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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327671/tissue-engineered-heart-valves-a-call-for-mechanistic-studies
#1
Kevin Blum, Joseph Drews, Christopher K Breuer
Heart valve disease carries a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality. Outcomes are significantly improved by valve replacement, but currently-available mechanical and biological replacement valves are associated with complications of their own. Mechanical valves have a high rate of thromboembolism and require lifelong anticoagulation. Biological prosthetic valves have a much shorter lifespan, and are prone to tearing and degradation. Both types of valves lack the capacity for growth, making them particularly problematic in pediatric patients...
January 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321036/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-inhalation-during-gestation-alters-the-fetal-transcriptome
#2
P A Stapleton, Q A Hathaway, C E Nichols, A B Abukabda, M V Pinti, D L Shepherd, C R McBride, J Yi, V C Castranova, J M Hollander, T R Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation...
January 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301848/physiologic-pathologic-and-therapeutic-paracrine-modulation-of-cardiac-excitation-contraction-coupling
#3
REVIEW
Joshua Mayourian, Delaine K Ceholski, David M Gonzalez, Timothy J Cashman, Susmita Sahoo, Roger J Hajjar, Kevin D Costa
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is the orchestrated process of initial myocyte electrical excitation, which leads to calcium entry, intracellular trafficking, and subsequent sarcomere shortening and myofibrillar contraction. Neurohumoral β-adrenergic signaling is a well-established mediator of ECC; other signaling mechanisms, such as paracrine signaling, have also demonstrated significant impact on ECC but are less well understood. For example, resident heart endothelial cells are well-known physiological paracrine modulators of cardiac myocyte ECC mainly via NO and endothelin-1...
January 5, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290797/engineered-microenvironments-for-maturation-of-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-myocytes
#4
Rachel R Besser, Matthew Ishahak, Vera Mayo, Daniel Carbonero, Isabella Claure, Ashutosh Agarwal
Through the use of stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes, tissue-engineered human myocardial constructs are poised for modeling normal and diseased physiology of the heart, as well as discovery of novel drugs and therapeutic targets in a human relevant manner. This review highlights the recent bioengineering efforts to recapitulate microenvironmental cues to further the maturation state of newly differentiated cardiac myocytes. These techniques include long-term culture, co-culture, exposure to mechanical stimuli, 3D culture, cell-matrix interactions, and electrical stimulation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282212/musclemotion-a-versatile-open-software-tool-to-quantify-cardiomyocyte-and-cardiac-muscle-contraction-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Luca Sala, Berend J van Meer, Leon T Tertoolen, Jeroen Bakkers, Milena Bellin, Richard P Davis, Chris N Denning, Michel A Dieben, Thomas Eschenhagen, Elisa Giacomelli, Catarina Grandela, Arne Hansen, Eduard Holman, Monique R Jongbloed, Sarah M Kamel, Charlotte D Koopman, Quentin Lachaud, Ingra Mannhardt, Mervyn P Mol, Diogo Mosqueira, Valeria V Orlova, Robert Passier, Marcelo C Ribeiro, Umber Saleem, Godfrey Smith, Francis L L Burton, Christine L Mummery
Rationale: There are several methods to measure cardiomyocyte (CM) and muscle contraction but these require customized hardware, expensive apparatus and advanced informatics or can only be used in single experimental models. Consequently, data and techniques have been difficult to reproduce across models and laboratories, analysis is time consuming and only specialist researchers can quantify data. Objective: Here we describe and validate an automated, open source software tool (MUSCLEMOTION) adaptable for use with standard laboratory- and clinical imaging equipment that enables quantitative analysis of normal cardiac contraction, disease phenotypes and pharmacological responses...
December 27, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276625/epicardial-delivery-of-autologous-atrial-appendage-micrografts-during-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-safety-and-feasibility-study
#6
Annu Nummi, Tuomo Nieminen, Tommi Pätilä, Milla Lampinen, Miia L Lehtinen, Sari Kivistö, Miia Holmström, Erika Wilkman, Kari Teittinen, Mika Laine, Juha Sinisalo, Markku Kupari, Esko Kankuri, Tatu Juvonen, Antti Vento, Raili Suojaranta, Ari Harjula
Background: The atrial appendages are a tissue reservoir for cardiac stem cells. During on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, part of the right atrial appendage can be excised upon insertion of the right atrial cannula of the heart-lung machine. In the operating room, the removed tissue can be easily cut into micrografts for transplantation. This trial aims to assess the safety and feasibility of epicardial transplantation of atrial appendage micrografts in patients undergoing CABG surgery...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273321/nanomedicine-for-the-cardiac-myocyte-where-are-we
#7
REVIEW
Omar Lozano, Alejandro Torres-Quintanilla, Gerardo García-Rivas
Biomedical achievements in the last few decades, leading to successful therapeutic interventions, have considerably improved human life expectancy. Nevertheless, the increasing load and the still suboptimal outcome for patients with cardiac dysfunction underlines the relevance of continuous research to develop novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this context, the field of nanomedicine has attracted a lot of attention due to the potential novel treatment possibilities, such as controlled and sustained release, tissue targeting, and drug protection from degradation...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243046/-stem-cell-based-cardiac-regeneration-after-myocardial-infarction
#8
REVIEW
M Reinsch, F Weinberger
Myocardial infarction leads to an irreversible loss of vital myocardial cells. The transplantation of new cardiomyocytes into the heart was first described over 20 years ago and represents a straightforward approach to remuscularize a damaged heart. Due to the lack of human cells a clinical application seemed ambitious; however, dramatic progress in stem cell biology over the last two decades has paved the way towards a clinical application. This is especially important as the prognosis for patients with terminal heart failure is still poor...
December 14, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229621/stem-cell-therapy-for-congenital-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Evangelos K Oikonomou, Demetrios Moris, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Konstantinos S Mylonas
BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) constitutes the most prevalent and heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies. Although surgery remains the gold standard treatment modality, stem cell therapy has been gaining ground as a complimentary or alternative treatment option in certain types of CHD. The aim of this study was to present the existing published evidence and ongoing research efforts on the implementation of stem cell-based therapeutic strategies in CHD. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, ClinicalTrials...
December 12, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223704/decellularized-heart-ecm-hydrogel-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improved-angiogenesis
#10
Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218360/bioengineered-cardiac-tissue-based-on-human-stem-cells-for-clinical-application
#11
Monica Jara Avaca, Ina Gruh
Engineered cardiac tissue might enable novel therapeutic strategies for the human heart in a number of acquired and congenital diseases. With recent advances in stem cell technologies, namely the availability of pluripotent stem cells, the generation of potentially autologous tissue grafts has become a realistic option. Nevertheless, a number of limitations still have to be addressed before clinical application of engineered cardiac tissue based on human stem cells can be realized. We summarize current progress and pending challenges regarding the optimal cell source, cardiomyogenic lineage specification, purification, safety of genetic cell engineering, and genomic stability...
December 8, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209617/mirroring-the-multiple-potentials-of-micrornas-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#12
REVIEW
Solenne Paiva, Onnik Agbulut
At present, cardiovascular diseases are depicted to be the leading cause of death worldwide according to the World Health Organization. In the future, projections predict that ischemic heart disease will persist in the top main causes of illness. Within this alarming context, some tiny master regulators of gene expression programs, namely, microRNAs (miRNAs) carry three promising potentials. In fact, miRNAs can prove to be useful not only in terms of biomarkers allowing heart injury detection but also in terms of therapeutics to overcome limitations of past strategies and treat the lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201567/the-zebrafish-as-a-model-system-for-analyzing-mammalian-and-native-%C3%AE-crystallin-promoter-function
#13
Mason Posner, Kelly L Murray, Matthew S McDonald, Hayden Eighinger, Brandon Andrew, Amy Drossman, Zachary Haley, Justin Nussbaum, Larry L David, Kirsten J Lampi
Previous studies have used the zebrafish to investigate the biology of lens crystallin proteins and their roles in development and disease. However, little is known about zebrafish α-crystallin promoter function, how it compares to that of mammals, or whether mammalian α-crystallin promoter activity can be assessed using zebrafish embryos. We injected a variety of α-crystallin promoter fragments from each species combined with the coding sequence for green fluorescent protein (GFP) into zebrafish zygotes to determine the resulting spatiotemporal expression patterns in the developing embryo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195576/histologic-evaluation-of-explanted-tissue-engineered-bovine-pericardium-cardiocel
#14
Sudesh Prabhu, Jane E Armes, Douglas Bell, Robert Justo, Prem Venugopal, Tom Karl, Nelson Alphonso
CardioCel is a bovine pericardium that is subjected to a novel anticalcification tissue-engineering process. We present the histopathologic findings of human explants of CardioCel that were used in operations for congenital heart disease in children. Six explants were identified from 140 patients undergoing CardioCel implants from October 2012 to March 2015. CardioCel explants were evaluated histologically using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining. A variable inflammatory response was seen in the surrounding native tissue, but not within the CardioCel graft in any of the explants...
2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191294/evolving-areas-in-heart-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Brittany N Weber, Jon A Kobashigawa, Michael M Givertz
It has been 50 years since Dr. Christiaan Barnard performed the first human-to-human heart transplant in December 1967 in South Africa. Remarkable progress has been made since that time, including changes in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, donor and recipient selection, and post-transplant care. In this paper, we provide a perspective on the changing face of heart transplantation and highlight key evolving areas. Topics that are covered include advances in immunosuppression, screening for acute and chronic rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and ongoing advancements in cardiac replacement therapy, including xenotransplantation, stem-cell research, tissue engineering, and the total artificial heart...
December 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184934/extracellular-vesicles-exosomes-and-shedding-vesicles-in-regenerative-medicine-a-new-paradigm-for-tissue-repair
#16
REVIEW
I M Bjørge, S Y Kim, J F Mano, B Kalionis, W Chrzanowski
Tissue regeneration by stem cells is driven by the paracrine activity of shedding vesicles and exosomes, which deliver specific cargoes to the recipient cells. Proteins, RNA, cytokines and subsequent gene expression, orchestrate the regeneration process by improving the microenvironment to promote cell survival, controlling inflammation, repairing injury and enhancing the healing process. The action of microRNA is widely accepted as an essential driver of the regenerative process through its impact on multiple downstream biological pathways, and its ability to regulate the host immune response...
November 29, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184059/cardiopatch-platform-enables-maturation-and-scale-up-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-engineered-heart-tissues
#17
Ilya Y Shadrin, Brian W Allen, Ying Qian, Christopher P Jackman, Aaron L Carlson, Mark E Juhas, Nenad Bursac
Despite increased use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) for drug development and disease modeling studies, methods to generate large, functional heart tissues for human therapy are lacking. Here we present a "Cardiopatch" platform for 3D culture and maturation of hiPSC-CMs that after 5 weeks of differentiation show robust electromechanical coupling, consistent H-zones, I-bands, and evidence for T-tubules and M-bands. Cardiopatch maturation markers and functional output increase during culture, approaching values of adult myocardium...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171921/developing-a-clinically-relevant-tissue-engineered-heart-valve-a-review-of-current-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Aline L Y Nachlas, Siyi Li, Michael E Davis
Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) have the potential to address the shortcomings of current implants through the combination of cells and bioactive biomaterials that promote growth and proper mechanical function in physiological conditions. The ideal TEHV should be anti-thrombogenic, biocompatible, durable, and resistant to calcification, and should exhibit a physiological hemodynamic profile. In addition, TEHVs may possess the capability to integrate and grow with somatic growth, eliminating the need for multiple surgeries children must undergo...
November 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170757/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-epicardial-progenitors-can-differentiate-to-endocardial-like-endothelial-cells
#19
Xiaoping Bao, Vijesh J Bhute, Tianxiao Han, Tongcheng Qian, Xiaojun Lian, Sean P Palecek
During heart development, epicardial progenitors contribute various cardiac lineages including smooth muscle cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. However, their specific contribution to the human endothelium has not yet been resolved, at least in part due to the inability to expand and maintain human primary or pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived epicardial cells. Here we first generated CDH5-2A-eGFP knock-in hPSC lines and differentiated them into self-renewing WT1+ epicardial cells, which gave rise to endothelial cells upon VEGF treatment in vitro...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161994/synthesis-characterization-and-application-of-biodegradable-polymer-grafted-novel-bioprosthetic-tissue
#20
Amrita Pal, Chandrashekhar Pathak, Brent Vernon
Animal tissue has an extended history of clinical use in applications like heart valve bioprosthesis devices, cardiovascular surgical applications etc. but often does not last longer after implantation in the body due to rapid unwanted degradation. The goal of this work is to develop novel composite biomaterials by grafting biological tissue with synthetic, biodegradable polymers. In the current research phase, porcine submucosa, ureter and bovine pericardial tissue are grafted with poly DL-lactide (PLA), poly glycolide (PGA) and poly DL-lactide glycolide (PLGA) copolymers...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
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