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Infection and transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550198/host-derived-cd70-suppresses-murine-graft-versus-host-disease-by-limiting-donor-t-cell-expansion-and-effector-function
#1
Nicholas D Leigh, Rachel E O'Neill, Wei Du, Chuan Chen, Jingxin Qiu, Jonathan D Ashwell, Philip L McCarthy, George L Chen, Xuefang Cao
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative treatment for hematologic and immunologic diseases. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may develop when donor-derived T cells recognize and damage genetically distinct normal host tissues. In addition to TCR signaling, costimulatory pathways are involved in T cell activation. CD27 is a TNFR family member expressed on T cells, and its ligand, CD70, is expressed on APCs. The CD27/CD70 costimulatory pathway was shown to be critical for T cell function and survival in viral infection models...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549105/outbreak-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection-among-heart-transplant-recipients-molecular-investigation-and-management-of-an-inter-human-transmission
#2
William Vindrios, Nicolas Argy, Solène Le Gal, François-Xavier Lescure, Laurent Massias, Minh Patrick Le, Michel Wolff, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Gilles Nevez, Sandrine Houze, Richard Dorent, Jean-Christophe Lucet
Background: An outbreak of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) occurred among heart transplant recipients (HTR) at the outpatient clinic of a university hospital, from March to September 2015. Clinical, therapeutic, biological and molecular data were analyzed to determine its origin and control the outbreak. Methods: Clinical and biological data regarding all HTR followed in the outpatient clinic were collected. PCP diagnosis was based on microscopy and real-time PCR...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548995/invasive-fungal-infections-following-liver-transplantation
#3
Rachel Hogen, Kiran Dhanireddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review outlines the microbiology, presentation, prophylactic strategies, resistance patterns, and consequences of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an increase in the proportion of non-albicans Candida causing IFIs. The biomarkers galactomannan and β-D-glucan should not be routinely used in the diagnosis of IFIs in OLT recipients due to their limited accuracy...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547892/hospital-acquired-rotavirus-and-norovirus-acute-gastroenteritis-in-a-pediatric-unit-in-2014-2015
#4
D Valentini, G Ianiro, I Di Bartolo, C Di Camillo, E Boccuzzi, A C Vittucci, F M Ruggeri, M Monini
The occurrence of hospital-acquired acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major concern for public health. RotavirusA (RVA) and norovirus (NoV) are common causes of viral AGE in the pediatric population, and their role in nosocomial infections has been proven, remaining poorly investigated. To investigate RVA and NoV in hospital-acquired AGE, 55 stool samples from children with nosocomial AGE were collected between May 2014 and May 2015. To evaluate virus spreading routes, 51 environmental swabs were collected from staff and patients' rooms...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547678/immunosuppression-drug-therapy-in-lung-transplantation-for-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Pamela Burcham, Lisa Sarzynski, Sabrina Khalfoun, Kimberly J Novak, Julie C Miller, Dmitry Tumin, Don Hayes
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common indication for lung transplantation (LTx) in children and adults with severe and irreversible lung disease. In the setting of LTx in the CF population, immunosuppressive medications are used to prevent allograft rejection despite the majority of these patients being chronically infected with numerous, and often antibiotic-resistant, pathogens. There is limited evidence for the optimal post-LTx immunosuppression regimen in patients with CF, particularly in children. This article provides a review of immunosuppression regimens in the pediatric and adult CF post-LTx population, investigating drug dosing and monitoring, and medication combinations...
May 25, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547176/metabolic-volume-performs-better-than-suvmax-in-the-detection-of-left-ventricular-assist-device-driveline-infection
#6
Nemanja Avramovic, Angelo Maria Dell'Aquila, Matthias Weckesser, Danka Milankovic, Alexis Vrachimis, Jürgen R Sindermann, Christian Wenning
PURPOSE: A continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a new and highly promising therapy in supporting end-stage heart failure patients, either bridging them to heart transplantation or as a destination therapy. Infection is one of the major complications associated with LVAD implants. (18)F-FDG PET/CT has already been shown to be useful in the detection of LVAD infection. The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different PET analysis techniques (visual grading versus SUVmax and metabolic volume)...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546791/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-from-clostridium-difficile-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved from a case report in the medical literature to the basis of major innovations in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and, potentially, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the clinical setting, FMT was noted to significantly lower the risk of recurrent CDI, likely by increasing microbial diversity and altering the metabolic environment in the intestinal tract of recipients. In parallel, advances in the ability to quantify and characterize microbial communities in fecal samples led to the association of IBD with a state of intestinal dysbiosis...
April 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546378/pediatric-lung-transplantation
#8
Stuart C Sweet
Pediatric lung transplant is a viable option for treatment of end-stage lung disease in children, with > 100 pediatric lung transplants reported to the Registry of the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation each year. Long-term success is limited by availability of donor organs, debilitation as a result of chronic disease, impaired mucus clearance resulting from both surgical and pharmacologic interventions, increased risk for infection resulting from immunosuppression, and most importantly late complications, such as chronic lung allograft dysfunction...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546377/respiratory-care-considerations-in-the-childhood-cancer-patient
#9
Lama Elbahlawan, K Jason Rains, Dennis C Stokes
This article reviews the common pulmonary complications seen in the pediatric oncology population and our approach to diagnosis, management, and therapy considerations in this specialized population, including patients receiving chemotherapy, radiation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although infections cause the most significant complications in this population, non-infectious complications, including acute lung injury from chemotherapy or radiation, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, bronchiolitis obliterans, and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, also occur commonly...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546303/intraocular-minocycline-for-the-treatment-of-ocular-pythiosis
#10
Fátima Ros Castellar, Carmen Sobrino Jiménez, Almudena Del Hierro Zarzuelo, Alicia Herrero Ambrosio, Ana Boto de Los Bueis
PURPOSE: A case of ocular pythiosis successfully treated with surgery and intraocular and oral minocycline is reported. SUMMARY: A 30-year-old man who wore corrective contact lenses traveled to Brazil and Colombia where he swam in salt and fresh waters while wearing contact lenses. He sought treatment at an emergency department after 2 weeks of suffering with a painful corneal ulcer, redness, and loss of vision in his right eye that had been treated at other centers with ophthalmic moxifloxacin for 10 days and with fortified topical antibiotics (amikacin and vancomycin) for 2 days...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545984/efficacy-and-safety-of-de-novo-and-early-use-of-extended-release-tacrolimus-in-heart-transplantation
#11
Francisco González-Vílchez, José Luis Lambert, Diego Rangel, Luis Almenar, José Luis de la Fuente, Jesús Palomo, Beatriz Díaz Molina, Ernesto Lage, Ignacio Sánchez Lázaro, José A Vázquez de Prada
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The extended-release formulation of tacrolimus (ERT) allows once-daily dosage, thus simplifying the immunosuppressive regimen. This study aimed to describe the safety and efficacy of the de novo and early use of ERT in heart transplantation. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, multicenter study comparing the safety and efficacy of the de novo use of ERT (ERT group [n=94]), standard-release tacrolimus (SRT group [n=42]) and early conversion (EC) from SRT to ERT (EC group [n=44])...
May 22, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545581/increased-serum-level-of-soluble-interleukin-2-receptor-is-associated-with-a-worse-response-of-metastatic-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-to-interferon-alpha-and-sequential-vegf-targeting-therapy
#12
Akinori Nukui, Akinori Masuda, Hideyuki Abe, Kyoko Arai, Ken-Ichiro Yoshida, Takao Kamai
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a tumor with immunogenic properties. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) has a role in T cell activation and may be important for immune regulation in various conditions, including infections, transplantation rejection, autoimmune inflammatory states, and cancer. We investigated the prognostic value of the serum sIL-2R level in patients with metastatic RCC receiving IFN-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeting therapy...
May 25, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545516/improving-the-regenerative-potential-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-by-overexpressing-prostacyclin-synthetase-and-its-application-in-spinal-cord-repair
#13
May-Jywan Tsai, Chi-Ting Huang, Yong-San Huang, Ching-Feng Weng, Song-Kun Shyue, Ming-Chao Huang, Dann-Ying Liou, Yan-Ru Lin, Chu-Hsun Cheng, Huai-Sheng Kuo, Yilo Lin, Meng-Jen Lee, Wen-Hung Huang, Wen-Cheng Huang, Henrich Cheng
BACKGROUND: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), specialized glia that ensheathe bundles of olfactory nerves, have been reported as a favorable substrate for axonal regeneration. Grafting OEC to injured spinal cord appears to facilitate axonal regeneration although the functional recovery is limited. In an attempt to improve the growth-promoting properties of OEC, we transduced prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) to OEC via adenoviral (Ad) gene transfer and examined the effect of OEC with enhanced prostacyclin synthesis in co-culture and in vivo...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544587/drop-out-rate-from-the-liver-transplant-waiting-list-due-to-hcc-progression-in-hcv-infected-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#14
Alberto Zanetto, Sarah Shalaby, Alessandro Vitale, Claudia Mescoli, Alberto Ferrarese, Martina Gambato, Enrica Franceschet, Giacomo Germani, Marco Senzolo, Antonietta Romano, Paolo Angeli, Massimo Rugge, Fabio Farinati, Daniel M Forton, Umberto Cillo, Patrizia Burra, Francesco Paolo Russo
BACKGROUND & AIM: concerns about an increased hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence rate following directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in cirrhotic patients with a prior complete oncological response have been raised. Data regarding the impact of HCV-treatment with DAAs on waiting list drop-out rates in patients with active HCC and HCV-related cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation (LT) are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HCV-HCC patients listed for LT between January 2015 and May 2016 at Padua Liver Transplant Centre were considered eligible for the study...
May 22, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544152/a-risk-adapted-approach-to-treating-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-parainfluenza-virus-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-with-oral-ribavirin-therapy-a-pilot-study
#15
José Luis Piñana, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Marisa Calabuig, Isabel Ballester, Manuela Marín, Silvia Madrid, Anabel Teruel, María-José Terol, David Navarro, Carlos Solano
Here we report the applicability of a protocol based on clinical conditions and risk factors (RFs) for managing 35 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients who developed a total of 52 episodes of respiratory viral infections (RVIs) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; n=19), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV; n=29), or both (n=4) over a 2-year study period. Risk categories were classified as high risk (cat-1) when the immunodeficiency scoring index) was ≥ 3 and/or ≥ 3 RFs and/or ≥ 1 co-infective virus(es) were present; the remaining cases were classified as low risk (cat-0)...
May 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544102/a-multicenter-retrospective-case-cohort-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-cord-blood-transplant-recipients
#16
Carolyn D Alonso, David A Braun, Ishan Patel, Mona Akbari, Daniel Jungmyung Oh, Tomi Jun, Malgorzata McMasters, Sarah P Hammond, Brett Glotzbecker, Corey Cutler, Daniel Leffler, Karen K Ballen, Ciarán P Kelly
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of health-care associated infectious diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and risk factors for CDI in the 100 days following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) at three Boston hospitals. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, retrospective, case-cohort study of 226 UCBT recipients at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Dana Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center from 2003-2012...
May 24, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544101/belatacept-combined-with-transient-calcineurin-inhibitor-therapy-prevents-rejection-and-promotes-improved-long-term-renal-allograft-function
#17
A B Adams, J Goldstein, C Garrett, R Zhang, R E Patzer, K A Newell, N A Turgeon, A S Chami, A Guasch, A D Kirk, S O Pastan, T C Pearson, C P Larsen
Belatacept, a T cell costimulation-blocker demonstrated superior renal function, lower cardiovascular risk, and improved graft/patient survival in renal transplant recipients. Despite the potential benefits, adoption of belatacept has been limited in part due to concerns regarding higher rates and grades of acute rejection in clinical trials. Since July 2011 we have utilized belatacept-based immunosuppression regimens in clinical practice. In this retrospective analysis of 745 patients undergoing renal transplantation at our center, we compared patients treated with belatacept (n=535) to a historical cohort receiving a tacrolimus-based protocol (n=205)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543549/review-article-recent-insights-into-clinical-decision-making-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#18
REVIEW
P D J Dunne, E H Forrest
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with a high mortality. Management of patients with this condition has been a matter of controversy for many years; however, recent clinical studies have sought to improve the clinical approach to these patients. AIM: To use these recent studies in order to guide clinical management. METHODS: A MeSH search of Medline was performed to specifically identify recent studies which influenced clinical diagnosis, assessment and management of alcoholic hepatitis...
May 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543448/successful-treatment-of-pure-red-cell-aplasia-because-of-abo-major-mismatched-stem-cell-transplant
#19
Katie Sackett, Claudia S Cohn, Kayla Fahey-Ahrndt, Angela R Smith, Andrew D Johnson
BACKGROUND: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a well-documented potential side effect of ABO major mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants. This side effect may be self-limiting, but is sometimes treated using modalities such as steroids, antithymocyte globulin, donor lymphocyte infusions, rituximab, or plasma exchanges. Another well-documented cause of pure red cell aplasia is a chronic parvovirus B19 infection, which may be seen in immunocompromised hosts. The treatment of this cause of PRCA includes removal of immunosuppression, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), or rituximab; however, this condition may also be self-limiting...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543378/renal-transplantation-in-patients-with-pre-existing-hypogammaglobulinemia
#20
K P Lund, H Bruunsgaard, H V Marquart, S S Sørensen
Hypogammaglobulinemia is well-characterized as a common phenomenon after kidney transplantation. However, no reports of pre-existing hypogammaglobulinemia from kidney transplantation seem to be available. We have reviewed three patients who developed hypogammaglobulinemia prior to kidney transplantation, and all three were treated successfully with immunoglobulin-replacement therapy before and after kidney transplantation. The kidney grafts were functioning at follow-up 1.5 to 8 years (mean: 3.6 years) after transplantation, and there were no diagnosed episodes of clinical rejections and no severe infection complications post-transplantation...
May 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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