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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944602/hepatitis-e-virus-and-related-viruses-in-wild-domestic-and-zoo-animals-a-review
#1
REVIEW
C Spahr, T Knauf-Witzens, T Vahlenkamp, R G Ulrich, R Johne
Hepatitis E is a human disease mainly characterized by acute liver illness, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Large hepatitis E outbreaks have been described in developing countries; however, the disease is also increasingly recognized in industrialized countries. Mortality rates up to 25% have been described for pregnant women during outbreaks in developing countries. In addition, chronic disease courses could be observed in immunocompromised transplant patients. Whereas the HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly confined to humans, genotypes 3 and 4 are also found in animals and can be zoonotically transmitted to humans...
September 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944135/management-of-syndromic-diarrhea-tricho-hepato-enteric-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Alexandre Fabre, Patrice Bourgeois, Marie-Edith Coste, Céline Roman, Vincent Barlogis, Catherine Badens
Syndromic diarrhea/tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare disease linked to the loss of function of either TTC37 or SKIV2L, two components of the SKI complex. It is characterized by a combination of 9 signs (intractable diarrhea, hair abnormalities, facial dysmorphism, immune abnormalities, IUGR/SGA, liver abnormalities, skin abnormalities, congenital heart defect and platelet abnormalities). We present a comprehensive review of the management of SD/THE and tested therapeutic regimens. A review of the literature was conducted in May 2017: 29 articles and 2 abstracts were included describing a total of 80 patients, of which 40 presented with mutations of TTC37, 14 of SKIV2L...
August 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943566/deep-ulcers-in-the-ileum-associated-with-mycophenolate-mofetil
#3
Akira Sonoda, Kurato Wada, Kazuhiro Mizukami, Kensuke Fukuda, Mitsutaka Shuto, Kazuhisa Okamoto, Ryo Ogawa, Tadayoshi Okimoto, Kazunari Murakami
A 54-year-old man was treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) after undergoing living donor renal transplantation. Two years later, he experienced repeated episodes of diarrhea, and his C-reactive protein (CRP) level was found to be 12.63 mg/dL. Ileocolonoscopy showed multiple deep, punched-out ulcers that were similar to Behçet's disease (BD) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the ileum. CMV infection was suspected. However, anti-cytomegalovirus agents were ineffective. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with gastrointestinal toxicity of MMF and MMF was switched to mizoribine...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943384/infection-and-malignancy-outweigh-cardiovascular-mortality-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-favorit-trial
#4
Larry A Weinrauch, John A D'Elia, Matthew R Weir, Suphamai Bunnapradist, Peter V Finn, Jiankang Liu, Brian Claggett, Anthony P Monaco
INTRODUCTION: Now that long term survival after successful renal transplantation is no longer limited by excessive cardiovascular risk, the primary care physician should consider that infection and malignancy are leading non-cardiovascular causes of death even in the recipient with diabetes. METHODS: We accessed the NIH sponsored FAVORIT study population (4010 renal transplant recipients with elevated homocysteine levels) studied to determine whether folate and B12 supplementation would reduce cardiovascular endpoints...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943270/investigation-of-nosocomial-pneumocystis-infections-usefulness-of-longitudinal-screening-of-epidemic-and-post-epidemic-pneumocystis-genotypes
#5
Gilles Nevez, Solène Le Gal, Natacha Noel, Alain Wynckel, Antoine Huguenin, Yohann Le Govic, Laurence Pougnet, Michèle Virmaux, Dominique Toubas, Odile Bajolet
BACKGROUND: Twenty-five patients, of whom 22 were renal transplant recipients, developed Pneumocystis jirovecii (P.jirovecii) infections at the nephrology department of Reims University Hospital (France) from September 2008 through October 2009, whereas only four sporadic cases had been diagnosed in this department over the 14 previous years. AIM: This outbreak was investigated by analyzing patient encounters and P.jirovecii types. METHODS: A transmission map was drawn up...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942625/current-status-of-and-strategies-for-hepatitis-c-control-in-south-korea
#6
REVIEW
Beom Kyung Kim, Eun Sun Jang, Jeong Han Kim, Soo Young Park, Song Vogue Ahn, Hyung Joon Kim, Do Young Kim
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV infection causes acute hepatitis, and the majority of those infected progress to chronic hepatitis, and some of them develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Transmission of HCV is parenteral, and the major transmission routes include drug abuse, insecure injections or medical procedures, contaminated syringes or needles, sexual contact with an HCV-infected person, vertical infection of newborns by infected mothers, the transfusion of blood or blood products contaminated with viruses, and organ transplants...
September 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942047/the-course-of-infection-caused-by-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-genotype-iii-in-immunocompetent-and-immunodeficient-mice
#7
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Lenka Hlásková, Martin Kváč
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most common microsporidia which infects a wide range of vertebrates, including human. So far, four genotypes of this parasite have been identified based on the rRNA internal transcribed spacer variations. The course of infection caused by E. cuniculi III had very massive onset in immunocompetent host characterized by the presence of this parasite in all organs and tissues within one week after peroral infection. Encephalitozoonosis caused by E. cuniculi III had very progressive spreading into all organs within first week post inoculation in immunocompromised SCID mice and led to the death of the host...
September 20, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941631/chikungunya-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-series-of-cases
#8
Lígia Camera Pierrotti, Max Igor Banks Lopes, Ana Patrícia Nascimento, Hélio Caiaffa-Filho, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos, José Otto Reusing Junior, Odeli Nicole Encinas Sejas, Elias David-Neto, Luiz Sergio Azevedo
Chikungunya (CHIK) is a mosquito-borne virus (CHIKV) infection that recently appeared in the Americas and thousands of confirmed cases have been reported in Brazil since the first autochthonous cases were reported in September 2014. We reported four cases of CHIK in kidney transplant recipients. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive CHIKV real-time polymerase chain reaction in two cases and positive CHIKV-IgM serology in two patients. The time between transplantation and CHIKV infection ranged from 2 to 11 years...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941323/a-critical-role-for-donor-derived-il-22-in-cutaneous-chronic-gvhd
#9
Kate H Gartlan, Hemamalini Bommiasamy, Katelyn Paz, Andrew N Wilkinson, Mary Owen, Dawn K Reichenbach, Tatjana Banovic, Kimberly Wehner, Faith Buchanan, Antiopi Varelias, Rachel D Kuns, Karshing Chang, Yuri Fedoriw, Thomas Shea, James Coghill, Michael Zaiken, Maximilian W Plank, Paul S Foster, Andrew D Clouston, Bruce R Blazar, Jonathan S Serody, Geoffrey R Hill
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT). Prevention and treatment of GVHD remains inadequate and commonly leads to end-organ dysfunction and opportunistic infection. The role of IL-17 and IL-22 in GVHD remains uncertain, due to an apparent lack of lineage fidelity and variable and contextually determined protective and pathogenic effects. We demonstrate that donor T-cell-derived IL-22 significantly exacerbates cutaneous chronic GVHD, and that IL-22 is produced by highly inflammatory donor CD4(+) T-cells post-transplant...
September 23, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941319/donor-derived-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-a-liver-kidney-transplant-recipient
#10
S C Dollard, D Douglas, S V Basavaraju, D S Schmid, M Kuehnert, B Aqel
Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is an oncogenic virus that can cause Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KS can develop following organ transplantation through reactivation of the recipient's latent HHV-8 infection, or less commonly through donor-derived infection which has higher risk for severe illness and mortality. We describe a case of probable donor-derived KS in the recipient of a liver-kidney transplant. The donor had multiple risk factors for HHV-8 infection...
September 23, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941318/voriconazole-in-lung-transplant-recipients-how-worried-should-we-be
#11
EDITORIAL
Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, Chad A Witt
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common invasive mold infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, occurring in 1-15% of recipients, with a 12-week mortality rate of 20-60%.(1) Lung transplant (LTx) recipients are at the highest risk for IA among all SOT recipients, ranging from ulcerative tracheobronchitis, anastomotic site involvement and airway wall necrosis, to pneumonia, mediastinitis, empyema and disseminated fungemia. Additionally, Aspergillus colonization is an independent risk factor for chronic lung allograft dysfunction...
September 23, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940695/herpes-zoster-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-protective-effect-of-anti-cmv-prophylaxis-and-nk-cells-count-a-single-center-cohort-study
#12
Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Julia Origüen, David Lora, Francisco López-Medrano, Esther González, Natalia Polanco, Rafael San Juan, Tamara Ruiz-Merlo, Patricia Parra, Amado Andrés, José María Aguado
Despite its impact on quality of life and potential for complications, specific risk and protective factors for herpes zoster (HZ) after kidney transplantation (KT) remain to be clarified. We included 444 patients undergoing KT between November 2008 and March 2013. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were measured at baseline and months 1 and 6. The risk factors for early (first post-transplant year) and late HZ (years 1 to 5) were separately assessed. We observed 35 episodes of post-transplant HZ after a median follow-up of 48...
September 22, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939450/prediction-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-the-bedside-the-geih-cdi-score
#13
Javier Cobo, Esperanza Merino, Cristina Martínez, Alberto Cózar-Llistó, Evelyn Shaw, Teresa Marrodán, Esther Calbo, Elena Bereciartúa, Luis A Sánchez-Muñoz, Miguel Salavert, M Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Dácil García-Rosado, J María Bravo-Ferrer, Juan Gálvez-Acebal, César Henríquez-Camacho, Jordi Cuquet, Berta Pino-Calm, Luis Torres, Antonio Sánchez-Porto, Borja M Fernández-Félix
Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has major consequences for both patients and the health system. The ability to predict which patients are at an increased risk of recurrent CDI makes it possible to select candidates for therapy with new drugs and therapies (including fecal microbiota transplantation) that have proven to reduce the incidence of recurrence of CDI. Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction tool, the GEIH-CDI score, to determine the risk of recurrence of CDI. Predictors of recurrence of CDI were investigated using logistic regression in a prospective cohort of 274 patients diagnosed with CDI...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939443/chronic-pancreatitis-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-negatively-affects-graft-survival-after-liver-transplantation
#14
Malte H Wehmeyer, Werner Dammermann, Oliver Seiz, Madeleine E Zinser, Antonio Galante, Ansgar W Lohse, Martina Sterneck, Björn Nashan, Uta Herden, Stefan Lüth
BACKGROUND: Limited data exists concerning the coincidence of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and liver cirrhosis with respect to the patient outcome after liver transplantation (LT). The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for graft loss after liver transplantation and to evaluate the impact of CP on graft survival. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 421 cirrhotic patients who underwent evaluation for primary liver transplantation from January 2007 to January 2014...
September 14, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939161/t-cell-mediated-antitumor-immune-response-eliminates-skin-tumors-induced-by-mouse-papillomavirus-mmupv1
#15
Joongho Joh, Paula M Chilton, Sarah A Wilcher, Maryam Zahin, Jino Park, Mary L Proctor, Shin-Je Ghim, Alfred B Jenson
Previous studies of naturally occurring mouse papillomavirus (PV) MmuPV1-induced tumors in B6.Cg-Foxn1(nu/nu) mice suggest that T cell deficiency is necessary and sufficient for the development of such tumors. To confirm this, MmuPV1-induced tumors were transplanted from T cell-deficient mice into immunocompetent congenic mice. Consequently, the tumors regressed and eventually disappeared. The elimination of MmuPV1-infected skin/tumors in immunocompetent mice was consistent with the induction of antitumor T cell immunity...
September 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938676/risk-factors-for-mortality-from-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-pcp-in-non-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#16
Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang, Hui Qu
The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938311/feasibility-of-monotherapy-by-rituximab-without-additional-desensitization-in-abo-incompatible-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#17
Hidekazu Yamamoto, Koshi Uchida, Seiichi Kawabata, Kaori Isono, Kohei Miura, Shintaro Hayashida, Yuki Oya, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Yukihiro Inomata
BACKGROUND: Rituximab is a cornerstone in the regimens of desensitization for ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (ABO-i LT) that makes this modality an acceptable option for liver transplantation. Plasmapheresis (PP) to reduce anti-ABO antibody titer and local infusion therapy (LI) were practiced as the strategies for desensitization before the application of rituximab and were reported as additional treatments. The aim of this study was to clarify the feasibility of monotherapy by rituximab without any additional desensitization treatments in ABO-i LT...
September 20, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937821/rethinking-conventional-wisdom-are-locally-adapted-parasites-ahead-in-the-coevolutionary-race
#18
Scott L Nuismer
The metaphors of the Red Queen and the arms race have inspired a large amount of research aimed at understanding the process of antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites. One approach that has been heavily used is to estimate the strength of parasite local adaptation using a reciprocal cross infection or transplant study. These studies frequently conclude that the locally adapted species is ahead in the coevolutionary race. Here, I use mathematical models to decompose parasite infectivity into components attributable to local versus global adaptation and to develop a robust index of which species is ahead in the coevolutionary race, which I term coevolutionary advantage...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937081/direct-acting-antiviral-drugs-against-hepatitis-c-virus-in-renal-transplant-recipients-is-it-the-dawn-of-an-interferon-free-era
#19
Dharshan Rangaswamy, Shankar P Nagaraju, Ravindra P Attur
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant problem among hemodialysis population, especially in India where renal transplant often gets delayed in the presence of live-related donors. An acceleration of liver cirrhosis and poor renal allograft outcomes are often witnessed in allograft recipients with high viral load. Use of interferon in the postrenal transplant setting for the treatment of hepatitis C viral infection was limited to a few grave situations, fearing the precipitation of allograft rejection and poor efficacy for sustained virological remission...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937070/renal-transplantation-in-hiv-positive-patients-no-more-a-scare
#20
Eswarappa Mahesh, Manns Manohar John, Gurudev Channabasappa Konana, Rakesh Madhyastha Parampalli, Sujeeth Reddy Bande, Sarita Suryadevara
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has posed as a major global health epidemic for almost three decades. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996 and the application of prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality has decreased markedly. The most aggressive HIV-related renal disease is end-stage renal disease due to HIV-associated nephropathy. Presence of HIV infection used to be viewed as a contraindication to renal transplantation for multiple reasons; concerns for exacerbation of an already immunocompromised state by administration of additional immunosuppressants; the use of a limited supply of donor organs with unknown long-term outcomes...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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