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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145741/a-cohort-approach-to-real-time-detection-of-acute-hiv-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-st-petersburg-russia
#1
Olga Toussova, Andrei Kozlov, Sergei Verevochkin, Kathryn Lancaster, Alla Shaboltas, Alexey Masharsky, Elena Dukhovlinova, William C Miller, Irving Hoffman
OBJECTIVES: To detect acute HIV infections (AHI) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: 100 seronegative or acutely HIV-infected at screening PWID were enrolled and followed until the end of the 12 month pilot period. Each participant was evaluated, tested and counseled for HIV monthly. Two HIV tests were used: HIV antibody and HIV RNA PCR...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129797/microglia-and-alcohol-meet-at-the-crossroads-microglia-as-critical-modulators-of-alcohol-neurotoxicity
#2
REVIEW
Joana F Henriques, Camila C Portugal, Teresa Canedo, João B Relvas, Teresa Summavielle, Renato Socodato
Alcohol use disorders affect millions of people worldwide causing huge social and economic burden on modern society. Excessive alcohol consumption or intoxication provokes severe damage to the body inducing immune suppression, liver damage and neurological disorder. In the central nervous system (CNS), alcohol exposure can lead to neuronal loss, cognitive decline, motor dysfunction, inflammation and impairment of neuroimmune responses. Glial cells, from which microglia represent roughly 10-15%, are primary modulators of the neuroimmune responses and inflammation in the CNS...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127761/seizure-vulnerability-and-anxiety-responses-following-chronic-co-administration-and-acute-withdrawal-of-caffeine-and-ethanol-in-a-rat-model
#3
Daniel Matovu, Paul E Alele
BACKGROUND: Caffeine antagonizes the intoxicating effects of alcohol. Consequently, there has been a dramatic global increase in the consumption of caffeinated drinks together with alcohol, especially among young adults. We assessed the seizure vulnerability and anxiety responses following the chronic co-administration of, and withdrawal from, caffeine and ethanol in male rats. METHODS: The rats were randomly assigned to six groups consisting of 10 animals each: 10 mg/kg of caffeine, 20 mg/kg of caffeine, 4 g/kg of 20% ethanol, combined caffeine (20 mg/kg) and ethanol (4 g/kg of 20%), 4 mL/kg distilled water, and an untreated control group...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126365/suicidal-ideation-suicide-attempts-and-psychological-distress-among-intoxicated-adolescents-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#4
Varpu Puuskari, Terhi Aalto-Setälä, Erkki Komulainen, Mauri Marttunen
BACKGROUND: Studies have emphasized screening for psychiatric disorders, especially suicide risk in emergency departments. Psychiatric disorders and experimentation with alcohol increase in adolescence and intoxications among patients challenge the staff in emergency departments. AIMS: This study examined the degree of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal behavior in adolescents, and the extent to which they differed from non-suicidal patients in terms of alcohol use, psychological distress, self-esteem, and perceived social support...
November 10, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125625/low-inherent-sensitivity-to-the-intoxicating-effects-of-ethanol-in-rhesus-monkeys-with-low-csf-concentrations-of-the-serotonin-metabolite-5-hydroxyindoleacetic-acid
#5
Elizabeth K Wood, Ryno Kruger, Angus Bennion, Bradley M Cooke, Stephen Lindell, Melanie Schwandt, David Goldman, Christina S Barr, Stephen J Suomi, J Dee Higley
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 Alcoholism is characterized by low serotonin system functioning and has a high degree of heritability, with offspring of alcoholics often showing a reduced response to the intoxicating effects of ethanol, which is thought to be marker for future alcohol use disorders (AUDs). As such, an important aim of studies investigating the origins of AUDs is understanding the relationship between serotonin system functioning and level of intoxication. A nonhuman primate model was used to evaluate observational ratings of sensitivity to ethanol and to further investigate the relationship between central serotonin activity and behavioral response to ethanol...
November 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125075/-treatment-of-paracetamol-intoxication-taking-into-consideration-dosage-route-of-administration-and-risk-factors
#6
A Koppen, A J H P van Riel, A Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, I de Vries
- Paracetamol is the drug for which the Dutch Poisons Information Centre (DPIC) receives the most information requests.- The protocol for the treatment of single acute oral paracetamol intoxications is clear, however, ambiguity exists concerning the treatment of intoxications with repeated supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol.- Paracetamol intoxications with liquid preparations, extended-release tablets, exposure routes other than oral, and repeated supratherapeutic ingestions require a tailored approach.- An increased risk of liver damage due to paracetamol intoxication has to be taken into account for patients who consume excessive levels of alcohol, are malnourished or have a pre-existing liver condition...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123870/characteristic-of-the-acute-drug-intoxication-conveyed-by-kanagawa-helicopter-emergency-medical-service
#7
Mariko Sugita, Shigeo Higami, Shigeaki Inoue, Seiji Morita, Yoshihide Nakagawa, Sadaki Inokuchi
Aim: Various critical cases have been transported since the use of the Kanagawa Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) started at Tokai University Hospital (Isehara, Japan) in 2002, including cases of acute poisoning. We analyzed the characteristics of acute poisoning cases conveyed by the HEMS. Methods: Kanagawa HEMS conveyed 3,814 cases from July 2002 to March 2013, and acute drug and poison intoxication was diagnosed in 131 of these cases. We undertook a descriptive statistical study of these cases...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121528/a-detailed-examination-of-the-longitudinal-associations-between-individual-and-team-sports-and-alcohol-use
#8
Anne-Sophie Denault, François Poulin
This study examined the longitudinal associations between participation in individual and team sports and indicators of alcohol use during the high school years and beyond. A total of 310 youths were surveyed over six waves of data collection (ages 12, 14 to 17, and 19). Participation in individual and team sports was measured through phone interviews, whereas frequency of alcohol use, frequency of intoxication, and problematic alcohol use were self-reported. Control variables included participation in other types of organized activities, sex, family income and structure, parental education and knowledge, problem behaviors, deviant peers, and peer status...
October 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121402/incorporating-functional-genomic-information-to-enhance-polygenic-signal-and-identify-variants-involved-in-gene-by-environment-interaction-for-young-adult-alcohol-problems
#9
Jessica E Salvatore, Jeanne E Savage, Peter Barr, Aaron R Wolen, Fazil Aliev, Eero Vuoksimaa, Antti Latvala, Lea Pulkkinen, Richard J Rose, Jaakko Kaprio, Danielle M Dick
BACKGROUND: Characterizing aggregate genetic risk for alcohol misuse and identifying variants involved in gene-by-environment interaction (G×E) effects has so far been a major challenge. We hypothesized that functional genomic information could be used to enhance detection of polygenic signal underlying alcohol misuse, and to prioritize identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most likely to exhibit G×E effects. METHODS: We examined these questions in the young adult FinnTwin12 sample (n=1170)...
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115756/assessing-for-head-injury-in-alcohol-intoxicated-patients
#10
Ciara Hoban
Each year, 1.4 million people with recent head injuries attend emergency departments in England and Wales. The incidence of head injury in acutely intoxicated patients is estimated to be as high as 65%. One of the challenges of assessing and managing patients who have consumed drugs or alcohol is that the signs and symptoms of this type of intoxication are also risk factors for intracranial complications and head injury, which makes differentiation between the two diagnoses difficult. This article examines the literature on assessment and management of intoxicated patients with head injuries to identify the challenges faced by healthcare professionals undertaking neurological assessments...
September 14, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108528/problematic-alcohol-use-and-hippocampal-volume-in-a-female-sample-disentangling-cause-from-consequence-using-a-co-twin-control-study-design
#11
Sylia Wilson, Stephen M Malone, Ruskin H Hunt, Kathleen M Thomas, William G Iacono
BACKGROUND: Although there is extensive evidence that problematic alcohol use is associated with smaller hippocampal volume, the typical cross-sectional study design cannot determine whether hippocampal deviations reflect pre-existing liability toward problematic alcohol use or instead reflect an alcohol exposure-related effect. We used the co-twin control study design, which capitalizes upon differences within a twin pair in levels of drinking, to differentiate pre-existing liability from an effect of alcohol exposure...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105539/treatment-profile-and-1-year-mortality-among-nontraumatic-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-alcohol-related-health-problems
#12
Siiri Hietanen, Tero Ala-Kokko, Pasi Ohtonen, Riikka Käkelä, Solja Niemelä, Janne H Liisanantti
BACKGROUND: Long-term excessive use of alcohol leads to severe complications, which often require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to report on the associations between alcohol-related health problems and treatment profile, as well as 1-year mortality among patients with nontrauma-related ICU admissions. METHODS: Information on the history of alcohol-related health problems or excessive alcohol use and ICU treatment was collected retrospectively from electronic medical records and ICU patient data management systems at Oulu University Hospital, Finland...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101906/characteristics-of-completed-suicide-in-different-blood-alcohol-concentrations-in-korea
#13
Jae Won Lee, C Hyung Keun Park, Eun Young Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Seong Ho Yoo, Yong Min Ahn
AIMS: This study aimed to determine the role of acute alcohol use among suicide decedents based on their blood alcohol concentrations (BAC), and identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with the differences in BAC. METHODS: Data were collected from nationwide autopsies conducted between May 2015 and November 2015 in South Korea. A total of 683 suicide decedents were classified into three groups according to the BAC at the time of autopsy: no alcohol (NA) group (BAC<0...
October 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098340/alcohol-increases-inattentional-blindness-when-cognitive-resources-are-not-consumed-by-ongoing-task-demands
#14
Alistair J Harvey, Sarah J Bayless, Georgia Hyams
RATIONALE: Inattentional blindness (IB) is the inability to detect a salient yet unexpected task irrelevant stimulus in one's visual field when attention is engaged in an ongoing primary task. The present study is the first to examine the impact of both task difficulty and alcohol consumption on IB and primary task performance. OBJECTIVES: On the basis of alcohol myopia theory, the combined effects of increased task difficulty and alcohol intoxication were predicted to impair task performance and restrict the focus of attention on to task-relevant stimuli...
November 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097857/like-the-eye-of-the-tiger-inpatient-psychiatric-facility-exclusionary-criteria-and-its-knockout-of-the-emergency-psychiatric-patient
#15
Veronica Tucci, John Liu, Anu Matorin, Asim Shah, Nidal Moukaddam
Context: Over 6% of all emergency department (ED) visits in the United States involve primary mental health or behavioral issues. The patients are stabilized in the ED but frequently require admission to an inpatient psychiatric unit or institution for longer term treatment and management. To facilitate this process, an emergency physician (EP) must first "medically clear" the patient as stable for transfer. At present, there is no interdisciplinary consensus regarding the necessary elements of the medical clearance or stability assessment process...
October 2017: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096991/intox-detox-antidotes-evidence-based-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-acute-intoxications
#16
Andreas Schaper, Martin Ebbecke
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aim of this review is to describe the role of clinical toxicology in the context of acute medicine. A special focus is put on antidotes and important aspects of diagnosis and therapy of acute intoxications. The data of the annual report of GIZ-Nord Poisons Centre is analyzed concerning the following aspects: what intoxications are relevant in acute medicine, are there special aspects in therapy, e.g. antidotes, and what antidotes are relevant? More over intoxication-related fatalities are analyzed...
October 30, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095168/deaths-associated-with-brotizolam-poisoning-from-a-single-drug-overdose-four-reported-cases
#17
Kentaro Sakai, Kazuyuki Saito, Aya Takada, Wakako Hikiji, Yosuke Kikuchi, Tatsushige Fukunaga
Brotizolam is a short-acting hypnotic in the benzodiazepine family, and fatal poisonings by an overdose of brotizolam are rare. This report describes 4 cases of deaths associated with brotizolam poisoning from a single drug overdose. The ages ranged from 51 to 90 years, and the postmortem interval between death and tissue sampling was 1.5 to 2.5 days. These deaths were classified as 1 homicide and 3 suicides. The concentration of the brotizolam ranged from 0.05 to 0.21 mg/L in the blood samples. Ethanol, which could cause mild alcohol intoxication, was detected in the blood samples from 2 cases...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079068/safety-of-risperidone-for-acute-agitation-and-alcohol-intoxication-in-emergency-department-patients
#18
Patricia A Pepa, Kelly C Lee, Hien E Huynh, Michael P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Acute agitation in the setting of alcohol intoxication is commonly encountered in the Emergency Department (ED). In this setting, expert consensus guidelines recommend haloperidol over second-generation antipsychotics due to their limited safety data in alcohol intoxication. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to compare vital sign changes prior to and after risperidone administration between ED patients presenting with alcohol intoxication [ETOH (+)] and without alcohol intoxication [ETOH (-)]...
October 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070664/epidemiology-of-recurrent-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-general-population-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Oliver Lasry, Erin Y Liu, Guido Antonio Powell, Jessica Ruel-Laliberté, Judith Marcoux, David L Buckeridge
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively assess recurrent traumatic brain injury (rTBI) risk and risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the references of included studies until January 16, 2017, for general population observational studies reporting rTBI risk or risk factors. Estimates were not meta-analyzed due to significant methodologic heterogeneity between studies, which was evaluated using meta-regression. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies reported recurrence risk and 11 reported on 27 potential risk factors...
October 25, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068811/forensic-features-of-clothing-related-deaths-historical-and-cultural-aspects
#20
Roger W Byard
Clothing may both cause death and contribute to ongoing lethal mechanisms by a variety of quite disparate mechanisms. The manner of death may be accidental, suicidal, or homicidal. Accidental deaths include burning from clothing catching on fire, strangulation from clothing tangling in vehicle wheels or exposed machinery, and drowning. Entanglement of clothing in machinery may also result in significant injuries, which are not uncommon in farming communities. Excessive clothing, or its absence, may significantly alter body temperature, and hanging from clothing is a feature in the young or in mentally or physically handicapped adults, or in adults who are intoxicated with alcohol or drugs...
December 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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