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myocyte turn over

Sharon A George, Patrick J Calhoun, Robert G Gourdie, James W Smyth, Steven Poelzing
Background: Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) upregulation during acute inflammatory response has been associated with numerous cardiac effects including modulating Connexin43 and vascular permeability. This may in turn alter cardiac gap junctional (GJ) coupling and extracellular volume (ephaptic coupling) respectively. We hypothesized that acute exposure to pathophysiological TNFα levels can modulate conduction velocity (CV) in the heart by altering electrical coupling: GJ and ephaptic. Methods and Results: Hearts were optically mapped to determine CV from control, TNFα and TNFα + high calcium (2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Brandon J Reeder
SIGNIFICANCE: Erythrocyte hemoglobin (Hb) and myocyte myoglobin, although primarily oxygen-carrying proteins, have the capacity to do redox chemistry. Such redox activity in the wider family of globins now appears to have important associations with the mechanisms of cell stress response. In turn, an understanding of such mechanisms in vivo may have a potential in the understanding of cancer therapy resistance and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's. Recent Advances: There has been an enhanced understanding of the redox chemistry of the globin superfamily in recent years, leading to advances in development of Hb-based blood substitutes and in hypotheses relating to specific disease mechanisms...
May 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Chao Ma, Wei Chen, Weisheng Jia, Yu Guo, Gang Ye
OBJECTIVE: To observe the bladder regeneration by collagen membrane scaffolds for bladder construction to find a new alternative scaffold material. METHODS: Twelve healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 300-350 g, were randomly divided into collagen membrane scaffold group (experimental group, n = 6), and sham operated group (control group, n = 6). Upper hemicystectomy was performed and collagen scaffold was used for reconstruction in experimental group, while the bladder was turned over without bladder resection in control group...
June 2014: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Janaina Brusco, Kurt Haas
The classical view of mitochondria as housekeeping organelles acting in the background to simply maintain cellular energy demands has been challenged by mounting evidence of their direct and active participation in synaptic plasticity in neurons. Time-lapse imaging has revealed that mitochondria are motile in dendrites, with their localization and fusion and fission events regulated by synaptic activity. The positioning of mitochondria directly influences function of nearby synapses through multiple pathways including control over local concentrations of ATP, Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Shuang Zhang, Shirley Dehn, Matthew DeBerge, Ki-Jong Rhee, Barry Hudson, Edward B Thorp
Myocardial infarction (MI), secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture and occlusive thrombi, triggers acute margination of inflammatory neutrophils and monocyte phagocyte subsets to the damaged heart, the latter of which may give rise briefly to differentiated macrophage-like or dendritic-like cells. Within the injured myocardium, a primary function of these phagocytic cells is to remove damaged extracellular matrix, necrotic and apoptotic cardiac cells, as well as immune cells that turn over. Recognition of dying cellular targets by phagocytes triggers intracellular signaling, particularly in macrophages, wherein cytokines and lipid mediators are generated to promote inflammation resolution, fibrotic scarring, angiogenesis, and compensatory organ remodeling...
September 2014: Cellular Immunology
Priya Tripathi, Shally Awasthi, Peisong Gao
Over the last few years, a significant progress has been made in understanding the role of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33) in asthma. The previous observations for the association with asthma have been replicated in over 33 different population samples worldwide. We and others have performed association analysis and meta-analysis and provided further evidence that several polymorphisms in the ADAM33 are risk factors for asthma, especially in the Asian population. Further, several studies have suggested that alterations in epigenetic marks alter the patterns of DNA methylation of ADAM33 and result in potentially adverse biological effects...
2014: Mediators of Inflammation
Nicolas Baeyens, Iman Latrache, Xavier Yerna, Gauthier Noppe, Sandrine Horman, Nicole Morel
Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins...
November 22, 2013: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Belinda A Di Bartolo, Siân P Cartland, Hanis H Harith, Yuri V Bobryshev, Michael Schoppet, Mary M Kavurma
The osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) cytokine system, not only controls bone homeostasis, but has been implicated in regulating vascular calcification. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a second ligand for OPG, and although its effect in vascular calcification in vitro is controversial, its role in vivo is not yet established. This study aimed to investigate the role of TRAIL in vascular calcification in vitro using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from TRAIL(-/-) and wild-type mice, as well as in vivo, in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of TRAIL(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice...
2013: PloS One
Ryan S Udan, James C Culver, Mary E Dickinson
The vasculature of an organism has the daunting task of connecting all the organ systems to nourish tissue and sustain life. This complex network of vessels and associated cells must maintain blood flow, but constantly adapt to acute and chronic changes within tissues. While the vasculature has been studied for over a century, we are just beginning to understand the processes that regulate its formation and how genetic hierarchies are influenced by mechanical and metabolic cues to refine vessel structure and optimize efficiency...
May 2013: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Fan Bai, Li Wang, Masataka Kawai
Tropomyosin (Tm) is the key regulatory component of the thin-filament and plays a central role in the cardiac muscle's cooperative activation mechanism. Many mutations of cardiac Tm are related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). Using the thin-filament extraction/reconstitution technique, we are able to incorporate various Tm mutants and protein isoforms into a muscle fiber environment to study their roles in Ca(2+) regulation, cross-bridge kinetics, and force generation...
August 2013: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
Wei Pan, Yun Zhong, Chuanfang Cheng, Benrong Liu, Li Wang, Aiqun Li, Longgen Xiong, Shiming Liu
Dysregulated autophagy may lead to the development of disease. Role of autophagy and the diagnostic potential of microRNAs that regulate the autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy have not been evaluated. A rat model of cardiac hypertrophy was established using transverse abdominal aortic constriction (operation group). Cardiomyocyte autophagy was enhanced in rats from the operation group, compared with those in the sham operation group. Moreover, the operation group showed up-regulation of beclin-1 (an autophagy-related gene), and down-regulation of miR-30 in cardiac tissue...
2013: PloS One
F H Rutten, M J M Cramer, W J Paulus
- Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) is part of the 'heart-failure spectrum', but differs pathophysiologically from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF).- Metabolic abnormalities in HF-PEF cause intrinsic stiffness of the cardiac myocyte and alternation of the collagen turn-over in the extracellular matrix of the heart.- HF-PEF is most often present in elderly women with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome, and obesity.- Signs of fluid retention are often not present on physical examination in patients with HF-PEF...
2012: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Vishal Tandon, Boyang Zhang, Milica Radisic, Shashi K Murthy
The ability of the human body to naturally recover from coronary heart disease is limited because cardiac cells are terminally differentiated, have low proliferation rates, and low turn-over rates. Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the potential for production of cardiac tissue ex vivo, but is currently limited by several challenges: (i) Tissue engineering constructs require pure populations of seed cells, (ii) Fabrication of 3-D geometrical structures with features of the same length scales that exist in native tissue is non-trivial, and (iii) Cells require stimulation from the appropriate biological, electrical and mechanical factors...
September 2013: Biotechnology Advances
Kishorchandra Gohil, George A Brooks
We propose that the well-documented therapeutic actions of repeated physical activities over human lifespan are mediated by the rapidly turning over proto-oncogenic Myc (myelocytomatosis) network of transcription factors. This transcription factor network is unique in utilizing promoter and epigenomic (acetylation/deacetylation, methylation/demethylation) mechanisms for controlling genes that include those encoding intermediary metabolism (the primary source of acetyl groups), mitochondrial functions and biogenesis, and coupling their expression with regulation of cell growth and proliferation...
July 1, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shannon N Tessier, Kenneth B Storey
Many small mammals turn to hibernation to survive the winter, cycling through bouts of prolonged torpor where metabolic rate and body temperature fall to low levels. Remarkably, hypertrophy is promoted in cardiac muscle to support the stronger contractions needed in the cold. We proposed that altered expression of mRNA/protein levels of myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2A, MEF2C) transcription factors and downstream targets (e.g., desmin, glucose transporter 4, and myomesin 1) would aid cardiac muscle of thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in meeting challenges associated with hibernation...
June 10, 2012: Gene
Paras Kumar Mishra, Vishalakshi Chavali, Naira Metreveli, Suresh C Tyagi
The contribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) to stem cell survival and differentiation is unequivocal, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) induces ECM turn over; however, the role of MMP9 in the survival and differentiation of cardiac stem cells is unclear. We hypothesize that ablation of MMP9 enhances the survival and differentiation of cardiac stem cells into cardiomyocytes in diabetics. To test our hypothesis, Ins2(+/-) Akita, C57 BL/6J, and double knock out (DKO: Ins2(+/-)/MMP9(-/-)) mice were used...
March 2012: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Zufeng Ding, Shijie Liu, Bo Yang, Yubo Fan, Xiaoyan Deng
To clarify the effect of concentration polarization of oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs) on human smooth muscle cells (SMCs), the proliferation, ox-LDL uptake and apoptosis with SMCs cultured on permeable (the permeable group) or non-permeable membranes (the non-permeable group) were analysed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, spectrofluorometry and flow cytometry using a parallel-plate flow chamber technique. The concentration polarization of ox-LDLs at the surface of the cultured cell monolayer was assessed by confocal laser microscopy...
June 7, 2012: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Guy Dori, Michal Gershinsky, Simona Ben-Haim, Basil S Lewis, Haim Bitterman
To detect and quantify consistent ECG amplitude changes, the "ECG variability contour" (EVC) method was proposed. Using this method we investigated amplitude changes in subjects undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with Dipyridamole (Dp). Fifty-three patients having reversible perfusion defects and 19 normal subjects (NS) who were free of: perfusion defects on their MPI, standard ST-T changes during Dp stress, and a negative clinical follow up. Mean ∏¹(<∏¹>) was similar for the NS and patient group (6...
November 2011: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Tamer M A Mohamed, Delvac Oceandy, Min Zi, Sukhpal Prehar, Nasser Alatwi, Yanwen Wang, Mohamed A Shaheen, Riham Abou-Leisa, Celine Schelcher, Zeinab Hegab, Florence Baudoin, Michael Emerson, Mamas Mamas, Giulietta Di Benedetto, Manuela Zaccolo, Ming Lei, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Ludwig Neyses
Identification of the signaling pathways that regulate cyclic nucleotide microdomains is essential to our understanding of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Although there is growing evidence that the plasma membrane Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent ATPase 4 (PMCA4) is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that PMCA4 has a key structural role in tethering neuronal nitric-oxide synthase to a highly compartmentalized domain in the cardiac cell membrane...
December 2, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yo Tanaka, Hiroto Akaike, Yasuhiko Sugii, Takehiko Kitamori
We established a confluent cardiomyocyte culture method using an 800-µm diameter cylindrical microchannel in this report. This was realized by introducing cardiomyocytes 2 times before and after turning over a microchip. The optimum condition was starting the flowing medium 2.0 h after seeding and flowing the medium at 1.0 µL/min. By applying this technology to a cardiomyocyte-based spherical heart pump device, one may develop self-fluid regulated devices that could be applied for implantable or circulation analysis device on a chip...
2011: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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