatomy-for-posture-and-gait-control
#8
REVIEW
Kaoru Takakusaki
Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord...
January 2017: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#9
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039767/static-otolithic-drive-alters-presynaptic-inhibition-in-soleus-motor-pool
#10
Apollonia Fox, David Koceja
The vestibular system has both direct and indirect connections to the soleus motor pool via the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts. The exact nature of how this vestibular information is integrated within the spinal cord is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify whether changes in static otolithic drive altered the amount of presynaptic inhibition in the soleus H-reflex pathway. Changes in static otolithic drive were investigated in sixteen healthy participants using a tilt table...
February 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008311/cloning-of-the-gabab-receptor-subunits-b1-and-b2-and-their-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-adult-sea-lamprey
#11
Daniel Romaus-Sanjurjo, Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, María Celina Rodicio
In vertebrates, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) acting through ionotropic (GABAA) and metabotropic (GABAB) receptors. The GABAB receptor produces a slow inhibition since it activates second messenger systems through the binding and activation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins [G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)]. Lampreys are a key reference to understand molecular evolution in vertebrates. The importance of the GABAB receptor for the modulation of the circuits controlling locomotion and other behaviors has been shown in pharmacological/physiological studies in lampreys...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003416/fractionation-of-muscle-activity-in-rapid-responses-to-startling-cues
#12
Lauren R Dean, Stuart N Baker
Movements in response to acoustically startling cues have shorter reaction times than those following less intense sounds; this is known as the StartReact effect. The neural underpinnings for StartReact are unclear. One possibility is that startling cues preferentially invoke the reticulospinal tract to convey motor commands to spinal motoneurons. Reticulospinal outputs are highly divergent, controlling large groups of muscles in synergistic patterns. By contrast the dominant pathway in primate voluntary movement is the corticospinal tract, which can access small groups of muscles selectively...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890825/the-expression-of-chemorepulsive-guidance-receptors-and-the-regenerative-abilities-of-spinal-projecting-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Jie Chen, Cindy Laramore, Michael I Shifman
Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals leads to permanent loss of function because axons do not regenerate in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, treatments based on neutralizing inhibitory environmental cues, such as the myelin-associated growth inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, or on adding neurotrophic factors, have had limited success in enhancing regeneration. Published studies suggested that multiple axon guidance cues (repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, semaphorins, ephrins, and netrins) persist in adult animals, and that their expression is upregulated after CNS injury...
January 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888137/the-role-of-rhoa-in-retrograde-neuronal-death-and-axon-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Jianli Hu, Guixin Zhang, William Rodemer, Li-Qing Jin, Michael Shifman, Michael E Selzer
Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to interruption of axons and their failure to regenerate. It has been suggested that the small GTPase RhoA may be an intracellular signaling convergence point for several types of growth-inhibiting extracellular molecules. Even if this is true in vitro, it is not clear from studies in mammalian SCI, whether the effects of RhoA manipulations on axon growth in vivo are due to a RhoA-mediated inhibition of true regeneration or only of collateral sprouting from spared axons, since work on SCI generally is performed with partial injury models...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832595/psychosocial-stress-alters-the-strength-of-reticulospinal-input-to-the-human-upper-trapezius
#15
Ryan J Marker, Serge Campeau, Katrina S Maluf
Psychosocial stress has been shown to influence several aspects of human motor control associated with the fight-or-flight response, including augmentation of upper trapezius muscle activity. Given the established role of the reticular formation in arousal, this study investigated the contribution of reticulospinal activation to trapezius muscle activity during exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor. Twenty-five healthy adults were exposed to startling acoustic stimuli (SAS) while performing a motor task during periods of low and high psychosocial stress...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798137/spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-the-long-latency-stretch-reflex-following-paired-stimulation-from-a-wearable-electronic-device
#16
K M Riashad Foysal, Felipe de Carvalho, Stuart N Baker
The long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) in human elbow muscles probably depends on multiple pathways; one possible contributor is the reticulospinal tract. Here we attempted to induce plastic changes in the LLSR by pairing noninvasive stimuli that are known to activate reticulospinal pathways, at timings predicted to cause spike timing-dependent plasticity in the brainstem. In healthy human subjects, reflex responses in flexor muscles were recorded following extension perturbations at the elbow. Subjects were then fitted with a portable device that delivered auditory click stimuli through an earpiece, and electrical stimuli around motor threshold to the biceps muscle via surface electrodes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760818/descending-propriospinal-neurons-mediate-restoration-of-locomotor-function-following-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716830/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-absence-of-their-target-axons-in-vivo
#18
Rafael Almeida, David Lyons
Oligodendrocytes form myelin around axons of the central nervous system, enabling saltatory conduction. Recent work has established that axons can regulate certain aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination, yet remarkably oligodendrocytes in culture retain the ability to differentiate in the absence of axons and elaborate myelin sheaths around synthetic axon-like substrates. It remains unclear the extent to which the life-course of oligodendrocytes requires the presence of, or signals derived from axons in vivo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589479/supraspinal-control-of-spinal-reflex-responses-to-body-bending-during-different-behaviours-in-lampreys
#19
Li-Ju Hsu, Pavel V Zelenin, Grigori N Orlovsky, Tatiana G Deliagina
KEY POINTS: Spinal reflexes are substantial components of the motor control system in all vertebrates and centrally driven reflex modifications are essential to many behaviours, but little is known about the neuronal mechanisms underlying these modifications. To study this issue, we took advantage of an in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation of the lamprey (a lower vertebrate), in which spinal reflex responses to spinal cord bending (caused by signals from spinal stretch receptor neurons) can be evoked during different types of fictive behaviour...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560037/the-pretectal-connectome-in-lamprey
#20
Lorenza Capantini, Arndt von Twickel, Brita Robertson, Sten Grillner
In vertebrates, the pretectum and optic tectum (superior colliculus in mammals) are visuomotor areas that process sensory information and shape motor responses. Whereas the tectum has been investigated in great detail, the pretectum has received far less attention. The present study provides a detailed analysis of the connectivity and neuronal properties of lamprey pretectal cells. The pretectum can be subdivided roughly into three areas based on cellular location and projection pattern: superficial, central, and periventricular...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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