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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903992/a-brief-review-on-toxic-alcohols-management-strategies
#1
Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani
The information on burden of alcohol abuse in Iran is scarce. However, the available data show that mortality rates and frequency of its use have increased in the Iranian community. In particular, Iran occupies the 1st rank in the number of outbreak incidents and victims of toxic alcohols such as methanol in the Middle East. Mortality and morbidity of toxic alcohols are high if prompt diagnosis and treatment are not initiated rapidly. On-time diagnosis, proper case finding, and standard treatment have an essential role to reduce mortality and morbidity of toxic alcohols particularly blindness and other physical and psychological disabilities...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891239/two-cases-of-methyl-alcohol-intoxication-by-sub-chronic-inhalation-and-dermal-exposure-during-aluminum-cnc-cutting-in-a-small-sized-subcontracted-factory
#2
Jia Ryu, Key Hwan Lim, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Hyang Woon Lee, Ji Young Yun, Seoung-Wook Kim, Ji-Hoon Kim, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyunjoo Kim
BACKGROUND: Methyl alcohol poisoning has been mainly reported in community. Two cases of methyl alcohol poisoning occurred in a small-sized subcontracted factory which manufactured smartphone parts in Korea. CASE PRESENTATION: One young female patient presented with dyspnea and visual disturbance. Another young male patient presented with visual disturbance and myalgia. They treated with sodium bicarbonate infusion and hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis. In addition, he received ethyl alcohol per oral treatment...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875802/urgency-traits-moderate-daily-relations-between-affect-and-drinking-to-intoxication-among-young-adults
#3
Krysten W Bold, Lisa M Fucito, Kelly S DeMartini, Robert F Leeman, Henry R Kranzler, William R Corbin, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Young adults with higher trait urgency (i.e., a tendency to act rashly in response to heightened affect) may be especially vulnerable to heavy drinking. The current study examined 1) the influence of urgency on daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication, and 2) whether urgency influenced the effectiveness of naltrexone (vs. placebo) for reducing alcohol use. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of data from 126 (n=40 female) heavy drinking young adults, ages 18-25, enrolled in a double-blind, 8-week clinical trial comparing brief motivational intervention and either naltrexone or placebo...
November 3, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874326/alcohol-use-patterns-and-alcohol-use-disorders-among-young-adult-ethnically-diverse-bariatric-surgery-patients
#4
Christine E Spadola, Eric F Wagner, Veronica H Accornero, Denise C Vidot, Nestor de la Cruz-Munoz, Sarah E Messiah
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that young adults and racial/ethnic minorities are at an increased risk for problematic alcohol use. Recent studies have also documented patterns of problematic alcohol use among a subset of weight loss surgery (WLS) patients. However, to date, there are no published studies investigating the intersection of these demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: This study used descriptive and inferential analyses to examine alcohol use patterns, prevalence of pre and post-WLS alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and predictors of increased alcohol use and problematic alcohol use post-WLS among young adult (mean age 26...
November 22, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869443/-post-mortem-investigation-of-alveolar-air-in-forensic-practice
#5
Miroslav Bauer, Jiřina Bauerová, Ján Šikuta, Jozef Šidlo
Exhaled air from biological materials is used for the purpose of toxicologico-chemical analysis particularly in detecting of alcohol influence in traffic or within a working process. Similarly, still a more and more actual requirement seems to be a necessity to analyse alveolar air from necroptic material. This necessity is emphasised not only by the fact, that inhalant intoxications in the form of poisoning represent their substantial part, but also a demand to evidence exactly a noxious agent both specifically and also in at least two materials...
2016: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862159/risk-for-alcoholic-liver-cirrhosis-after-an-initial-hospital-contact-with-alcohol-problems-a-nationwide-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Gro Askgaard, David A Leon, Mette S Kjaer, Thomas Deleuran, Thomas A Gerds, Janne S Tolstrup
: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is usually preceded by many years of heavy drinking, in which cessation in drinking could prevent the disease. Alcohol problems are not consistently managed in hospital patients. We followed all Danish patients with an initial hospital contact with alcohol problems (intoxication, harmful use, or dependence) during 1998-2002 for alcoholic liver cirrhosis development (n = 36,044). In this registry-based cohort we identified predictors of the absolute risk for alcoholic liver cirrhosis...
November 16, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860050/characterization-of-hangover-following-intravenous-alcohol-exposure-in-social-drinkers-methodological-and-clinical-implications
#7
Vatsalya Vatsalya, Bethany L Stangl, Veronica Y Schmidt, Vijay A Ramchandani
Hangover refers to the cluster of physiological and behavioral symptoms that occur following the end of a drinking episode. While hangover has been studied after the typical oral consumption of alcohol, the occurrence of hangover following intravenous (IV) alcohol administration in human laboratory studies has not been previously reported. This study characterizes hangover symptoms and post-infusion drinking behavior following acute IV alcohol administration in social drinkers. Twenty-one to thirty-year-old healthy social drinkers (n = 24) underwent an alcohol clamp session at breath alcohol concentration of 0...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855578/follow-up-study-of-people-who-misuse-alcohol-reflections-on-methodology
#8
Jan Gill, Heather Black, Fiona O'May, Cheryl Rees
Background Considerable challenges exist for researchers attempting to monitor longitudinally the impact of any intervention on heavy drinkers, therefore they are often excluded from surveys. A particular challenge is the loss of validity through attrition. Aim To describe issues encountered when recruiting and re-contacting difficult to reach heavy drinkers participating in a longitudinal study; and propose strategies to inform the design of future studies to minimise the effects of confounding factors. Discussion Baseline recruitment exceeded targets, but attrition at first follow-up interview was considerable...
November 18, 2016: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854530/the-impact-of-michigan-s-partial-repeal-of-the-universal-motorcycle-helmet-law-on-helmet-use-fatalities-and-head-injuries
#9
Patrick M Carter, Lisa Buckley, Carol A C Flannagan, Jessica B Cicchino, Mark Hemmila, Patrick J Bowman, Farideh Almani, C Raymond Bingham
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the partial repeal of Michigan's universal motorcycle helmet law on helmet use, fatalities, and head injuries. METHODS: We compared helmet use rates and motorcycle crash fatality risk for the 12 months before and after the April 13, 2012, repeal with a statewide police-reported crash data set. We linked police-reported crashes to injured riders in a statewide trauma registry. We compared head injury before and after the repeal...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845195/binge-ethanol-in-adulthood-exacerbates-negative-outcomes-following-juvenile-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Kate Karelina, Kristopher R Gaier, Maya Prabhu, Vanessa Wenger, Timothy Ed Corrigan, Zachary M Weil
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a major public health problem with enormous costs in terms of health care dollars, lost productivity, and reduced quality of life. Alcohol is bidirectionally linked to TBI as many TBI patients are intoxicated at the time of their injury and we recently reported that, in accordance with human epidemiological data, animals injured during juvenile development self-administered significantly more alcohol as adults than did sham injured mice. There are also clinical data that drinking after TBI significantly reduces the efficacy of rehabilitation and leads to poorer long-term outcomes...
November 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842469/lost-keys-understanding-service-providers-impressions-of-frequent-visitors-to-psychiatric-emergency-services-in-singapore
#11
Daniel Poremski, Ganesh Kunjithapatham, Doris Koh, Xin Ya Lim, Mark Alexander, Cheng Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study used administrative data to identify characteristics of frequent users of Singapore's largest specialized psychiatric emergency department (ED). Qualitative interviews were conducted to understand staff opinions of frequent visitors. METHODS: Data were from administrative records of all adult visits to the ED (N=16,123 visits of 10,108 individual users) in 2014. Random-effects logistic regressions were used to identify demographic and diagnostic characteristics of frequent visitors...
November 15, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834255/intoxicated-homeless-and-in-need-of-a-place-to-land
#12
Otis Warren
A patient with alcoholism cycles in and out of the emergency department as his providers grapple with an outdated system of care.
November 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829572/magnesium-in-the-cns-recent-advances-and-developments
#13
Robert Vink
A potential neuroprotective role for magnesium in neurological disease has been appreciated for almost three decades, yet translation to the clinical arena has proven elusive. Accumulating experimental evidence continues to suggest that magnesium plays a critical role in a number of neurological conditions including headache, stress, alcohol/drug intoxication, acute brain injury, seizures, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Simple administration of a magnesium salt in these conditions has not always been therapeutically successful, with a number of studies showing poor penetration of serum magnesium across the blood brain barrier...
March 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817029/signaling-targets-of-alcoholic-intoxication-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#14
T M Mirzoev, Y N Lomonosova, O E Zinovyeva, E A Lysenko, B S Shenkman, T L Nemirovskaya
Intracellular signaling pathways were investigated in skeletal muscle cells at the early stages of alcohol addiction manifestations. No muscle fiber atrophy was observed in m. vastus lateralis of male patients. No significant changes in the signaling mechanisms that control protein degradation were detected as well. However, the concentration of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) in blood plasma as well as the content of markers of intracellular signaling pathways regulating protein synthesis were significantly reduced compared to the control group...
September 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803110/influence-of-alcohol-use-on-mortality-and-expenditure-during-hospital-admission-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Shu-Hui Peng, Shiun-Yuan Hsu, Pao-Jen Kuo, Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Ya-Ai Cheng, Ching-Hua Hsieh
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the effect of alcohol intoxication on clinical presentation of hospitalised adult trauma patients at a Level I trauma centre using propensity score matching. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Detailed data of 929 hospitalised adult trauma patients with alcohol intoxication, aged 20-65 years, and 10 104 corresponding patients without alcohol intoxication were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802288/effect-of-alcoholic-intoxication-on-the-risk-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-nationwide-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Tai-Yi Hsu, Hong-Mo Shih, Yu-Chiao Wang, Leng-Chieh Lin, Guan-Yi He, Chih-Yu Chen, Chia-Hung Kao, Chao-Hsien Chen, Wei-Kung Chen, Tse-Yen Yang
PURPOSE: This study investigated whether alcoholic intoxication (AI) increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using a population-based database in Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective matched-cohort study included 57 611 inpatients with new-onset AI (AI cohort) and 230 444 randomly selected controls (non-AI cohort). Each patient was monitored for 10 years to individually identify those who were subsequently diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) during the follow-up period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801991/short-to-midterm-effectiveness-of-a-brief-motivational-intervention-to-reduce-alcohol-use-and-related-problems-for-alcohol-intoxicated-children-and-adolescents-in-pediatric-emergency-departments-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Nicolas Arnaud, Silke Diestelkamp, Lutz Wartberg, Peter-Michael Sack, Anne Daubmann, Rainer Thomasius
OBJECTIVES: The proportion of children and adolescents receiving emergency care for acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) in Germany has sharply increased over the past years. Despite this, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have studied guideline- and evidence-based interventions to prevent future alcohol misuse within this population. The objective of our investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief motivational intervention (b-MI) to reduce drinking and associated problems within pediatric emergency departments (PED) in Hamburg, Germany...
November 1, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799321/alcohol-modulation-of-bk-channel-gating-depends-on-%C3%AE-subunit-composition
#18
Guruprasad Kuntamallappanavar, Alex M Dopico
In most mammalian tissues, Ca(2+)i/voltage-gated, large conductance K(+) (BK) channels consist of channel-forming slo1 and auxiliary (β1-β4) subunits. When Ca(2+)i (3-20 µM) reaches the vicinity of BK channels and increases their activity at physiological voltages, β1- and β4-containing BK channels are, respectively, inhibited and potentiated by intoxicating levels of ethanol (50 mM). Previous studies using different slo1s, lipid environments, and Ca(2+)i concentrations-all determinants of the BK response to ethanol-made it impossible to determine the specific contribution of β subunits to ethanol action on BK activity...
November 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788779/the-effects-of-repeated-forced-ethanol-consumption-during-adolescence-on-reproductive-behaviors-in-male-rats
#19
Shannon M Harding, Nicole Mollé, Lisbeth Reyes-Fondeur, Jessica M Karanian
Adolescence is a sensitive period of brain development when changes in hormone levels may have long-lasting effects on synaptic connections and behavior. In humans, alcohol consumption frequently begins during this critical period, although the impact of early exposure has not been fully examined. The current study was designed to investigate short- and long-term effects of repeated forced ethanol consumption during adolescence on emerging reproductive behaviors. Twenty-six young male Long-Evans rats were assigned to ethanol (Young EtOH, n = 12) or water (Young Control, n = 14) groups at postnatal day (P) 32, receiving a modified binge protocol of 3 g/kg of solution via gavage twice per week from P32 to P80...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788778/alcohol-and-lung-injury-and-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Samantha M Yeligar, Michael M Chen, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Joseph H Sisson, Ellen L Burnham, Lou Ann S Brown
Annually, excessive alcohol use accounts for more than $220 billion in economic costs and 80,000 deaths, making excessive alcohol use the third leading lifestyle-related cause of death in the US. Patients with an alcohol-use disorder (AUD) also have an increased susceptibility to respiratory pathogens and lung injury, including a 2-4-fold increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This review investigates some of the potential mechanisms by which alcohol causes lung injury and impairs lung immunity...
September 2016: Alcohol
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