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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774573/multiple-acquired-smooth-muscle-hamartomas-with-2-different-muscle-components-on-scalp
#1
Sarina Jain, Sibasish Patro, Bhushan Darkase, Atul M Dongre, Uday S Khopkar
Smooth muscle hamartoma (SMH) is a benign hamartomatous condition that consists of a dermal proliferation of smooth muscle cells. We hereby report a case of multiple, acquired smooth muscle hamartomas on scalp. A 25-year old male had a 6-year history of multiple, asymptomatic, hyperpigmented plaques on scalp which have been progressively increasing in number and size. Histopathological examination revealed large thick walled blood vessels, in addition to the haphazardly arranged discrete smooth muscle bundles in the reticular dermis...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#2
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761601/postnatal-development-of-cholinergic-input-to-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-of-the-mouse
#3
Guela Sokhadze, Peter Whitney Campbell, William Guido
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a shell-like structure comprised of GABAergic neurons, gates signal transmission between thalamus and cortex. While TRN is innervated by axon collaterals of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons, other ascending projections modulate activity during different behavioral states such as attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles. One of the largest arise from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and brainstem. Despite its integral role, little is known about how or when cholinergic innervation and synapse formation occurs...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760098/cochlear-amplification-and-tuning-depend-on-the-cellular-arrangement-within-the-organ-of-corti
#4
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Joris A M Soons, Sunil Puria
The field of cochlear mechanics has been undergoing a revolution due to recent findings made possible by advancements in measurement techniques. While it has long been assumed that basilar-membrane (BM) motion is the most important determinant of sound transduction by the inner hair cells (IHCs), it turns out that other parts of the sensory epithelium closer to the IHCs, such as the reticular lamina (RL), move with significantly greater amplitude for weaker sounds. It has not been established how these findings are related to the complex cytoarchitecture of the organ of Corti between the BM and RL, which is composed of a lattice of asymmetric Y-shaped elements, each consisting of a basally slanted outer hair cell (OHC), an apically slanted phalangeal process (PhP), and a supporting Deiters' cell (DC)...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755854/neuroanatomical-autonomic-substrates-of-brainstem-gut-circuitry-identified-using-transsynaptic-tract-tracing-with-pseudorabies-virus-recombinants
#5
Zhi-Gang He, Quan Wang, Run-Shan Xie, Yong-Sheng Li, Qing-Xiong Hong, Hong-Bing Xiang
To investigate autonomic substrates of brainstem-gut circuitry identified using trans-synaptic tracing with pseudorabies virus (PRV)-152, a strain that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein, and PRV-614, a strain that expresses enhanced red fluorescent protein, injecting into the rat rectum wall. 3-7 days after PRV-152 injection, spinal cord and brainstem were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV-152 visualization using immunofluorescence labeling against PRV-152. 6 days after PRV-614 injection, brainstem was sectioned and the neurochemical phenotype of PRV-614-positive neurons was identified using double immunocytochemical labeling against PRV-614 and TPH...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752810/a-prospective-study-of-female-genital-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-symptoms-signs-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
Eva Smith Knutsson, Yvonne Björk, Anna-Karin Broman, Lotti Helström, Malin Nicklasson, Mats Brune, Karin Sundfeldt
INTRODUCTION: Female genital chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is a complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for blood malignancies. Unattended inflammation and fibrosis in the vulva and vagina may lead to total vaginal stenosis. The course and treatment of genital cGvHD was observed in this population-based prospective study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women (n = 41) receiving alloHCT in 2005-2010 were examined before and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months post-transplant...
May 12, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752062/single-cell-rna-sequencing-of-lymph-node-stromal-cells-reveals-niche-associated-heterogeneity
#7
Lauren B Rodda, Erick Lu, Mariko L Bennett, Caroline L Sokol, Xiaoming Wang, Sanjiv A Luther, Ben A Barres, Andrew D Luster, Chun Jimmie Ye, Jason G Cyster
Stromal cells (SCs) establish the compartmentalization of lymphoid tissues critical to the immune response. However, the full diversity of lymph node (LN) SCs remains undefined. Using droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing, we identified nine peripheral LN non-endothelial SC clusters. Included are the established subsets, Ccl19hi T-zone reticular cells (TRCs), marginal reticular cells, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), and perivascular cells. We also identified Ccl19lo TRCs, likely including cholesterol-25-hydroxylase+ cells located at the T-zone perimeter, Cxcl9+ TRCs in the T-zone and interfollicular region, CD34+ SCs in the capsule and medullary vessel adventitia, indolethylamine N-methyltransferase+ SCs in the medullary cords, and Nr4a1+ SCs in several niches...
April 26, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742511/decellularized-pancreas-matrix-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-using-ductal-or-arterial-catheterization
#8
Javad Hashemi, Parvin Pasalar, Masoud Soleimani, Ehsan Arefian, Reza Khorramirouz, Aram Akbarzadeh, Fariba Ghorbani, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Abdol Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is known as a worldwide disease with a great burden on society. Since therapeutic options cover a limited number of target points, new therapeutic strategies in the field of regenerative medicine are considered. Bioscaffolds along with islet cells would provide bioengineered tissue as a substitute for β-cells. The perfusion-decellularization technique is considered to create such scaffolds since they mimic the compositional, architectural, and biomechanical nature of a native organ...
May 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742032/modulation-of-motor-cortical-excitability-with-auditory-stimulation
#9
Olli Löfberg, Petro Julkunen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Ari Pääkkönen, Jari Karhu
Loud sounds have been demonstrated to increase motor cortex excitability when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is synchronized with auditory evoked N100 potential measured from electroencephalography (EEG). The N100 potential is generated by an afferent response to sound onset and feature analysis, and upon novel sound it is also related to the arousal reaction. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the ascending reticular activating system of the brainstem and to modulate neuronal activity throughout the central nervous system...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733314/creating-a-structurally-realistic-finite-element-geometric-model-of-a-cardiomyocyte-to-study-the-role-of-cellular-architecture-in-cardiomyocyte-systems-biology
#10
Vijay Rajagopal, Gregory Bass, Shouryadipta Ghosh, Hilary Hunt, Cameron Walker, Eric Hanssen, Edmund Crampin, Christian Soeller
With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) imaging technologies such as electron tomography, serial-block-face scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, the scientific community has unprecedented access to large datasets at sub-micrometer resolution that characterize the architectural remodeling that accompanies changes in cardiomyocyte function in health and disease. However, these datasets have been under-utilized for investigating the role of cellular architecture remodeling in cardiomyocyte function...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726872/the-geometry-of-periodic-knots-polycatenanes-and-weaving-from-a-chemical-perspective-a-library-for-reticular-chemistry
#11
REVIEW
Yuzhong Liu, Michael O'Keeffe, Michael M J Treacy, Omar M Yaghi
The geometry of simple knots and catenanes is described using the concept of linear line segments (sticks) joined at corners. This is extended to include woven linear threads as members of the extended family of knots. The concept of transitivity that can be used as a measure of regularity is explained. Then a review is given of the simplest, most 'regular' 2- and 3-periodic patterns of polycatenanes and weavings. Occurrences in crystal structures are noted but most structures are believed to be new and ripe targets for designed synthesis...
May 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726278/tear-film-evaluation-by-scanning-laser-ophthalmoscopy-during-retinal-imaging
#12
Ilkay Kilic Muftuoglu, Maria Laura Gomez, Natalie Afshari, Dirk-Bartsch Uwe, Amit Meshi, Raouf Gaber, Qisheng You, William R Freeman
PURPOSE: Herein, we describe a novel finding which appears as a reticular pattern on multicolor confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy image during routine imaging of retina and we aim to show whether there is an association between this pattern and dry eye findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 162 eyes of 81 patients that were scheduled for a routine retinal imaging by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy at a vitreoretinal practice underwent dry eye evaluation including corneal and conjunctival lissamine green staining, fluorescein staining, tear break-up time, and tear meniscus height measurement before acquiring any images...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724455/telocytes-in-human-fetal-skeletal-muscle-interstitium-during-early-myogenesis
#13
Mirca Marini, Mirko Manetti, Irene Rosa, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Eleonora Sgambati
A new peculiar stromal cell type called telocyte (TC)/CD34-positive stromal cell (i.e. cell with distinctive prolongations named telopodes) has recently been described in various tissues and organs, including the adult skeletal muscle interstitium of mammals. By forming a resident stromal three-dimensional network, TCs have been suggested to participate in different physiological processes within the skeletal muscle tissue, including homeostasis maintenance, intercellular signaling, tissue regeneration/repair and angiogenesis...
April 30, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722790/utility-of-adipocyte-fractions-in-fat-grafting-in-an-athymic-rat-model
#14
Yucel Akgul, Ryan Constantine, Mason Bartels, Philipp Scherer, Kathryn Davis, Jeffrey M Kenkel
Background: Multiple processing and handling methods of autologous fat yields to variations in graft retention and viability, which results in unpredictable clinical outcomes. Objective: This study aims to understand the skin effects of fat graft preparations that contain a varying ratio of free-lipid and stem-cell-bearing stromal vascular fractions (SVF). Methods: Lipoaspirates from consenting patients were processed into emulsified fat and then SVF and adipocyte fractions (free-lipid)...
May 2, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722327/structural-neural-connectivity-of-the-vestibular-nuclei-in-the-human-brain-a-diffusion-tensor-imagings-study
#15
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721851/deconstructing-schizophrenia-advances-in-preclinical-models-for-biomarker-identification
#16
Judith A Pratt, Brian Morris, Neil Dawson
Schizophrenia is considered to develop as a consequence of genetic and environmental factors impacting on brain neural systems and circuits during vulnerable neurodevelopmental periods, thereby resulting in symptoms in early adulthood. Understanding of the impact of schizophrenia risk factors on brain biology and behaviour can help in identifying biologically relevant pathways that are attractive for informing clinical studies and biomarker development. In this chapter, we emphasize the importance of adopting a reciprocal forward and reverse translation approach that is iteratively updated when additional new information is gained, either preclinically or clinically, for offering the greatest opportunity for discovering panels of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of schizophrenia...
May 3, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721630/characteristic-features-and-proposed-classification-in-69-cases-of-intracranial-microcystic-meningiomas
#17
Zhiqin Lin, Meng Zhao, Xiangrong Li, Junmei Wang, Ping Qiu, Folin Lan, Celin Guan, Dongxia Liao, Dongwei Shen, Jing Lu, Shuanglin Que, Zhongli Jiang
Microcystic meningioma (MM) is a rare subtype of intracranial meningiomas, with clinical and radiologic features not well characterized in the literature. Based on our experience, we propose a classification system of intracranial MMs. We reviewed the medical records, radiographic studies, and operative notes of a group of consecutive patients with intracranial MM. The mean age of the 69 patients was 46.8 ± 10.6 years (range, 21-75 years). Three types of intracranial MMs could be identified. Type 1 MMs presented as a solid lesion, hypointense or isointense on T1WI, hyperintense on T2WI, and homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement, and were found in 43 patients (67...
May 2, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720934/reticulospinal-systems-for-tuning-motor-commands
#18
REVIEW
Robert M Brownstone, Jeremy W Chopek
The pontomedullary reticular formation (RF) is a key site responsible for integrating descending instructions to execute particular movements. The indiscrete nature of this region has led not only to some inconsistencies in nomenclature, but also to difficulties in understanding its role in the control of movement. In this review article, we first discuss nomenclature of the RF, and then examine the reticulospinal motor command system through evolution. These command neurons have direct monosynaptic connections with spinal interneurons and motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719954/programmable-topology-in-new-families-of-heterobimetallic-metal-organic-frameworks
#19
Patrick F Muldoon, Chong Liu, Carson C Miller, Samuel Benjamin Koby, Michael O'Keeffe, Tian-Yi Luo, Nathaniel L Rosi, Sunil Saxena, Austin Gamble Jarvi
The use of diverse building blocks, such as multiple different heterometallic clusters, in metal-organic framework (MOF) syntheses greatly increases the complexity of the resulting materials and leads to emergent synergistic properties. However, this area has not been fully explored due to the inherent difficulty in applying reticular chemistry to syntheses involving more than two molecular building blocks. We are therefore motivated to develop a strategy for achieving systematic and differential control over the coordination of multiple metals in MOFs...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718741/high-throughput-behavioral-assay-to-investigate-seizure-sensitivity-in-zebrafish-implicates-zfhx3-in-epilepsy
#20
Tyson D Fuller, Trudi A Westfall, Tirthasree Das, Deborah V Dawson, Diane C Slusarski
Epilepsy, which affects ∼1% of the population, is caused by abnormal synchronous neural activity in the central nervous system (CNS). While there is a significant genetic contribution to epilepsy, the underlying causes for the majority of genetic cases remain unknown. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Project (UDP) utilized exome sequencing to identify genetic variants in patients affected by various conditions with undefined etiology, including epilepsy. Confirming the functional relevance of the candidate genes identified by exome sequencing in a timely manner is crucial to translating exome data into clinically useful information...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
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