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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777122/alcohol-facilitates-detection-of-concealed-identity-information
#1
Kristina Suchotzki, Matthias Gamer
The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a well-validated means to detect whether someone possesses certain (e.g., crime-relevant) information. The current study investigated whether alcohol intoxication during CIT administration influences reaction time (RT) CIT-effects. Two opposing predictions can be made. First, by decreasing attention to critical information, alcohol intoxication could diminish CIT-effects. Second, by hampering the inhibition of truthful responses, alcohol intoxication could increase CIT-effects...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773276/-psychiatric-comorbidities-of-alcohol-dependence
#2
Alain Dervaux, Xavier Laqueille
Psychiatric disorders are common among patients with alcohol dependence. Symptoms of alcohol intoxication or withdrawal need to be disentangled from symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Alcohol dependence could induce psychiatric disorders, in particular depressive disorders and anxiety disorders. Patients with psychiatric disorders may self-medicate with alcohol use. There may be common factors promoting both alcohol dependence and psychiatric disorders: about 40% of patients with alcohol dependence present personality disorders...
May 14, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767818/adapting-the-risk-environment-framework-to-understand-substance-use-gender-based-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-female-sex-workers-in-tanzania
#3
Anna M Leddy, Carol Underwood, Michele R Decker, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Noya Galai, Deanna Kerrigan
Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV and gender-based violence (GBV). Substance use overlaps with these co-occurring epidemics to further increase FSWs' risk for negative health outcomes. We explored the relationship between substance use, GBV, and consistent condom use utilizing baseline data from a cohort of 496 FSWs in Tanzania. Results demonstrate high levels of alcohol use and GBV, and low levels of consistent condom use. Frequent intoxication during sex work was associated with increased odds of recent GBV (aOR 1...
May 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753571/subway-related-trauma-an-urban-public-health-issue-with-a-high-case-fatality-rate
#4
Simon G Rodier, Charles J DiMaggio, Stephen Wall, Vasiliy Sim, Spiros G Frangos, Patricia Ayoung-Chee, Marko Bukur, Manish Tandon, S Rob Todd, Gary T Marshall
BACKGROUND: Between 1990 and 2003, there were 668 subway-related fatalities in New York City. However, subway-related trauma remains an understudied area of injury-related morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the injuries and events leading up to the injuries of all patients admitted after subway-related trauma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of subway-related trauma at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2016...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746920/animal-models-of-nafld-from-the-pathologist-s-point-of-view
#5
REVIEW
Helmut Denk, Peter M Abuja, Kurt Zatloukal
Fatty liver disease is a multifactorial world-wide health problem resulting from a complex interplay between liver, adipose tissue and intestine and initiated by alcohol abuse, overeating, various types of intoxication, adverse drug reactions and genetic or acquired metabolic defects. Depending on etiology fatty liver disease is commonly categorized as alcoholic or non-alcoholic. Both types may progress from simple steatosis to the necro-inflammatory lesion of alcoholic (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), respectively, and finally to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745329/building-bridges-between-clinical-and-forensic-toxicology-laboratories
#6
Bernardino Barcelo Martin, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce
BACKGROUND: Clinical and forensic toxicology can be defined as the two disciplines involved the detection, identification and measurement of xenobiotics in biological and non-biological specimens to help in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention of poisonings and to disclose causes and contributory causes of fatal intoxications, respectively. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the close connections between clinical and forensic toxicology in overlapping areas of interest...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742634/successful-implementation-of-an-alcohol-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-program
#7
Eric Zimmermann, Jason M Sample, Mary Ellen Zimmermann, Francesca Sullivan, Sarah Stankiewicz, Pierre Saldinger
Devastating effects of alcohol are well established in trauma. To address this, thve American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) requires ACS-verified Level 1 trauma centers to have an active screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) program. In 2015, NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens successfully implemented an SBIRT program. Previous studies indicate difficulty in achieving a high level of SBIRT compliance. We explored the effects of a multidisciplinary approach in implementing a standardized screening protocol for every trauma-activated patient 15 years or older...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740347/cue-induced-ethanol-seeking-in-drosophila-melanogaster-is-dose-dependent
#8
Kavin M Nunez, Reza Azanchi, Karla R Kaun
Alcohol use disorder generates devastating social, medical and economic burdens, making it a major global health issue. The persistent nature of memories associated with intoxication experiences often induces cravings and triggers relapse in recovering individuals. Despite recent advances, the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying these memories are complex and not well understood. This makes finding effective pharmacological targets challenging. The investigation of persistent alcohol-associated memories in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , presents a unique opportunity to gain a comprehensive understanding of the memories for ethanol reward at the level of genes, molecules, neurons and circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738795/animal-models-of-binge-drinking-current-challenges-to-improve-face-validity
#9
REVIEW
Jérôme Jeanblanc, Benjamin Rolland, Fabien Gierski, Margaret P Martinetti, Mickael Naassila
Binge drinking (BD), i.e., consuming a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time, is an increasing public health issue. Though no clear definition has been adopted worldwide the speed of drinking seems to be a keystone of this behavior. Developing relevant animal models of BD is a priority for gaining a better characterization of the neurobiological and psychobiological mechanisms underlying this dangerous and harmful behavior. Until recently, preclinical research on BD has been conducted mostly using forced administration of alcohol, but more recent studies used scheduled access to alcohol, to model more voluntary excessive intakes, and to achieve signs of intoxications that mimic the human behavior...
May 5, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737425/haemorrhagic-stroke-related-to-the-use-of-4-fluoroamphetamine
#10
C H W Wijers, M C Visser, R T H van Litsenburg, R J M Niesink, R B Willemse, Esther A Croes
INTRODUCTION: The use of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and the number of 4-FA-related intoxications substantially increased in The Netherlands in recent years. We describe two patients with severe 4-FA-related complications and the characteristics of a large sample of 4-FA-intoxicated patients. METHODS: Information on patients with 4-FA-related intoxications between January 2009 and June 2017 was available from the Monitor Drug-related Incidents...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735227/care-of-the-injured-patients-at-nursing-stations-and-during-air-medical-transport
#11
Brodie Nolan, Alun Ackery, Sol Mamakwa, Shari Glenn, David VanderBurgh, Aaron Orkin, Michael Kirlew, Evelyn Dell, Homer Tien
INTRODUCTION: Nursing stations are the only access point into the health care system for some communities and have limited capabilities and resources. We describe characteristics of patients injured in Northern Ontario who present to nursing stations and require transport by air ambulance. Secondary objectives are to compare interventions performed at nursing stations with those performed by flight paramedics and to identify systemic gaps in trauma care. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of all injured patients transported by air ambulance from April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015...
May 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733875/neuroinflammation-markers-and-methyl-alcohol-induced-toxic-brain-damage
#12
Sergey Zakharov, Jiri Hlusicka, Olga Nurieva, Katerina Kotikova, Lucie Lischkova, Petr Kacer, Tereza Kacerova, Pavel Urban, Manuela Vaneckova, Zdenek Seidl, Pavel Diblik, Pavel Kuthan, Jarmila Heissigerova, Jiri Lesovsky, Jan Rulisek, Lucie Vojtova, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Tomas Navratil
Methyl alcohol intoxication is a global problem with high mortality and long-term visual sequelae and severe brain damage in survivors. The role of neuroinflammation in the mechanisms of methyl alcohol-induced toxic brain damage has not been well studied. We measured the acute concentrations and dynamics of lipoxins LxA4 and LxB4 and the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13 in the serum of patients treated with methyl alcohol poisoning and the follow-up concentrations in survivors two years after discharge from the hospital...
May 4, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731519/development-of-intensive-motivational-interviewing-imi-and-modifications-for-treating-women-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#13
Douglas L Polcin, Rachael Korcha, Madhabika Nayak
Women have greater vulnerability to alcohol problems than men. They become intoxicated after drinking half as much as men, develop cirrhosis of the liver more rapidly, and have a greater risk of dying from alcohol-related accidents. Despite more serious consequences related to their drinking, treatment for women with alcohol use disorders has been understudied relative to treatment for men. Intensive motivational interviewing (IMI) is a recent psychotherapeutic intervention for substance abuse problems that draws on the principles of brief motivational interviewing (1-2 session)...
June 2018: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728649/small-molecule-modulators-of-%C3%AF-2r-tmem97-reduce-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-behaviors
#14
Luisa L Scott, James J Sahn, Antonio Ferragud, Rachel C Yen, Praveen N Satarasinghe, Michael D Wood, Timothy R Hodges, Ted Shi, Brooke A Prakash, Kaitlyn M Friese, Angela Shen, Valentina Sabino, Jonathan T Pierce, Stephen F Martin
Repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal enhance the negative reinforcing properties of alcohol and lead to neuroadaptations that underlie withdrawal symptoms driving alcohol dependence. Pharmacotherapies that target these neuroadaptations may help break the cycle of dependence. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) subtype has attracted interest as a possible modulator of the rewarding and reinforcing effects of alcohol. However, whether the sigma-2 receptor, recently cloned and identified as transmembrane protein 97 (σ2R/TMEM97), plays a role in alcohol-related behaviors is currently unknown...
April 20, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723800/familial-alcohol-supply-adolescent-drinking-and-early-alcohol-onset-in-45-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
Gary C K Chan, Janni Leung, Adrian B Kelly, Jason Connor, Stephanie Edward, Wayne Hall, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Chiu, George Patton
AIMS: This study estimated the extent of familial alcohol supply in 45 low and middle income countries (LMIC), and examined the country-level effects of familial alcohol supply on adolescents' alcohol use. METHOD: We used data from 45 LMICs that participated in the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2003 and 2013 (n = 139,840). The weighted prevalence of familial alcohol supply in each country was estimated. Multilevel binary and ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to examine the country-level effect of familial alcohol supply on early onset of alcohol use (first alcohol before 12), past 30-day alcohol use, lifetime drunkenness and alcohol-related social problems...
April 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716882/vacuolization-in-myeloid-and-erythroid-precursors-in-a-child-with-menkes-disease
#16
Seçil Sayın, Şule Ünal, Mualla Cetin, Fatma Gumruk
A five year-old boy, who was under follow-up with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of Menkes Disease (MD) since ten months of age, was admitted with diarrhea. On examination he had a characteristic cherubic face hypopigmented, sparse hair, hepatosplenomegaly, hypotonia with brisk deep tendon reflexes. Hemogram revealed: Hb:5.5g/dL, Hct:16.2%, RBC:1.69x1012/L, MCV:95.8fL, MCH:32.3pg, RDW:19.2%, WBC:2.2x109/L and platelet count;157x109/L. Serum vitamin B12 level was 575pg/mL. Serum copper level was 81μg/dL and serum zinc level was 152μg/dL...
April 30, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716689/e-cigarettes-and-the-use-of-conventional-cigarettes
#17
Matthis Morgenstern, Alina Nies, Michaela Goecke, Reiner Hanewinkel
BACKGROUND: In 2015, 12.1% of 12- to 17-year-olds in Germany had reportedly already tried e-cigarette smoking at least once. We carried out a study of the "gateway" hypothesis, according to which the use of e-cigarettes can motivate adolescents to start smoking conventional cigarettes. METHODS: During the 2015/2016 school year, 2186 tenth-graders in the German states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein who had never smoked conventional cigarettes before took part in a survey over a 6-month period (mean age 15...
April 6, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713788/acute-drug-effects-on-habitual-and-non-habitual-responding-in-crossed-high-alcohol-preferring-mice
#18
Christa A Houck, Nicholas J Grahame
RATIONALE: Drug reward plays a central role in acquiring drug-seeking behavior. However, subjects may continue using drugs despite negative consequences because self-administration becomes habitual, and divorced from outcome values. Although a history of drug and alcohol use expedite habit acquisition, and in spite of the fact that self-administration leads to intoxication, the acute effects of drugs on habitual responding are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to observe how acute ethanol and amphetamine affect the balance between habitual and goal-directed behavior, as measured by a fluid-reinforced operant conditioning task...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713125/beneficial-effects-of-naringenin-in-liver-diseases-molecular-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Erika Hernández-Aquino, Pablo Muriel
Liver diseases are caused by different etiological agents, mainly alcohol consumption, viruses, drug intoxication or malnutrition. Frequently, liver diseases are initiated by oxidative stress and inflammation that lead to the excessive production of extracellular matrix (ECM), followed by a progression to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that some natural products display hepatoprotective properties. Naringenin is a flavonoid with antioxidant, antifibrogenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties that is capable of preventing liver damage caused by different agents...
April 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708460/weighing-the-pros-and-cons-of-using-alcohol-protective-behavioral-strategies-a-qualitative-examination-among-college-students
#20
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, Leah E Stevens, James M Henson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are behaviors engaged in immediately prior to, during, after, or instead of drinking with the explicit goal of reducing alcohol use, intoxication, and/or alcohol-related harms. Despite the quantitative support for alcohol PBS as a protective factor among college student drinkers, we know of no qualitative research aimed at determining college student drinkers' perceptions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of using PBS...
April 30, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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