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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344053/an-overview-of-exposure-to-ethanol-containing-substances-and-ethanol-intoxication-in-children-based-on-three-illustrated-cases
#1
REVIEW
Kam Lun Hon, Alexander Kc Leung, Eddie Cheung, Bryan Lee, Michelle Mc Tsang, Alcy R Torres
Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338922/alcohol-consumption-masculinity-and-alcohol-related-violence-and-anti-social-behaviour-in-sportspeople
#2
Kerry S O'Brien, Walter Forrest, Iain Greenlees, Daniel Rhind, Sophia Jowett, Ilana Pinsky, Albert Espelt, Marina Bosque-Prous, Anders Larrabee Sonderlund, Matteo Vergani, Muhammad Iqbal
OBJECTIVES: There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337586/differential-development-of-acute-tolerance-may-explain-heightened-rates-of-impaired-driving-after-consumption-of-alcohol-mixed-with-energy-drinks-versus-alcohol-alone
#3
Cecile A Marczinski, Amy L Stamates, Sarah F Maloney
Consumers of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more likely to drive while impaired when compared to alcohol alone consumers. In addition, acute tolerance to the internal cues of feelings of intoxication is known to contribute to maladaptive decisions to drive while impaired. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there is differential development of acute tolerance for AmED versus alcohol alone for ratings of willingness to drive after alcohol consumption. Social drinkers (n = 12) attended 4 separate sessions where they received alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331756/-you-re-repulsive-limits-to-acceptable-drunken-comportment-for-young-adults
#4
Sarah MacLean, Amy Pennay, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Researchers have described a 'culture of intoxication' among young people. Yet drunkenness remains a socially risky practice with potential to evoke emotions of irritation and even disgust. We consider intoxicated practices that young adults in Melbourne, Australia, described as distasteful, to identify contemporary cultural forces that constrain intoxication and limit how it is enacted. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 60 participants in Melbourne, Australia, each with recent drinking experience...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329406/judgement-of-breath-alcohol-concentration-levels-among-pedestrians-in-the-night-time-economy-a-street-intercept-field-study
#5
M P Cameron, M J Roskruge, N Droste, P G Miller
Aims: To evaluate how well people in the night-time economy can assess their own breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), in the context of a change in breath alcohol limits for driving. Methods: We conducted a field study of 242 participants over 5 nights in the central business district of a university town in New Zealand. Participants completed a short survey, which included questions on their self-reported level of intoxication and the self-estimated BrAC. At the conclusion of the interview each participant was breath-tested...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#6
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327316/-diagnosis-differential-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-substance-use-disorders-in-general-hospital-general-section
#7
REVIEW
Anton Schmick, Josef Jenewein, Sönke Böttger
Substance use disorders are becoming an increasingly significant problem in general hospitals and hence play a key role in consultation- and liaison psychiatry. Diverse psychotropic effects of various substances mimic psychiatric disorders. An alcohol intoxication can present depressive or manic symptoms, a cannabis delirium can present as a psychosis while stimulants use can suggest the diagnosis of an anxiety disorder. Obtaining dual diagnoses by identifying substance-induced and non-substance-induced psychopathologies is clinically challenging...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321805/simultaneous-measurement-of-formic-acid-methanol-and-ethanol-in-vitreous-and-blood-samples-of-postmortem-by-headspace-gc-fid
#8
Hamideh Ghorbani, Alireza Nezami, Behjat Sheikholeslami, Arya Hedjazi, Mahnaz Ahmadimanesh
Background: Formic acid (formate) is the main reason for toxicity and death through methanol poisoning. The simultaneous determination of methanol, ethanol, and formate in the body can help to discover the cause of death and is useful in the diagnosis of acute methanol poisoning. The measurement of formate is not yet available in Iran. With regard to the increasing rate of methanol poisoning and its related mortality in Iran, as well as the main role of formate in methanol poisoning, this study was designed to set up an analytical method for the concurrent determination of ethanol, methanol, and formate...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317484/chemogenetic-excitation-of-accumbens-projecting-infralimbic-cortical-neurons-blocks-toluene-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#9
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317062/could-the-screening-for-correct-oral-health-reduce-the-impact-of-death-due-to-bolus-asphyxia-in-adult-patients-a-forensic-case-report
#10
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Emilio Nuzzolese, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Pietrantonio Ricci
INTRODUCTION: "Bolus death" or "Café Coronary syndrome" refers to death due to asphyxia caused by an occlusion of the upper airways due to food. In this kind of asphyxia, the food bolus obstructs the larynx or the bronchial branches. This kind of event often affects subjects with acute intoxication due to alcohol or drugs, or with edentulism and with neurological or psychiatric diseases. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman, suffering from schizophrenia, was found dead in her house due to food bolus asphyxia...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313253/the-neural-correlates-of-alcohol-related-aggression
#11
Thomas F Denson, Kate A Blundell, Timothy P Schofield, Mark M Schira, Ulrike M Krämer
Alcohol intoxication is implicated in approximately half of all violent crimes. Over the past several decades, numerous theories have been proposed to account for the influence of alcohol on aggression. Nearly all of these theories imply that altered functioning in the prefrontal cortex is a proximal cause. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, 50 healthy young men consumed either a low dose of alcohol or a placebo and completed an aggression paradigm against provocative and nonprovocative opponents...
January 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310206/sex-difference-in-risk-period-for-completed-suicide-following-prior-attempts-korea-national-suicide-survey-knss
#12
Bora Kim, Joongyub Lee, Eun-Young Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Kyooseob Ha, Young Shin Kim, Bennett L Leventhal, Yong Min Ahn
OBJECTIVES: We provide an opportunity for implementing preventive interventions to decrease suicide mortality among prior suicide attempters. We aim to identify sex-specific high risk periods and factors for later suicide death among suicide attempters. METHODS: 8537 suicide attempters of Korea National Suicide Survey were collected from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011 and data on suicide death was obtained as of December 31, 2012. The risk period and risk factors for later suicide death was computed by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and by plotting the hazard function using the Epanechnikov Kernal smoothing method and cox proportional hazard regression modeling...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304425/age-at-drinking-onset-age-at-first-intoxication-and-delay-to-first-intoxication-assessing-the-concurrent-validity-of-measures-of-drinking-initiation-with-alcohol-use-and-related-problems
#13
Meghan E Morean, Alexa L'Insalata, Ellyn R Butler, Avalon McKee, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
INTRODUCTION: Drinking at an early age (AO) and quickly progressing to drinking to intoxication (Delay=Age of Intoxication[AI]-AO) confer risk for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. However, inconsistencies exist in the literature, which may reflect the use of different definitions of AO and AI. We evaluated whether 1) defining AO as age at first sip of alcohol (AO sip) versus age at which at least one standard drink was consumed (AO drink); and 2) defining AI as age at first "drunk" (AI drunk) versus age at first binge episode (≥5 standard drinks consumed; AI binge) resulted in different self-reported ages or differentially predicted drinking outcomes...
December 21, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297740/impact-of-a-mass-gathering-alcohol-sobering-facility-on-emergency-resources
#14
Franco Castro-Marin, Steven A Maher, Tomas Navarro, Tomas Nuño, John Whitney, Andrew McDonald, Albert Razo, Christopher Marcuzzo, Russell Chick, Joshua B Gaither
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption has been implicated as an important factor driving the demand for medical care at mass gatherings. Patients exhibiting signs of possible alcohol intoxication are frequently diverted from traditional medical support facilities located within mass gathering events due to their disruptive behavior or need for prolonged observation. This conventional strategy can place additional stress on Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Emergency Department (ED) resources...
January 3, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297739/measuring-a-crisis-questioning-the-use-of-naloxone-administrations-as-a-marker-for-opioid-overdoses-in-a-large-u-s-ems-system
#15
Joseph M Grover, Taibah Alabdrabalnabi, Mehul D Patel, Michael W Bachman, Timothy F Platts-Mills, Jose G Cabanas, Jefferson G Williams
OBJECTIVE: The United States is currently experiencing a public health crisis of opioid overdoses. To determine where resources may be most needed, many public health officials utilize naloxone administration by EMS as an easily-measured surrogate marker for opioid overdoses in a community. Our objective was to evaluate whether naloxone administration by EMS accurately represents EMS calls for opioid overdose. We hypothesize that naloxone administration underestimates opioid overdose...
January 3, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289398/intravenous-crystalloid-fluid-for-acute-alcoholic-intoxication-prolongs-emergency-department-length-of-stay
#16
Yosuke Homma, Takashi Shiga, Yuiko Hoshina, Kenji Numata, Michiko Mizobe, Yoshiyuki Nakashima, Jin Takahashi, Tetsuya Inoue, Osamu Takahashi, Hiraku Funakoshi
OBJECTIVES: Acute alcohol intoxication is often treated in emergency departments by intravenous crystalloid fluid (IVF), but it is not clear that this shortens the time to achieving sobriety. The study aim was to investigate the association of IVF infusion and length of stay in the ED. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted in Japan and included patients aged ≥20years of age and treated for acute alcohol intoxication without or with IVF...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282233/ethanol-forensic-toxicology
#17
Paul J Perry, Shadi Doroudgar, Priscilla Van Dyke
Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281165/an-intercept-study-to-measure-the-extent-to-which-new-zealand-university-students-pre-game
#18
Benjamin C Riordan, Tamlin S Conner, Jayde A M Flett, Nic Droste, Louise Cody, Kate L Brookie, Jessica K Riordan, Damian Scarf
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the degree to which students pre-gamed in New Zealand, using self-report and breathalysers. METHODS: A total of 569 New Zealand undergraduate students were interviewed (men = 45.2%; first year = 81.4%) entering three university-run concerts. We asked participants to report how many drinks they had consumed, their self-reported intoxication and the duration of their pre-gaming session. We then recorded participants' Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC; µg/L) and the time they arrived at the event...
December 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279210/the-i3-model-a-metatheoretical-framework-for-understanding-aggression
#19
REVIEW
Eli J Finkel, Andrew N Hall
The I3 Model is a general-purpose metatheory. It posits that three orthogonal processes influence the likelihood and intensity of a given behavior, including aggressive behavior. Instigation encompasses immediate environmental stimuli (e.g., provocation) that normatively afford an aggressive response. Impellance encompasses situational or dispositional qualities (e.g., trait aggressiveness) that influence how strongly the instigator produces a proclivity to enact that response. Inhibition encompasses situational or dispositional qualities (e...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279029/beyond-leisure-the-role-of-alcohol-in-the-lives-of-nigerian-university-students
#20
Emeka W Dumbili, Blessing N Onyima
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption among young people in Nigeria has traditionally been constrained due to the socio-cultural belief that alcohol is for adults. In contemporary Nigeria, media reports indicate that young people drink alcohol regularly in large quantities, but empirical research on what motivates their alcohol use is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To explore the motives for consuming alcohol among male and female students at a Nigerian university. METHODS: Drawing on motivational theories of alcohol use, 31 semi-structured interviews were conducted with students (aged 19-23 years)...
December 26, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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