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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#1
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632074/isopropyl-alcohol-swabs-as-a-preferred-substance-of-abuse
#2
Aditi Sharma, Jonathan D Morrow
The authors describe the treatment of a 36-year-old woman who presented with excessive consumption of antiseptic alcohol swabs. Her behavior was diagnosed as a severe substance use disorder with isopropyl alcohol as the primary drug of choice. Diagnostic and treatment challenges involved in the case are discussed in detail, with particular focus on the differential diagnosis for this unusual presentation, including obsessive compulsive disorder, pica, and intentional self-injurious behavior. A brief review of the literature on non-ethanol ingestion for the purposes of intoxication is included, as well as clinical information about the potential dangers posed by isopropyl alcohol consumption...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624603/an-intensive-assessment-of-alcohol-use-and-emergency-department-utilization-in-homeless-alcohol-dependent-adults
#3
August F Holtyn, Brantley P Jarvis, Shrinidhi Subramaniam, Conrad J Wong, Michael Fingerhood, George E Bigelow, Kenneth Silverman
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use among the homeless may contribute to their high rates of emergency department use. Survey-based studies have provided some information on the relation between alcohol and emergency department use among the homeless. METHODS: This study used an intensive schedule of random breath collections and self-report assessments to examine the relation between emergency department utilization and alcohol use in homeless alcohol-dependent adults...
June 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623169/mutation-of-the-inhibitory-ethanol-site-in-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptors-promotes-tolerance-to-ethanol-induced-motor-incoordination
#4
Yuri A Blednov, Cecilia M Borghese, Carlos I Ruiz, Madeline A Cullins, Adriana Da Costa, Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek, Gregg E Homanics, R Adron Harris
Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABAA receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine)...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614590/chronic-ethanol-during-adolescence-impacts-corticolimbic-dendritic-spines-and-behavior
#5
Nicholas J Jury, Gabrielle A Pollack, Meredith J Ward, Jessica L Bezek, Alexandra J Ng, Courtney R Pinard, Hadley C Bergstrom, Andrew Holmes
BACKGROUND: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adulthood is linked to alcohol drinking during adolescence, but understanding of the neural and behavioral consequences of alcohol exposure during adolescence remains incomplete. Here, we examined the neurobehavioral impact of adolescent chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J-background Thy1-EGFP mice were CIE-exposed during adolescence or adulthood and examined, as adults, for alterations in the density and morphology of dendritic spines in infralimbic (IL) cortex, prelimbic (PL) cortex, and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
June 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600881/ready-willing-and-able-the-role-of-cannabis-use-opportunities-in-understanding-adolescent-cannabis-use
#6
Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
AIMS: To examine adolescent cannabis use -- both at the national and individual level -- by deconstructing it into its necessary conditions of realistic use opportunities and willingness to use the drug given such opportunities. DESIGN: Nationally-representative, repeated cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Norway. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 8,818 16-year olds who participated in the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) in 2007, 2011, and 2015...
June 10, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599712/effects-of-acute-alcohol-intoxication-on-executive-functions-controlling-self-regulated-behavior
#7
Suzanne Spinola, Stephen A Maisto, Corey N White, Tani Huddleson
Alcohol consumption may lead to deficits in the executive functions that govern self-regulation. These deficits could lead to risk-taking behaviors; therefore, it is important to determine the magnitude of these deficits on executive functioning. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the acute effects of alcohol on three of the executive functions that are hypothesized to affect self-regulation, which are inhibition, set shifting, and working memory, using a mixed-methods study design. The participants were 75 moderate or heavy drinkers between the ages of 21 and 35 who were randomized into one of three beverage conditions (control, placebo, or 0...
June 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587535/a-fatal-case-of-hypothermia-caused-by-dog-bites
#8
Yanning Li, Ruipeng Shen, Runtao Ding, Gehua Wen, Ao Du, Zhibin Dong, Xinghua Ren, Hui Yao, Baoli Zhu, Rubo Li, Yan Lu, Xu Wu
Death from hypothermia usually *We presented a fatal case of hypothermia after being bitten by dog in this article. occurs among people exposed to cold and humid environmental conditions when they are homeless, aged, suffering from natural or psychiatric diseases and drug or alcohol intoxication. A normal healthy person dying from hypothermia due to dog bites is unusual and rare. Here, we present a fatal case of hypothermia following dog bites causing blood loss and multiple wounds on the body. A 56-year-old man was found dead in a remote roadside puddle of a small village, early in the morning...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587348/hepatoprotective-effects-of-litchi-litchi-chinensis-procyanidin-a2-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-in-icr-mice
#9
Lih-Geeng Chen, Cheng-Wei Chang, Jwu-Guh Tsay, Brian Bor-Chun Weng
Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578820/formulas-for-calculated-osmolarity-and-osmolal-gap-a-study-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#10
Fanny Lepeytre, Marc Ghannoum, Hélène Ammann, François Madore, Stéphan Troyanov, Rémi Goupil, Josée Bouchard
BACKGROUND: The osmolal gap has been used for decades to screen for exposure to toxic alcohols. However, several issues may affect its reliability. We aimed to develop equations to calculate osmolarity with improved performance when used to screen for intoxication to toxic alcohols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 7,525 patients undergoing simultaneous measurements of osmolality, sodium, potassium, urea, glucose, and ethanol or undergoing similar measurements performed within 30 minutes of a measurement of toxic alcohol levels at a single tertiary-care center from April 2001 to June 2016...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575682/experience-of-harm-from-others-drinking-and-support-for-stricter-alcohol-policies-analysis-of-the-australian-national-drug-strategy-household-survey
#11
Oliver Stanesby, Georgia Rankin, Sarah Callinan
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that those who have experienced alcohol-related harm from others are more likely to support stricter alcohol control policies. This study investigates the association between types of harm experienced because of others' drinking and support for stricter alcohol control policies. METHODS: Data from 20,570 Australians aged 18 and over who completed the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey was used. Questions about experience of alcohol-related harm from others - being put in fear and abuse (verbal or physical) - were asked...
May 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566118/nbome-hallucinogenic-drug-exposures-reported-to-the-danish-poison-information-centre
#12
Gorm Roager Madsen, Tonny Studsgaard Petersen, Kim Peder Dalhoff
INTRODUCTION: N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs sold on cheap blotter papers. They are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A-receptor agonists, and since their recent entry into the drug market there have been worldwide reports of severe intoxications and even fatalities. This study reviews suspected NBOMe drug exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC). METHODS: Data from the DPIC database were extracted, including all enquiries with NBOMe exposures reported from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2016...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561068/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-increases-resting-state-limbic-perfusion-and-body-and-emotion-awareness-in-humans
#13
Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Michael M Havranek, Dario Dornbierer, Robin von Rotz, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABA-B receptor agonist inducing a broad spectrum of subjective effects including euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. It is used as treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders including narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal, but is also a drug of abuse. Non-medical users report enhancement of body and emotion awareness during intoxication. However, the neuronal underpinnings of such awareness alterations under GHB are unknown so far. The assessment of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) enables the elucidation of drug-induced functional brain alterations...
May 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557662/trends-across-the-night-in-patronage-intoxication-and-licensed-venue-characteristics-in-five-australian-cities
#14
Kerri Coomber, Nicolas Droste, Amy Pennay, Richelle Mayshak, Florentine Martino, Peter G Miller
BACKGROUND: While alcohol-related harm is reportedly greater on weekend evenings, research investigating trends in the intoxication levels of patrons and factors that increase risk of harm over the night is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to observe trends over the course of the night for patron demographics, venue characteristics and patron intoxication. METHODS: Observations of licensed venues and patrons in night-time entertainment districts of five Australian cities were conducted...
May 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554529/maternal-alcohol-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-dilates-fetal-cerebral-arteries-via-endocannabinoid-receptors
#15
Olga Seleverstov, Ana Tobiasz, J Scott Jackson, Ryan Sullivan, Dejian Ma, J Pierce Sullivan, Steven Davison, Yada Akkhawattanangkul, Danielle L Tate, Terry Costello, Stacey Barnett, Wei Li, Giancarlo Mari, Alex M Dopico, Anna N Bukiya
Prenatal alcohol exposure often results in fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Mechanisms of fetal brain damage by alcohol remain unclear. We used baboons (Papio spp.) to study alcohol-driven changes in the fetal cerebral artery endocannabinoid system. Pregnant baboons were subjected to binge alcohol exposure via gastric infusion three times during a period equivalent to the second trimester of human pregnancy. A control group was infused with orange-flavored drink that was isocaloric to the alcohol-containing solution...
June 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553834/evidence-for-a-long-lasting-compulsive-alcohol-seeking-phenotype-in-rats
#16
Chiara Giuliano, Yolanda Peña-Oliver, Charles R Goodlett, Rudolf N Cardinal, Trevor W Robbins, Edward T Bullmore, David Belin, Barry J Everitt
Excessive drinking to intoxication is the major behavioral characteristic of those addicted to alcohol but it is not the only one. Indeed, those addicted to alcohol also crave alcoholic beverages and spend time and put much effort into compulsively seeking alcohol, before eventually drinking large amounts. Unlike this excessive drinking, for which treatments exist, compulsive alcohol seeking is therefore another key feature of the persistence of alcohol addiction since it leads to relapse and for which there are few effective treatments...
May 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551931/-acute-alcohol-intoxication-in-an-eight-weeks-old-infant
#17
Tal Frenkel Rutenberg, Michael Benacun
Alcohol intoxication in infants is a life-threatening condition which requires early diagnosis and treatment. It may lead to multi-system injury, including mental deterioration, respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmia, metabolic disorders and hypothermia. We present the case of an eight weeks old female infant who was admitted to the pediatric emergency department after ingesting 40 ml of vodka with her baby formula. She was initially apathetic, with blood alcohol levels of 149 mg/dl, yet fully recovered after a short period of time...
March 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536106/alpha-2-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptor-subtypes-are-up-regulated-and-contribute-to-alcohol-induced-functional-plasticity-in-rat-hippocampus
#18
A Kerstin Lindemeyer, Yi Shen, Ferin Yazdani, Xuesi M Shao, Igor Spigelman, Daryl L Davies, Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
Alcohol(EtOH)intoxication causes changes in rodent brain GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit composition and function, playing a crucial role in EtOH withdrawal symptoms and dependence. Building evidence indicates withdrawal from acute EtOH and chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) results in decreased EtOH-enhanced GABAAR δ subunit-containing extrasynaptic and EtOH-insensitive α1βγ2 subtype synaptic GABAARs, but increased synaptic α4βγ2 subtype, and increased EtOH sensitivity of GABAAR miniature postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) correlated with EtOH dependence...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535753/anxiety-and-depression-symptoms-and-alcohol-use-among-adolescents-%C3%A2-a-cross-sectional-study-of-norwegian-secondary-school-students
#19
Espen Lund Johannessen, Helle Wessel Andersson, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Kristine Pape
BACKGROUND: We investigated the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and alcohol drinking behavior among adolescents, by focusing on the importance of symptom load, as well as gender differences. METHODS: Data was derived from a cross-sectional school based survey among adolescents in upper secondary schools in Norway. Among other variables adolescents reported on symptoms of anxiety and depression, time of onset and extent of alcohol use. The sample consisted of 6238 adolescents aged 16-18 years...
May 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521902/differences-between-the-sexes-in-motorcycle-related-injuries-and-fatalities-at-a-taiwanese-level-i-trauma-center
#20
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Shiun-Yuan Hsu, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Yi-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: Female patients present with unique physiological and behavioral characteristics compared to male patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury patterns, injury characteristics, and mortality of male and female patients hospitalized for treatment of motorcycle accident-related trauma in a level I trauma center. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of motorcycle-related injuries from the Trauma Registry System was performed to identify and compare 4028 male and 2919 female patients hospitalized for treatment between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
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