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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890825/the-expression-of-chemorepulsive-guidance-receptors-and-the-regenerative-abilities-of-spinal-projecting-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Jie Chen, Cindy Laramore, Michael I Shifman
Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals leads to permanent loss of function because axons do not regenerate in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, treatments based on neutralizing inhibitory environmental cues, such as the myelin-associated growth inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, or on adding neurotrophic factors, have had limited success in enhancing regeneration. Published studies suggested that multiple axon guidance cues (repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, semaphorins, ephrins, and netrins) persist in adult animals, and that their expression is upregulated after CNS injury...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888137/the-role-of-rhoa-in-retrograde-neuronal-death-and-axon-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Jianli Hu, Guixin Zhang, William Rodemer, Li-Qing Jin, Michael Shifman, Michael E Selzer
Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to interruption of axons and their failure to regenerate. It has been suggested that the small GTPase RhoA may be an intracellular signaling convergence point for several types of growth-inhibiting extracellular molecules. Even if this is true in vitro, it is not clear from studies in mammalian SCI, whether the effects of RhoA manipulations on axon growth in vivo are due to a RhoA-mediated inhibition of true regeneration or only of collateral sprouting from spared axons, since work on SCI generally is performed with partial injury models...
November 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832595/psychosocial-stress-alters-the-strength-of-reticulospinal-input-to-the-human-upper-trapezius
#3
Ryan J Marker, Serge Campeau, Katrina Shaun Maluf
Psychosocial stress has been shown to influence several aspects of human motor control associated with the fight-or-flight response, including augmentation of upper trapezius muscle activity. Given the established role of the reticular formation in arousal, this study investigated the contribution of reticulospinal activation to trapezius muscle activity during exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor. Twenty-five healthy adults were exposed to startling acoustic stimuli (SAS) while performing a motor task during periods of low and high psychosocial stress...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798137/spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-the-long-latency-stretch-reflex-following-paired-stimulation-from-a-wearable-electronic-device
#4
K M Riashad Foysal, Felipe de Carvalho, Stuart N Baker
: The long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) in human elbow muscles probably depends on multiple pathways; one possible contributor is the reticulospinal tract. Here we attempted to induce plastic changes in the LLSR by pairing noninvasive stimuli that are known to activate reticulospinal pathways, at timings predicted to cause spike timing-dependent plasticity in the brainstem. In healthy human subjects, reflex responses in flexor muscles were recorded following extension perturbations at the elbow...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760818/descending-propriospinal-neurons-mediate-restoration-of-locomotor-function-following-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716830/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-absence-of-their-target-axons-in-vivo
#6
Rafael Almeida, David Lyons
Oligodendrocytes form myelin around axons of the central nervous system, enabling saltatory conduction. Recent work has established that axons can regulate certain aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination, yet remarkably oligodendrocytes in culture retain the ability to differentiate in the absence of axons and elaborate myelin sheaths around synthetic axon-like substrates. It remains unclear the extent to which the life-course of oligodendrocytes requires the presence of, or signals derived from axons in vivo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589479/supraspinal-control-of-spinal-reflex-responses-to-body-bending-during-different-behaviours-in-lampreys
#7
Li-Ju Hsu, Pavel V Zelenin, Grigori N Orlovsky, Tatiana G Deliagina
KEY POINTS: Spinal reflexes are substantial components of the motor control system in all vertebrates and centrally driven reflex modifications are essential to many behaviours, but little is known about the neuronal mechanisms underlying these modifications. To study this issue, we took advantage of an in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation of the lamprey (a lower vertebrate), in which spinal reflex responses to spinal cord bending (caused by signals from spinal stretch receptor neurons) can be evoked during different types of fictive behaviour...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560037/the-pretectal-connectome-in-lamprey
#8
Lorenza Capantini, Arndt von Twickel, Brita Robertson, Sten Grillner
In vertebrates, the pretectum and optic tectum (superior colliculus in mammals) are visuomotor areas that process sensory information and shape motor responses. Whereas the tectum has been investigated in great detail, the pretectum has received far less attention. The present study provides a detailed analysis of the connectivity and neuronal properties of lamprey pretectal cells. The pretectum can be subdivided roughly into three areas based on cellular location and projection pattern: superficial, central, and periventricular...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329279/distinct-and-developmentally-regulated-activity-dependent-plasticity-at-descending-glutamatergic-synapses-on-flexor-and-extensor-motoneurons
#9
Constanze Lenschow, Jean-René Cazalets, Sandrine S Bertrand
Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity (ADSP) is paramount to synaptic processing and maturation. However, identifying the ADSP capabilities of the numerous synapses converging onto spinal motoneurons (MNs) remain elusive. Using spinal cord slices from mice at two developmental stages, 1-4 and 8-12 postnatal days (P1-P4; P8-P12), we found that high-frequency stimulation of presumed reticulospinal neuron axons in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) induced either an NMDA receptor-dependent-long-term depression (LTD), a short-term depression (STD) or no synaptic modulation in limb MNs...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264174/a-specific-population-of-reticulospinal-neurons-controls-the-termination-of-locomotion
#10
Laurent Juvin, Swantje Grätsch, Emilie Trillaud-Doppia, Jean-François Gariépy, Ansgar Büschges, Réjean Dubuc
Locomotion requires the proper sequencing of neural activity to start, maintain, and stop it. Recently, brainstem neurons were shown to specifically stop locomotion in mammals. However, the cellular properties of these neurons and their activity during locomotion are still unknown. Here, we took advantage of the lamprey model to characterize the activity of a cell population that we now show to be involved in stopping locomotion. We find that these neurons display a burst of spikes that coincides with the end of swimming activity...
June 14, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167838/correction-corticospinal-and-reticulospinal-contacts-on-cervical-commissural-and-long-descending-propriospinal-neurons-in-the-adult-rat-spinal-cord-evidence-for-powerful-reticulospinal-connections
#11
Emma J Mitchell, Sarah McCallum, Deborah Dewar, David J Maxwell
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152094.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161502/individual-neuronal-subtypes-exhibit-diversity-in-cns-myelination-mediated-by-synaptic-vesicle-release
#12
Sigrid Koudelka, Matthew G Voas, Rafael G Almeida, Marion Baraban, Jan Soetaert, Martin P Meyer, William S Talbot, David A Lyons
Regulation of myelination by oligodendrocytes in the CNS has important consequences for higher-order nervous system function (e.g., [1-4]), and there is growing consensus that neuronal activity regulates CNS myelination (e.g., [5-9]) through local axon-oligodendrocyte synaptic-vesicle-release-mediated signaling [10-12]. Recent analyses have indicated that myelination along axons of distinct neuronal subtypes can differ [13, 14], but it is not known whether regulation of myelination by activity is common to all neuronal subtypes or only some...
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071118/a-descending-dopamine-pathway-conserved-from-basal-vertebrates-to-mammals
#13
Dimitri Ryczko, Jackson J Cone, Michael H Alpert, Laurent Goetz, François Auclair, Catherine Dubé, Martin Parent, Mitchell F Roitman, Simon Alford, Réjean Dubuc
Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson's disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled...
April 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059134/differential-expression-of-hdacs-and-kats-in-high-and-low-regeneration-capacity-neurons-during-spinal-cord-regeneration
#14
Jie Chen, Cindy Laramore, Michael I Shifman
After spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals, injured axons fail to regenerate. By contrast, lampreys recover from complete spinal transection and axons regenerate selectively in their correct paths. Yet the large, identified reticulospinal neurons in the lamprey brain vary greatly in their regenerative abilities - some have high regeneration capacity (probability of regeneration >50%) and others have low regeneration capacity (<30%) - even though they have similar projection paths. The presence of both regenerating and non-regenerating neurons located in the same brain region and projecting to the same axon tracts suggests that differences in their regenerating abilities depend upon factors intrinsic to the neurons...
June 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045097/by-land-or-by-sea-a-modified-c-start-motor-pattern-drives-the-terrestrial-tail-flip
#15
Benjamin M Perlman, Miriam A Ashley-Ross
Aquatic C-start escape responses in teleost fishes are driven by a well-studied network of reticulospinal neurons that produce a motor pattern of simultaneous contraction of axial muscle on the side of the body opposite the threatening stimulus, bending the fish into the characteristic C shape, followed by a traveling wave of muscle contraction on the contralateral side that moves the fish away from the threat. Superficially, the kinematics of the terrestrial tail-flip resemble the C-start, with the anterior body rolling up and over the tail into a tight C shape, followed by straightening as the fish launches off of the caudal peduncle into ballistic flight...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999665/corticospinal-and-reticulospinal-contacts-on-cervical-commissural-and-long-descending-propriospinal-neurons-in-the-adult-rat-spinal-cord-evidence-for-powerful-reticulospinal-connections
#16
Emma J Mitchell, Sarah McCallum, Deborah Dewar, David J Maxwell
Descending systems have a crucial role in the selection of motor output patterns by influencing the activity of interneuronal networks in the spinal cord. Commissural interneurons that project to the contralateral grey matter are key components of such networks as they coordinate left-right motor activity of fore and hind-limbs. The aim of this study was to determine if corticospinal (CST) and reticulospinal (RST) neurons make significant numbers of axonal contacts with cervical commissural interneurons. Two classes of commissural neurons were analysed: 1) local commissural interneurons (LCINs) in segments C4-5; 2) long descending propriospinal neurons (LDPNs) projecting from C4 to the rostral lumbar cord...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892484/electrophysiological-findings-in-rasmussen-s-syndrome
#17
Ayşegül Gündüz, Meral E Kızıltan, Tülin Coşkun, Şakir Delil, Naz Yeni, Çiğdem Özkara
Rasmussen syndrome is a rare, inflammatory and probably autoimmune disease presenting with epilepsia partialis continua which is generally in the form of myoclonic jerks and involves the upper extremities with or without head involvement. We sought to demonstrate the electrophysiological features in patients with Rasmussen syndrome. We performed continuous electrophysiological recordings of involuntary movement, as well as recordings of startle responses and long latency reflex in three patients with a diagnosis of Rasmussen syndrome...
March 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26854933/reducing-synuclein-accumulation-improves-neuronal-survival-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Stephanie M Fogerson, Alexandra J van Brummen, David J Busch, Scott R Allen, Robin Roychaudhuri, Susan M L Banks, Frank-Gerrit Klärner, Thomas Schrader, Gal Bitan, Jennifer R Morgan
Spinal cord injury causes neuronal death, limiting subsequent regeneration and recovery. Thus, there is a need to develop strategies for improving neuronal survival after injury. Relative to our understanding of axon regeneration, comparatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote the survival of damaged neurons. To address this, we took advantage of lamprey giant reticulospinal neurons whose large size permits detailed examination of post-injury molecular responses at the level of individual, identified cells...
April 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26846379/reorganization-of-intact-descending-motor-circuits-to-replace-lost-connections-after-injury
#19
REVIEW
Kathren L Fink, William B J Cafferty
Neurons have a limited capacity to regenerate in the adult central nervous system (CNS). The inability of damaged axons to re-establish original circuits results in permanent functional impairment after spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite abortive regeneration of axotomized CNS neurons, limited spontaneous recovery of motor function emerges after partial SCI in humans and experimental rodent models of SCI. It is hypothesized that this spontaneous functional recovery is the result of the reorganization of descending motor pathways spared by the injury, suggesting that plasticity of intact circuits is a potent alternative conduit to enhance functional recovery after SCI...
April 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26730404/loss-of-projections-functional-compensation-and-residual-deficits-in-the-mammalian-vestibulospinal-system-of-hoxb1-deficient-mice
#20
Maria Di Bonito, Jean-Luc Boulland, Wojciech Krezel, Eya Setti, Michèle Studer, Joel C Glover
The genetic mechanisms underlying the developmental and functional specification of brainstem projection neurons are poorly understood. Here, we use transgenic mouse tools to investigate the role of the gene Hoxb1 in the developmental patterning of vestibular projection neurons, with particular focus on the lateral vestibulospinal tract (LVST). The LVST is the principal pathway that conveys vestibular information to limb-related spinal motor circuits and arose early during vertebrate evolution. We show that the segmental hindbrain expression domain uniquely defined by the rhombomere 4 (r4) Hoxb1 enhancer is the origin of essentially all LVST neurons, but also gives rise to subpopulations of contralateral medial vestibulospinal tract (cMVST) neurons, vestibulo-ocular neurons, and reticulospinal (RS) neurons...
November 2015: ENeuro
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