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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521902/differences-between-the-sexes-in-motorcycle-related-injuries-and-fatalities-at-a-taiwanese-level-i-trauma-center
#1
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Shiun-Yuan Hsu, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Yi-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: Female patients present with unique physiological and behavioral characteristics compared to male patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury patterns, injury characteristics, and mortality of male and female patients hospitalized for treatment of motorcycle accident-related trauma in a level I trauma center. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of motorcycle-related injuries from the Trauma Registry System was performed to identify and compare 4028 male and 2919 female patients hospitalized for treatment between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516840/victim-alcohol-intoxication-during-a-sexual-assault-relations-with-subsequent-ptsd-symptoms
#2
Anna E Jaffe, Anne L Steel, David DiLillo, Lesa Hoffman, Kim L Gratz, Terri L Messman-Moore
This study examines associations between women's alcohol intoxication at the time of sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Drawing on the dual representation theory (Brewin, Gregory, Lipton, & Burgess, 2010), we hypothesized that intoxication at the time of assault would be positively associated with both overall symptoms of PTSD and PTSD reexperiencing symptoms in particular. A total of 143 community women (ages 18-26 years; 71.3% European American) reporting sexual victimization completed questionnaires assessing severity of coercion involved in the assault, perceived level of intoxication at the time of assault, and current PTSD symptoms...
May 17, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511551/theoretical-foundations-of-appeals-used-in-alcohol-abuse-and-drunk-driving-public-service-announcements-in-the-united-states-1995-2010
#3
Jeff Niederdeppe, Rosemary J Avery, Emily Elizabeth Namaste Miller
PURPOSE: The study identifies the extent to which theoretical constructs drawn from well-established message effect communication theories are reflected in the content of alcohol-related public service announcements (PSAs) airing in the United States over a 16-year period. DESIGN: Content analysis of 18 530 141 alcohol-abuse (AA) and drunk-driving (DD) PSAs appearing on national network and local cable television stations in the 210 largest designated marketing areas (DMAs) from January 1995 through December 2010...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498296/interleukin-22-prevents-microbial-dysbiosis-and-promotes-intestinal-barrier-regeneration-following-acute-injury
#4
Adam M Hammer, Niya L Morris, Abigail R Cannon, Omair M Khan, Robin C Gagnon, Nellie V Movtchan, Ilse van Langeveld, Xiaoling Li, Bin Gao, Mashkoor A Choudhry
Intestine barrier disruption and bacterial translocation can contribute to sepsis and multiple organ failure- leading causes of mortality in burn-injured patients. Additionally, findings suggest ethanol (alcohol) intoxication at the time of injury worsens symptoms associated with burn injury. We have previously shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22) protects from intestinal leakiness and prevents overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria following ethanol and burn injury, but how IL-22 mediates these effects has not been established...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495609/acute-low-level-alcohol-consumption-reduces-phase-locking-of-event-related-oscillations-in-rodents
#5
Leslie R Amodeo, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations...
May 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493551/utilization-of-a-sobering-center-for-acute-alcohol-intoxication
#6
Shannon Smith-Bernardin, Adam Carrico, Wendy Max, Susan Chapman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the population utilizing a sobering center for public alcohol intoxication, and compare between single-visit users, repeat users, and high users. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 1,271 adults cared for in the Sobering Center from July 2014 to June 2015. We divided the population into three groups: single-use (1 visit), repeat users (2-5 visits) and high (6+) users, and evaluated demographics, lifetime health diagnoses utilizing the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, rates of public service utilization including ambulance and emergency department, and related costs...
May 11, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482932/do-pre-hospital-poisoning-deaths-differ-from-in-hospital-deaths-a-retrospective-analysis
#7
Lauri Koskela, Lasse Raatiniemi, Håkon Kvåle Bakke, Tero Ala-Kokko, Janne Liisanantti
BACKGROUND: Most fatal poisonings occur outside the hospital and the victims found dead. The purpose of this study was to determine the general pattern and patient demographics of fatal poisonings in Northern Finland. In particular, we wanted to analyze differences between pre-hospital and in-hospital deaths. METHODS: All fatal poisonings that occurred in Northern Finland in 2007-2011 were retrieved from the Cause of Death Registry provided by Statistics Finland...
May 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482904/public-opinion-on-alcohol-consumption-and-intoxication-at-swedish-professional-football-events
#8
Charlotte Skoglund, Natalie Durbeej, Tobias H Elgán, Johanna Gripenberg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related problems at professional sporting events are of increasing concern and alarming reports are often reported in international media. Although alcohol consumption increases the risk for interpersonal violence, it is viewed as a focal element of large football events. Sweden has a long tradition of high public support for strict alcohol-control policies. However, little is known about public opinions on alcohol intoxication and the support for interventions to decrease intoxication at football events...
May 8, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479729/ginger-treatment-ameliorates-alcohol-induced-myocardial-damage-by-suppression-of-hyperlipidemia-and-cardiac-biomarkers-in-rats
#9
Ganjikunta Venkata Subbaiah, Korivi Mallikarjuna, Bhasha Shanmugam, Sahukari Ravi, Patan Usnan Taj, Kesireddy Sathyavelu Reddy
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia is positively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. Several herbal extracts have been reported to protect the cardiac injury and suppress the hyperlipidemia. However, the effect of ginger extracts on alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia and associated myocardial damage remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the cardio-protective properties of ginger ethanolic extract (Gt) against alcohol-induced myocardial damage, and further distinguished the association between hyperlipidemia and occurrence of myocardial damage in rats...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474308/when-do-friends-prevent-friends-from-hooking-up-intoxicated-an-examination-of-sex-differences-and-hypothetical-intoxication-in-peer-interventions
#10
Matthew W Savage, Lisa Menegatos, Anthony J Roberto
Despite the risks involved when mixing alcohol with casual sexual activity, the majority of college students engage in hookups, and the majority of those hookups involve alcohol. This study focused on the protective role college students' peers can play and the situational factors that might influence their willingness to intervene when a close friend is about to hook up intoxicated. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigated differences in students' (N = 1270) attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to persuade a close friend not to engage in a hypothetical drunken hookup using a 2 (friend sex) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (sober/intoxicated) factorial design...
May 4, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471014/reckless-self-destructive-behavior-and-ptsd-in-veterans-the-mediating-role-of-new-adverse-events
#11
Joanna D Lusk, Naomi Sadeh, Erika J Wolf, Mark W Miller
The addition of self-destructive and reckless behavior as a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5 has stimulated renewed interest in understanding relationships between these behaviors and trauma-related psychopathology. This study examined the relationship between reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDB), intervening exposure to new adverse events, and later PTSD severity in a sample of trauma-exposed veterans. At baseline, participants were assessed for RSDB (past 5 years) and current PTSD severity (N = 222)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463528/understanding-the-context-of-alcohol-impaired-driving-for-fatal-crash-involved-drivers-a-descriptive-case-analysis
#12
Lisa Wundersitz, Simon Raftery
OBJECTIVE: To understand the social context and circumstances surrounding alcohol impaired driving prior to fatal crash involvement for drivers with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC ≥0.05g/100 ml or 0.00g/100 ml for restricted licence holders). METHODS: Coroner's case reports investigating fatal crashes in South Australia over a three year period (2008-2010) were examined. The personal and crash characteristics of drivers with an illegal BAC were compared with those who had a legal BAC...
May 2, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458818/lumbar-vertebral-body-and-pars-fractures-following-laminectomy
#13
Akshay Yadhati, Swamy Kurra, Richard A Tallarico, William F Lavelle
A 56-year-old alcoholic male incurred L5 vertebral body and bilateral L4 pars fractures with progressive L4 on L5 anterolisthesis following low-energy falls while intoxicated. Recently, he had a L3-S1 laminectomy for lumbar spinal stenosis with claudication. Preoperative imaging and radiographs were negative for pars defects and instability, so an isolated decompressive surgery was performed. Following low-energy falls, his outpatient work-up revealed fractures through the bilateral L4 pedicles and posterior third of L5 vertebral body, with recurrence of axial back pain and bilateral lower extremity radiculopathy...
February 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454983/emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Barbara J Mason
The identification of different stages within the alcohol use disorder (AUD) cycle that are linked to neurocircuitry changes in pathophysiology associated with the negative emotional states of abstinence has provided a view of medication development for AUD that emphasizes changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Alcohol use disorder can be defined as a chronic relapsing disorder that involves compulsive alcohol seeking and taking, loss of control over alcohol intake, and emergence of a negative emotional state during abstinence...
April 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450133/corticosteroid-modulation-and-testosterone-changes-during-alcohol-intoxication-affects-voluntary-alcohol-drinking
#15
C J P Eriksson, T J Etelälahti, S J Apter
A number of studies have shown that stress and an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with increased voluntary alcohol drinking. Recently, associations have been found between activated HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in alcohol-preferring AA and non-preferring ANA, F2 (crossbred second generation from original AA and ANA), and Wistar rats. The aim of the present study has been to determine the role of corticosterone and alcohol-related testosterone-effects in subsequent alcohol drinking in AA, ANA, F2 and Wistar rats...
April 24, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441522/feeling-safe-but-appearing-anxious-differential-effects-of-alcohol-on-anxiety-and-social-performance-in-individuals-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#16
Stephan Stevens, Ruth Cooper, Trisha Bantin, Christiane Hermann, Alexander L Gerlach
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) co-occur frequently and there is preliminary evidence that alcohol might reduce social anxiety. It is, however, unclear which mechanisms contribute to the anxiety reducing effect, particularly regarding key aspects of social anxiety such as deficits in social performance. We compared self-rated and physiological measures of anxiety as well as self- and observer-rated social performance in a sample of 62 individuals with SAD and 60 nonanxious control participants during a speech task after receiving either alcohol, an alcohol-free placebo drink or orange juice...
April 18, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440812/biobehavioral-effects-of-baclofen-in-anxious-alcohol-dependent-individuals-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-laboratory-study
#17
M Farokhnia, M L Schwandt, M R Lee, J W Bollinger, L A Farinelli, J P Amodio, L Sewell, T A Lionetti, D E Spero, L Leggio
Baclofen has been suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder, but the clinical data are conflicting. Here we investigated the biobehavioral effects of baclofen in a sample of anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent individuals with high trait anxiety (N=34). Participants received baclofen (30 mg per day) or placebo for at least 8 days, then performed an experimental session consisting of alcohol cue-reactivity followed by alcohol administration procedure (alcohol priming, then alcohol self-administration)...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440068/correlates-of-verbal-and-physical-aggression-among-patrons-of-licensed-venues-in-australia
#18
Shannon Hyder, Kerri Coomber, Amy Pennay, Nicolas Droste, Ashlee Curtis, Richelle Mayshak, Tina Lam, William Gilmore, Tanya Chikritzhs, Peter G Miller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The current study aimed to examine the association between patron demographics and substance use, and experiences of verbal and physical aggressive incidents within the last 3 months among patrons of night-time entertainment precincts (NEP) in Australia. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patron interviews (n = 4216) were conducted around licensed venues in the NEPs of five Australian cities. Seven correlates of verbal and physical aggressive incidents were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration, pre-drinking, energy drink use and illicit drug use in the current session...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436732/administrative-license-suspension-does-length-of-suspension-matter
#19
James C Fell, Michael Scherer
OBJECTIVE: Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law...
February 10, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433423/prefrontal-cortex-expression-of-chromatin-modifier-genes-in-male-wsp-and-wsr-mice-changes-across-ethanol-dependence-withdrawal-and-abstinence
#20
Joel G Hashimoto, David P Gavin, Kristine M Wiren, John C Crabbe, Marina Guizzetti
Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is a relapsing disorder associated with excessive ethanol consumption. Recent studies support the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of AUD. Studies carried out so far have focused on a few specific epigenetic modifications. The goal of this project was to investigate gene expression changes of epigenetic regulators that mediate a broad array of chromatin modifications after chronic alcohol exposure, chronic alcohol exposure followed by 8 h withdrawal, and chronic alcohol exposure followed by 21 days of abstinence in Withdrawal-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) selected mouse lines...
May 2017: Alcohol
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