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alcohol intoxication

Hitesh Raheja, Vinod Namana, Kirti Chopra, Ankur Sinha, Sushilkumar Satish Gupta, Stephan Kamholz, Norbert Moskovits, Jacob Shani, Gerald Hollander
Background: Acute alcohol intoxication has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias but the electrocardiogram (ECG) changes associated with acute alcohol intoxication are not well defined in the literature. Objective: Highlight the best evidence regarding the ECG changes associated with acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy patients and the pathophysiology of the changes. Methods: A literature search was carried out; 4 studies relating to ECG changes with acute alcohol intoxication were included in this review...
2018: Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga, Elizabeth Sevilla, Yara Ursiel-Ortega
OBJETIVE: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) associated to alcohol consumption is a global public health problem. It is important to identify and rethink the strategies to approach this challenge for health institutions from a professional perspective. METHODS: An online survey, created with google forms, was sent to professional neurosurgeons in Mexico and Latin America. Participation was voluntary, and the responses were anonymous and confidential. Data were captured after a month and subjected to descriptive statistical analysis using Fisher's method and Chi Square...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Gro Askgaard, Janne S Tolstrup, Mette S Kjær, David A Leon
AIMS: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is usually preceded by years of heavy drinking. We investigated whether the risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis increases as the number of hospital contacts with alcohol problems goes up. METHODS: This was a supplementary analysis on a nationwide register-based cohort study. All patients in Denmark with an initial hospital contact with alcohol problems (alcohol intoxication, harmful alcohol use or alcohol dependence) 1998-2002, free of liver disease, were followed for diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Travis T Mallard, James R Ashenhurst, K Paige Harden, Kim Fromme
GABRA2, the gene encoding the α2 subunit of the GABAA receptor, potentially plays a role in the etiology of problematic drinking, as GABRA2 genotype has been associated with subjective response to alcohol and other alcohol-related reward processes. The GABRA2 gene has also been associated with illicit drug use, but the extent to which associations with drug use are independent of associations with alcohol use remains unclear, partly because most previous research has used a cross-sectional design that cannot discriminate comorbidity at the between-person level and co-occurrence within-persons...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Noora K Airaksinen, Ilona S Nurmi-Lüthje, J Matti Kataja, Heikki P J Kröger, Peter M J Lüthje
BACKGROUND: Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. METHODS: Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006...
March 3, 2018: Injury
Daniel Serrani, Gabriela Galfetti, Cinthia Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: to investigate factors in?uencing length of stay and predictors for the risk of readmission at an acute psychiatric inpatient unit. METHOD: retrospective cross-sectional clinical fle audit ranging four years back, a random selection of 378 patients was reviewed, including 178 cases and 200 controls. A case control study was employed in the study of length of stay, and for predictors of risk of readmission a retrospective cohort study was used. RESULTS: the 7 variables that were associated with length of stay were: 1- instruction level, 2- place of origin, 3- use of restraints, 4- gender, 5- marital status, 6- drug class, and 7- number of visits...
July 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Anthony Kopatsis, Christine Wagner, Helen Costello, Nicholas Morin, Katherine Elizabeth Kopatsis, Mario Gomez
We sought to determine patterns of injury in our Latino trauma community targeting alcohol (EtOH) intoxication as an influential variable. With the information gained in our culturally specific and culturally sensitive trauma community, we can use the information to fine-tune our trauma preventive medicine programs. Trauma injuries are the third largest contributor to racial disparities in the United States. Alcohol is involved in approximately half of all trauma admissions to trauma centers around the country...
March 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Chong Sherry Cheever, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and describe the importance of alcohol screening for all patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine the relationship between gender, age, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), emergent decompressive craniectomy, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) from the emergency department (ED), and the length of stay with alcohol screening. METHOD: This is a retrospective analysis of de-identified data from the 2012 TBI registry of a level 1 trauma center in the Pacific Northwest...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Mio Takayama, Brian Waters, Hiroshi Fujii, Kenji Hara, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Natsuki Ikematsu, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Based on a prospective case-control study of forensic autopsies, the causes of cocaine (COC)-related sudden death (SD) are cardiovascular events in 62.0% of cases, cerebrovascular events in 14.0%, and others. A forensic autopsy of a male in his early forties revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the base of the brain. A cerebral arterial aneurysm was not detected even though hemorrhage was clearly observed in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) bifurcation area. The brain weighed 1488 g and was edematous...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Kristin Buvik, Elin K Bye, Johanna Gripenberg
AIMS: There is increased concern about the use of alcohol and illicit drugs in nightlife settings. Most studies of substance use in nightlife settings are from the patrons' perspective, which leaves an understudied population - the nightclub staff. The aim of this paper is to study self-reported alcohol and substance use among staff at licensed premises in Norway: types of illicit drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among patrons. METHODS: A survey was conducted at server-training courses in 20 different cities in Norway during 2015...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Melissa A Lewis, Isaac C Rhew, Anne M Fairlie, Alex Swanson, Judyth Anderson, Debra Kaysen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate personalized feedback intervention (PFI) framing with two web-delivered PFIs aimed to reduce young adult alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB). Combined PFIs typically use an additive approach whereby independent components on drinking and components on RSB are presented without the discussion of the influence of alcohol on RSB. In contrast, an integrated PFI highlights the RSB-alcohol connection by presenting integrated alcohol and RSB components that focus on the role of intoxication as a barrier to risk reduction in sexual situations...
March 6, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Kai H Lee, Michael Qiu, Jiandong Sun
OBJECTIVES: The algorithm for maxillofacial trauma management is well defined; however, provision of alcohol assessment for patients after trauma is not widely practiced. This study aims to investigate the rate of alcohol assessment achieved within the demographic characteristics of patients with facial trauma and the circumstances where this intervention was implemented. STUDY DESIGN: This study retrospectively examined the Victorian Admitted Episodes Data Set (VAED) from 2004 to 2013...
February 1, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Christopher M Altman, Nadja Schreiber Compo, Dawn McQuiston, Angelica V Hagsand, Jiselle Cervera
Research on alcohol and witness memory has burgeoned over the last decade. However, most studies have tested participants at relatively low breath alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, unrepresentative of those encountered by officers in the field. To examine how higher intoxication levels might impair witness memory for events and faces, the current research tested participants' ability to recall a mock crime at elevated BAC levels (>.08%). The BAC levels of bar patrons (N = 138) were recorded before witnessing a video-taped mock crime...
March 4, 2018: Memory
Hyung-Joo Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Dong-Woo Seo, Chang Hwan Sohn, Seung Mok Ryoo, Shin Ahn, Yoon-Seon Lee, Won Young Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim
OBJECTIVE: The detection of intracranial injury in patients with facial injury rather than traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a challenge for emergency physicians. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of intracranial injury in patients with orbital wall fracture (OWF), who were classified with a chief complaint of facial injury rather than TBI. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study enrolled adult OWF patients (age ≥18 years) who presented at the hospital between January 2004 and March 2016...
February 24, 2018: Injury
M Mackus, M van Schrojenstein Lantman, A J A E Van de Loo, A D Kraneveld, J Garssen, K A Brookhuis, J C Verster
BACKGROUND: Previous research demonstrated that urinary ethanol concentrations were significantly lower in hangover resistant individuals compared to drinkers who reported having a hangover. This finding suggests that the rate of ethanol metabolism is faster in drinkers who do not experience an alcohol hangover. This study aimed to directly compare alcohol metabolism after administering a low dose of ethanol to hangover sensitive drinkers and hangover resistant drinkers. METHODS: Social drinkers who previously participated in hangover trials at Utrecht University were invited to participate...
February 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Leon G Coleman, Fulton T Crews
Innate immune signaling is an important feature in the pathology of alcohol use disorders. Alcohol abuse causes persistent innate immune activation in the brain. This is seen in postmortem human alcoholic brain specimens, as well as in primate and rodent models of alcohol consumption. Further, in vitro models of alcohol exposure in neurons and glia also demonstrate innate immune activation. The activation of the innate immune system seems to be important in the development of alcohol use pathology, as anti-immune therapies reduce pathology and ethanol self-administration in rodent models...
March 3, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Prosper N'Gouemo
Voltage-sensitive Ca2+ (CaV ) channels are the primary route of depolarization-induced Ca2+ entry in neurons and other excitable cells, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ). The resulting increase in [Ca2+ ]i activates a wide range of Ca2+ -dependent processes in neurons, including neurotransmitter release, gene transcription, activation of Ca2+ -dependent enzymes, and activation of certain K+ channels and chloride channels. In addition to their key roles under physiological conditions, CaV channels are also an important target of alcohol, and alcohol-induced changes in Ca2+ signaling can disturb neuronal homeostasis, Ca2+ -mediated gene transcription, and the function of neuronal circuits, leading to various neurological and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders, including alcohol withdrawal induced-seizures and alcoholism...
March 3, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Laura B Ferguson, R Adron Harris, Roy Dayne Mayfield
The alcohol research field has amassed an impressive number of gene expression datasets spanning key brain areas for addiction, species (humans as well as multiple animal models), and stages in the addiction cycle (binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative effect, and preoccupation/anticipation). These data have improved our understanding of the molecular adaptations that eventually lead to dysregulation of brain function and the chronic, relapsing disorder of addiction. Identification of new medications to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD) will likely benefit from the integration of genetic, genomic, and behavioral information included in these important datasets...
March 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Kalsi Juhani, Selander Tuomas, Tervo Timo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between annual alcohol consumption per capita/alcohol price index and the number of alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle accidents (AFMVAs). We were particularly interested in whether a tax reduction in 2004 increased the number of alcohol-related accidents. METHOD: The data consisted of all fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVAs) during the years 2000-2016 obtained from a database maintained by the Finnish Crash Data Institute (OTI)...
February 27, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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