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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724413/smoking-related-general-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-estonia
#1
Gea Kõks, Krista Fischer, Sulev Kõks
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is known to be the single largest cause of premature death worldwide. The aim of present study was to analyse the effect of smoking on general and cause-specific mortality in the Estonian population. METHODS: The data from 51,756 adults in the Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu was used. Information on dates and causes of death was retrieved from the National Causes of Death Registry. Smoking status, general survival, general mortality and cause-specific mortality were analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards models...
July 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724204/gait-and-balance-impairment-after-acute-methanol-poisoning
#2
Kamila Peterová, Hana Brožová, Jiří Klempíř, Irena Lišková, Ondřej Bezdíček, Petr Ridzoň, Manuela Vaněčková, Sergej Zakharov, Daniela Pelclová, Michal Miovský, Evžen Růžička
Neurological sequelae including gait impairment were reported in survivors after methanol intoxication; however, no systematic study has been published so far. We aimed to analyse gait and balance impairment in a group of Czech methanol poisoning survivors. We examined 43 patients (age 46±13 years) 2-8 months after methanol poisoning and 43 healthy controls. Investigations contained a shortened version of Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), clinical tests of gait and balance including Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and gait analysis using GaitRite(®) system, neurological and neuropsychological examination, brain imaging, EMG and tests of alcohol consumption...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723276/can-an-app-help-identify-psychomotor-function-impairments-during-drinking-occasions-in-the-real-world-a-mixed-method-pilot-study
#3
Brian Suffoletto, Akash Goyal, Juan Carlos Puyana, Tammy Chung
BACKGROUND: Being able to measure the acute effects of alcohol consumption on psychomotor functions in natural settings could be useful in injury prevention interventions. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of collecting app-based measures of information processing, working memory and gait stability during times of typical alcohol consumption among young adults. METHODS: Ten young adults (aged 21-26) with hazardous drinking completed a baseline assessment and ecological momentary assessments (EMA) on 4 consecutive Fridays and Saturdays, every hour from 8pm to 12am...
July 19, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715159/alcohol-antiretroviral-interactive-toxicity-beliefs-as-a-potential-barrier-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#4
Seth C Kalichman, Lisa Eaton
INTRODUCTION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers as much as 90% protection against HIV transmission. However, the effectiveness of PrEP depends on uptake and adherence to even intermittent dosing. Along with intoxication leading to unintentional non-adherence, believing that alcohol mixed with pharmaceuticals is harmful (i.e., interactive toxicity beliefs) may lead to poor uptake and intentional non-adherence. METHODS: HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men (N = 272) at a large Gay Pride event in Atlanta, GA, completed anonymous surveys of demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, alcohol use and PrEP-related alcohol interactive toxicity beliefs...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715125/acute-alcohol-binge-deteriorates-metabolic-and-respiratory-compensation-capability-after-blunt-chest-trauma-followed-by-hemorrhagic-shock-a-new-research-model
#5
Nils Wagner, Niklas Franz, Scott Dieteren, Mario Perl, Katharina Mörs, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical relevance of blunt (thoracic) chest trauma (TxT) and hemorrhagic shock is indisputable due to the high prevalence of this injury type, as well as its close association with mortality and/or preventable deaths. Furthermore, there is an ongoing discussion about the influence of alcohol in trauma patients. Thus, we established a model of TxT followed by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (H/R) in alcohol-intoxicated rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Depending on group allocation, twelve (sub-acute) or two (acute) hours before experimentation, the animals received a single oral dose of alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) or saline (NaCl) followed by TxT, hemorrhagic shock (35 ± 3 mm Hg) and resuscitation (TxT+H/R)...
July 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711132/additional-conditions-amenable-to-observation-care
#6
REVIEW
Matthew A Wheatley
ED observation units (EDOUs) are designed for patients who require diagnostics or therapeutics beyond the initial ED visit to determine the need for hospital admission. Best evidence is that this care be delivered via ordersets or protocols. Occasionally, patients present with conditions that are amenable to EDOU care but fall outside the commonly used protocols. This article details a few of these conditions: abnormal uterine bleeding, allergic reaction, alcohol intoxication, acetaminophen overdose and sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis...
August 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706262/impairment-of-neuroplasticity-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-by-alcohol
#7
Genane Loheswaran, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger, Bernard Le Foll, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Previous studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption impairs neuroplasticity in the motor cortex. However, it is unknown whether alcohol produces a similar impairment of neuroplasticity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a brain region that plays an important role in cognitive functioning. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of alcohol intoxication on neuroplasticity in the DLPFC. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) was used for the induction and measurement of associative LTP-like neuroplasticity in the DLPFC...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705687/antecedents-and-precipitants-of-patient-related-violence-in-the-emergency-department-results-from-the-australian-vent-study-violence-in-emergency-nursing-and-triage
#8
Jacqueline V Pich, Ashley Kable, Mike Hazelton
INTRODUCTION: Workplace violence is one of the most significant and hazardous issues faced by nurses globally. It is a potentially life-threatening and life-affecting workplace hazard often downplayed as just "part of the job" for nurses. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used and data were collected using a purpose developed survey tool. Surveys were distributed to all members of the College of Emergency Nurses' Australasia (CENA) in 2010 and 537 eligible responses were received (RR=51%)...
July 10, 2017: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705663/creativity-on-tap-effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-on-creative-cognition
#9
Mathias Benedek, Lisa Panzierer, Emanuel Jauk, Aljoscha C Neubauer
Anecdotal reports link alcohol intoxication to creativity, while cognitive research highlights the crucial role of cognitive control for creative thought. This study examined the effects of mild alcohol intoxication on creative cognition in a placebo-controlled design. Participants completed executive and creative cognition tasks before and after consuming either alcoholic beer (BAC of 0.03) or non-alcoholic beer (placebo). Alcohol impaired executive control, but improved performance in the Remote Associates Test, and did not affect divergent thinking ability...
July 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691841/shared-familial-risk-between-bulimic-symptoms-and-alcohol-involvement-during-adolescence
#10
Jessica H Baker, Melissa A Munn-Chernoff, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Hermine Maes, Kenneth S Kendler
Twin studies show the established relation between bulimic symptoms and problematic alcohol involvement in adult females is partly due to shared familial factors, specifically shared genetic effects. However, it is unclear if similar shared etiological factors exist during adolescence or in males. We examined the familial overlap (i.e., genetic and common environmental correlations) between bulimic symptoms and various levels of alcohol involvement in 16- to 17-year-old female and male same-sex twin pairs using sex-specific biometrical twin modeling...
July 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685703/intoxication-with-alcohol-at-the-time-of-self-harm-and-pre-existing-involvement-with-mental-health-services-are-associated-with-a-pre-disposition-to-repetition-of-self-harming-behavior-in-a-large-cohort-of-older-new-zealanders-presenting-with-an-index-episode
#11
David Ames
The paper on predictors of repeat self-harm and suicide by Cheung et al. (2017), which has been chosen by the editorial team as paper of the month for this issue of International Psychogeriatrics, makes a very useful contribution to the study of self-harm and suicide in late life. Of 339 individuals presenting with an index episode of self-harm to one of seven Emergency Departments (EDs) in New Zealand, close to 15% harmed themselves again within one year and for nearly one in six of these 50 people, the repeat episode was fatal...
August 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679017/a-comparison-of-qtc-intervals-in-alcohol-withdrawal-patients-versus-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients
#12
Timothy Chu, Keith Azevedo, Amy A Ernst, Dusadee Sarangarm, Steven J Weiss
OBJECTIVES: Patients with an alcohol use disorder experiencing acute intoxication or withdrawal may be at risk for electrocardiograph (ECG) abnormalities, including prolongation of repolarization (long QTc [corrected QT]) that may contribute to arrhythmias and may be associated with a threefold increase in the likelihood of sudden cardiac events. Patients with acute coronary syndrome may have prolonged QTc as well. To our knowledge, no previous studies have compared the QTc of ACS with acute ethanol (EtOH) withdrawal syndromes in the emergency department (ED)...
July 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677506/mephedrone-concentrations-in-cases-of-clinical-intoxication
#13
Esther Papaseit, Eulàlia Olesti, Rafael de la Torre, Marta Torrens, Magí Farré
Background Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a ring-substituted synthetic cathinone derivative has become established as a permanent illicit drug in the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) scene. Objective This review summarizes current knowledge on mephedrone concentrations in biological samples from cases of acute intoxications (fatal and non-fatal), pharmacokinetics studies, wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on toxicokinetics of mephedrone in humans...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676630/dual-activation-of-neuronal-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-girk-channels-by-cholesterol-and-alcohol
#14
Ian W Glaaser, Paul A Slesinger
Activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels leads to a hyperpolarization of the neuron's membrane potential, providing an important component of inhibition in the brain. In addition to the canonical G protein-activation pathway, GIRK channels are activated by small molecules but less is known about the underlying gating mechanisms. One drawback to previous studies has been the inability to control intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here we used a reconstitution strategy with highly purified mammalian GIRK2 channels incorporated into liposomes and demonstrate that cholesterol or intoxicating concentrations of ethanol, i...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668177/a-brief-assessment-of-capacity-to-consent-instrument-in-acutely-intoxicated-emergency-department-patients
#15
Marc L Martel, Lauren R Klein, James R Miner, Jon B Cole, Paul C Nystrom, Kayla M Holm, Michelle H Biros
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine to what extent acute alcohol intoxication effects capacity to assent, consent, or refuse research participation. METHODS: This was a prospective, observation study performed at our inner city, county hospital with >100,000 annual emergency department visits. Non-pregnant, English speaking patients older than 18 with evidence of acute alcohol intoxication were considered eligible. After medical screening, a trained research associate presented the study version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent (UBACC) tool...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667825/heavy-alcohol-consumption-increases-the-risk-of-active-tuberculosis-in-taiwanese-adults-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Yung-Feng Yen, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Ya-Ling Lee, Po-Wen Ku, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yun-Ju Lai, Dachen Chu
AIMS: To investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on tuberculosis (TB) development in Taiwanese adults. DESIGN: Participants from the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates...
July 1, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666468/binge-drinking-among-young-adults-in-an-urban-tertiary-care-emergency-department-in-israel
#17
Daphna Levinson, Paola Rosca, Doron Vilner, Idit Brimberg, Yael Stall, Ayelet Rimon
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a major preventable public health problem with serious health and social consequences especially among youth. In Israel, alcohol use has become an emerging problem during the last decade, and its use has increased among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is the common pattern of alcohol consumption among young adults who drink for recreational purposes. The present survey was conducted among 16-35 years old visitors to the ED. The aim was specifically to identify binge drinkers in order to assess the scope of the need for a brief counseling intervention among young people who arrive intoxicated to a large tertiary care urban ED in Israel...
July 1, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655383/mixed-isopropanol-methanol-intoxication-following-ingestion-of-alcohol-based-hand-rub%C3%A2-solution%C3%A2
#18
Gordon Chan, Jones Chan, Cheuk-Chun Szeto, Kai-Ming Chow
Traditionally, ingestion of alcohol-based hand rub solution results in isopropanol poisoning, which has a low toxicity. We describe a case of combined methanol and isopropanol intoxication by ingestion of alcohol-based hand rub solution. Metabolic acidosis was absent in our patient, presumably because formic acid production is blocked by isopropanol, which inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase. Our case highlights the importance of considering methanol intoxication in patients who ingested alcohol-based hand rub solution, even when there is no metabolic acidosis, and timely removal of the toxic alcohols by dialysis in these patients would prevent permanent retinal damage...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654192/problematic-drinking-mediates-the-association-between-urgency-and-intimate-partner-aggression-during-acute-intoxication
#19
Olivia S Subramani, Dominic J Parrott, Christopher I Eckhardt
BACKGROUND: This study tested a moderated-mediational model whereby dimensions of impulsivity (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) differentially predict perpetration of physical intimate partner aggression through problematic drinking in intoxicated and non-intoxicated heavy drinkers. METHODS: Participants were 249 heavy drinkers (148 men and 101 women) with a recent history of psychological and/or physical intimate partner aggression perpetration toward their current partner recruited from two metropolitan U...
June 27, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653859/unnecessary-emergency-medical-services-transport-associated-with-alcohol-intoxication
#20
Christine Van Dillen, Sun Hyu Kim
Objective This study investigated medically unnecessary emergency medical services (EMS) transportation by comparing non-intoxicated versus intoxicated patients who did not receive emergency department (ED) treatment but utilized EMS transport. Methods Patients who used EMS but did not receive ED treatment were classified into non-intoxicated and intoxicated groups. Reasons for not receiving ED treatment were categorized according to whether the decision was made by the patient against medical advice or if the decision was based on a physician's evaluation and their recommendations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
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