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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549933/orexin-exerts-excitatory-effects-on-reticulospinal-neurons-in-the-rat-gigantocellular-reticular-nucleus-through-the-activation-of-postsynaptic-orexin-1-and-orexin-2-receptors
#1
Nian Yang, Guan-Zhong Wang, Si-Yi Wen, Qi-Cheng Qiao, Yu-Hui Liu, Jun Zhang
Previous studies have revealed that orexin may actively participate in central motor control. The gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) is a key element of the brainstem motor inhibitory system. The descending orexinergic projections also reach Gi region, and microinjection of orexin into Gi causes robust muscle tone inhibition. However, the modulation effects of orexin on Gi neurons remain unclear. In the present study, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we initially observed that orexin elicited an inward current in Gi neurons at a holding potential of -70mV in a concentration-dependent manner...
May 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549561/lateral-thalamic-control-of-nociceptive-response-after-whisker-pad-injection-of-varicella-zoster-virus
#2
Phillip Kramer, Crystal Stinson, Mikhail Umorin, Mohong Deng, Mahesh Rao, Larry Bellinger, Michael B Yee, Paul R Kinchington
Pain is a common complication of herpes zoster (HZ) infection which results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). A third of HZ patients' progress to a chronic pain state known as post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), and about a quarter of these patients' have orofacial pain. The mechanisms controlling the pain responses are not understood. Studies suggest central pathways involving the thalamus could control pain related to HZ, and studies in our lab suggest vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the lateral thalamus influences orofacial pain...
May 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541519/reduced-sleep-during-social-isolation-leads-to-cellular-stress-and-induction-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-upr
#3
Marishka K Brown, Ewa Strus, Nirinjini Naidoo
Study Objectives: Social isolation has a multitude of negative consequences on human health including the ability to endure challenges to the immune system, sleep amount and efficiency, and general morbidity and mortality. These adverse health outcomes are conserved in other social species. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to increased aggression, impaired memory and reduced amounts of daytime sleep. There is a correlation between molecules affected by social isolation and those implicated in sleep in Drosophila...
May 25, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540793/inverse-method-for-quantitative-characterisation-of-breast-tumours-from-surface-temperature-data
#4
R Hatwar, C Herman
PURPOSE: We introduce a computational method to simultaneously estimate size, location and blood perfusion of the cancerous breast lesion from the surface temperature data. METHODS: A 2D computational phantom of axisymmetric tumorous breast with six tissue layers, epidermis, papillary dermis, reticular dermis, fat, gland, muscle layer and spherical tumour was used to generate surface temperature distribution and thereby estimate tumour characteristics iteratively using an inverse algorithm based on Levenberg-Marquardt method...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540410/-prurigo-pigmentosa-after-fat-reduced-diet-treated-with-doxycycline
#5
M Ebnöther, M Streit, J Grabbe
Prurigo pigmentosa is a rare inflammatory skin disease of unknown origin, mostly described in the ethnic Japanese population. Etiology and pathogenesis are not completely known. Tetracyclines or dapsone are the therapy of choice. A 17-year-old Swiss patient with Turkish parents presented with pruritic rash on the neck and trunk, which started after a diet. Under therapy with doxycycline over 5 weeks, complete healing with slight reticular hyperpigmentation was observed.
May 24, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538873/increased-salivary-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-in-non-reticular-oral-lichen-planus
#6
Arash Mansourian, Najmeh Shanbehzadeh, Seyed Javad Kia, Mahdieh-Sadat Moosavi
Background: Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. Objective: This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536755/taurine-protects-cardiac-contractility-in-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus-by-enhancing-sarcoplasmic-reticular-ca-2-cycling
#7
Elenor F Henry, Tyson J MacCormack
Intracellular taurine is abundant in many animals and it influences an array of physiological processes, including osmoregulation, metabolism, and cardiac contractility. Taurine is an important osmolyte in teleost hearts, but its role in stress tolerance, cardiac metabolism, and contractility has not been assessed. The goal of this study was to determine if ventricular taurine concentration changes in response to environmental stress and to characterize its influence on contractility. Cardiac taurine concentrations varied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) but were generally maintained following acute environmental challenges...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533977/serotonergic-activation-during-courtship-and-aggression-in-the-brown-anole-anolis-sagrei
#8
Jacob T Hartline, Alexandra N Smith, David Kabelik
The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in social behavior regulation is not fully understood. While 5-HT release in nuclei of the social behavior network has generally been associated with inhibition of aggressive behavior across multiple classes of vertebrates, less is known about its effects on sexual, especially non-copulatory courtship display behaviors. Furthermore, most research has examined effects at 5-HT release sites, while studies examining the behavioral relevance of source cell populations have generated contradictory findings...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529274/pleomorphic-adenoma-of-the-labial-gland-characterized-by-reticular-pattern-of-myoepithelial-cells-in-a-dog
#9
Mizuki Kuramochi, Takeshi Izawa, Shin Nishimura, Terumasa Shimada, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Jyoji Yamate
An 11-year-old female golden retriever dog had a mass at the right corner of the upper lip, which gradually increased in size and protruded into the oral cavity. The mass was removed surgically. The cut surface of the mass was smooth, whitish and solid, and covered by the oral mucosal membrane. Histopathologically, the mass consisted mainly of reticular pattern of short spindle cells that stained positively for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, α-smooth muscle actin and p63, suggestive of a myoepithelial cell phenotype...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527391/melanin-concentrating-hormone-and-sleep
#10
REVIEW
Jozelia Gomes Pacheco Ferreira, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Antoine Adamantidis
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an essential neuromodulator involved with homeostatic regulation and motivated behaviors. The majority of MCH neurons are localized within the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic and incerto-hypothalamic areas but others regions, as the olfactory turbecle, the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the paramediam pontine reticular formation and the medial preoptic area, can also express the peptide depending on the gender and metabolic state of the animal. If the MCH on these novel sites of expression are also related with the control of wake-sleep cycle will be discuss in this review...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524059/differential-effect-of-extracellular-matrix-derived-from-papillary-and-reticular-fibroblasts-on-epidermal-development-in-vitro
#11
David Janson, Marion Rietveld, Christian Mahé, Gaëlle Saintigny, Abdoelwaheb El Ghalbzouri
Papillary and reticular fibroblasts have different effects on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects are caused by differential secretion of soluble factors or by differential generation of extracellular matrix from papillary and reticular fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To study the effect of soluble factors, keratinocyte monolayer cultures were grown in papillary or reticular fibroblast-conditioned medium. To study the effect of extracellular matrix, keratinocytes were grown on papillary or reticular-derived matrix...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516266/constitutive-calcium-entry-and-cancer-updated-views-and-insights
#12
REVIEW
Olivier Mignen, Bruno Constantin, Marie Potier-Cartereau, Aubin Penna, Mathieu Gautier, Maxime Guéguinou, Yves Renaudineau, Kenji F Shoji, Romain Félix, Elsa Bayet, Paul Buscaglia, Marjolaine Debant, Aurélie Chantôme, Christophe Vandier
Tight control of basal cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration is essential for cell survival and to fine-tune Ca(2+)-dependent cell functions. A way to control this basal cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration is to regulate membrane Ca(2+) channels including store-operated Ca(2+) channels and secondary messenger-operated channels linked to G-protein-coupled or tyrosine kinase receptor activation. Orai, with or without its reticular STIM partner and Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) proteins, were considered to be the main Ca(2+) channels involved...
May 17, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514014/repeatability-of-vessel-density-measurement-in-human-skin-by-oct-based-microangiography
#13
S J Men, C-L Chen, W Wei, T-Y Lai, S Z Song, R K Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the repeatability of vessel density measurement at human arm skin in healthy subjects with OCT-based microangiography (OMAG). METHODS: Four locations including volar wrist, volar forearm, shoulder, and volar upper arm were scanned using an optimized swept source OCT system, working at center wavelength of 1300 nm and A-line rate of 100 kHz. Three scans were acquired at each location at the same visit. Vascular images of papillary dermis, reticular dermis, and the whole dermis layer were generated with OMAG processing and automatic segmentation algorithms...
May 17, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513064/autofluorescence-of-collagen-fibres-in-scar
#14
H L Zhao, C P Zhang, H Zhu, Y F Jiang, X B Fu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Autofluorescence has become an important factor associated with diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. METHODS: Full thickness skin grafts and scar biopsies were obtained from five volunteers. The normal skin or scar tissue paraffin-wax sections were stained with HE and the autofluorescence of collagen fibres was viewed under fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: In normal skin, the autofluorescence was showed in dermis, specifically in collagen fibres...
May 17, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512666/diagnostic-efficacy-of-digital-dermoscopy-and-clinical-findings-in-thin-melanoma-of-the-lower-limbs
#15
Emi Dika, Marco Adriano Chessa, Simone Ribero, Pier A Fanti, Carlotta Gurioli, Martina Lambertini, Carlotta Baraldi, Annalisa Patrizi
The introduction of dermoscopy has improved the accuracy of diagnosis of melanoma. However, early stage melanoma can be difficult to diagnose. Eighty-nine cases of thin melanoma with a Breslow thickness ≤1 mm located on the lower limb and diagnosed between 2008 and 2016 were assessed using 4 dermoscopic algorithms: (i) modified pattern analysis; (ii) ABCD rule of dermoscopy; (iii) 7-point checklist; and (iv) Menzies' method. Two groups of early stage melanomas of the legs were identified: "difficult to diagnose melanomas" (DDM) and "non-difficult to diagnose melanomas" (NDDM)...
May 17, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511697/immunohistology-and-remodeling-in-fatal-pediatric-and-adolescent-asthma
#16
Kristiina Malmström, Jouko Lohi, Antti Sajantila, Frode L Jahnsen, Merja Kajosaari, Seppo Sarna, Mika J Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: Thickening of reticular basement membrane, increased airway smooth muscle mass and eosinophilic inflammation are found in adult fatal asthma. At the present study the histopathology of fatal paediatric and adolescent asthma is evaluated. METHODS: Post-mortem lung autopsies from 12 fatal asthma cases and 8 non-asthmatic control subjects were examined. Thickness of reticular basement membrane (RBM) and percentage of airway smooth muscle (ASM%) mass area were measured and inflammatory cells were counted...
May 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506065/opening-of-an-accessible-microporosity-in-an-otherwise-nonporous-metal-organic-framework-by-polymeric-guests
#17
Benjamin Le Ouay, Susumu Kitagawa, Takashi Uemura
The development of highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is greatly sought after, due to their wide range of applications. As an alternative to the development of new structures, we propose to obtain new stable configurations for flexible MOFs by insertion of polymeric guests. The guests prevent the otherwise spontaneous closing of the host frameworks and result in stable opened forms. Introduced at a fraction of the maximal capacity, polymer chains cause an opening of the occupied nanochannels, and because of the MOF reticular stiffness, this opening is propagated to the neighboring nanochannels that become accessible for adsorption...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502959/squamous-cell-carcinomas-on-bilateral-feet-arising-in-long-standing-eczematous-lesions
#18
Aya Yamase, Yoko Funasaka, Takashi Ueno, Michiko Ito, Yohei Otsuka, Seiji Kawana, Hidehisa Saeki
We present a woman with squamous cell carcinomas on both feet in long-standing eczematous lesions. Histopathological examination of biopsies from the both feet revealed highly atypical cells invading the reticular layer of the dermis in the hyperkeratotic lesion and they were associated with surrounding dermatitis with spongiosis. Although the cause and etiology of eczema in our case is unclear, we speculate that the exceptionally long-lasting dermatitis might have induced double SCCs on bilateral feet with an unusual constitution...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495333/sensory-experience-dependent-formation-of-perineuronal-nets-and-expression-of-cat-315-immunoreactive-components-in-the-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#19
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are structures of extracellular matrix molecules surrounding the cell bodies and proximal dendrites of certain neurons. While PNNs are present throughout the mouse cerebral cortex, recent studies have shown that the components differ among cortical sub-regions and layers, suggesting region-specific functions. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV neurons) may be important regulators of cortical plasticity during the early "critical period" that is sensitive to sensory input. Here we examined the distribution and developmental functions of PNN components associated with PV neurons in the somatosensory cortex during the critical period...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491031/control-of-absence-seizures-by-the-thalamic-feed-forward-inhibition
#20
Mingming Chen, Daqing Guo, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao
As a subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies, absence epilepsy is believed to be caused by pathological interactions within the corticothalamic (CT) system. Using a biophysical mean-field model of the CT system, we demonstrate here that the feed-forward inhibition (FFI) in thalamus, i.e., the pathway from the cerebral cortex (Ctx) to the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and then to the specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus that are also directly driven by the Ctx, may participate in controlling absence seizures...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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