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alcohol intoxication

Nnamdi G Nelson, Faten A Suhaidi, Ross S DeAngelis, Nu-Chu Liang
Ethanol can be a food source but its effects on energy balance and contribution to obesity remain inconclusive. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on energy intake and body weight would depend on the administration dose, pattern and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) time-course. Experiment 1 examined changes in food intake, diet preference, and body weight after saline or ethanol (1 and 3g/Kg) injection (IP). Experiment 2 compared the effects in rats that received either 3g/Kg/day ethanol administered all at once (EtOH_S) or in 2 1...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ikenna C Nweze, Jody C DiGiacomo, Silvia S Shin, Camilla Gupta, Rema Ramakrishnan, Lambros D G Angus
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related trauma remains high among underserved patients despite ongoing preventive measures. Geographic variability in prevalence of alcohol-related injury has prompted reexamination of this burden across different regions. We sought to elucidate demographic and socioeconomic factors influencing the prevalence of alcohol-related trauma among underserved patients and determine alcohol effects on selected outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis examined whether patients admitted to a suburban trauma center differed according to their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on admission...
October 18, 2016: Injury
V S Ulanov
This paper is designed to report the results of the comparative analysis of the structural alterations in the testicles under conditions of experimental acute and chronic alcohol intoxication in the laboratory rats. It was shown that experimental acute alcohol intoxication causes only such changes that suggest the non-specific gonadal response to alcohol poisoning and represent characteristic manifestations of the general organ reactions. The chronic exposure of the experimental animals to alcohol results in more pronounced changes in the testicles the severity of which depends on the duration of alcohol consumption...
2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Leidy Johanna Ocampo Arroyave, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Helen Gonçalves
This study focuses on trends and inequalities in health risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study compared two birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,281 adolescents from the 1982 cohort and 4,106 from the 1993 cohort, followed in 2001 and 2011, respectively. The study recorded alcohol intake, illegal drug use, smoking, sexual initiation < 16 years, lack of condom use, and multiple sex partners. Total prevalence rates were calculated for each cohort, stratified by gender and per capita income, besides absolute and relative measures of inequality...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Robert T Granata, Edward M Castillo, Gary M Vilke
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with altered mental status and alcohol intoxication can clinically resemble patients with an intracranial hemorrhage. Although intracranial hemorrhage is quickly excluded with a head computed tomographic (CT) scan, it is common practice to defer imaging and allow the patient to metabolize to spare ED resources and minimize radiation exposure to the patient. Although this reduces unnecessary scans, it may delay treatment in patients with occult intracranial hemorrhage, which some fear may increase morbidity and mortality...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Bethany G Everett, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Tonda L Hughes
RATIONALE: A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women's perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education...
October 4, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Hussein Algahtani, Bader Shirah, Raafat Ahmad, Hind Abobaker, Mohammed Hmoud
CONTEXT: Methanol is the simplest member of alcohol family. However, it is an extremely toxic substance to humans upon exposure with severe and detrimental effects that range from visual loss to death. Spinal cord involvement in methanol intoxication is a rare occurrence. FINDINGS: In this article, we are reporting a case of methanol intoxication with extensive spinal cord involvement possibly due to necrosis. A literature review yielded only two cases of spinal cord involvement due to methanol intoxication...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Da-Li Lu, Xiao-Ling Lin
Psychotic symptoms can occur in some clinical conditions related to alcohol, such as intoxication, withdrawal, and other alcohol-induced neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a case report of a 24-year-old man, without a known psychiatric history, who developed brief psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol repeatedly. To our knowledge, no related previous literature regarding this has been reported.
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Biswadev Mitra, Kate E Charters, John C Spencer, Mark C Fitzgerald, Peter A Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of non-motorised road users involved in road traffic crashes that presents to hospital intoxicated. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective cohort study using data collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry. All patients presenting to an adult major trauma centre in Victoria, Australia from July 2009 to June 2014 who were involved in a road traffic crash as a non-motorised road user - pedestrians, pedal-cyclists, non-motorised scooter users, horse riders - were included...
October 4, 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Miguel Marcos, Jorge-Luis Torres, Pilar Costa-Alba, Francisco García-García, Francisco-Javier Laso, Consuelo Guerri
Heavy binge drinking in adolescence can cause long-term cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Recent experimental evidence indicates the participation of immune system activation in the effects of ethanol in the adolescent brain and suggests gender differences. The present study aims to assess plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in male and female adolescents and young adults during acute alcohol intoxication and to correlate these results with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) response. The potential role of the TLR4 signaling response was also assessed in plasma and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent wild-type and TLR4-knockout male and female mice with binge ethanol treatment...
October 4, 2016: Addiction Biology
Sarah J Bayless, Alistair J Harvey
The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simultaneously counting the flashes of a centrally presented fixation cross...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Iain G McKinnon, Stuart Dm Thomas, Heather L Noga, Jane Senior
This paper is a scoping review of the available evidence regarding health care issues in police custody. It describes the types and prevalence of health disorders encountered in custody and provides an overview of current practice and recent innovations in police custody health care. In contrast to the health of prisoners, the health of police custody detainees has, until recently, received little academic or clinical attention. Studies on health care in police custody identified for this review are limited to a few geographical jurisdictions, including the UK, continental Europe, North America, and Australia...
2016: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Krysten W Bold, Lisa M Fucito, William R Corbin, Kelly S DeMartini, Robert F Leeman, Henry R Kranzler, Stephanie S O'Malley
Heavy drinking among young adults is a serious public health problem. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been shown to reduce drinking in young adults compared to placebo and can be taken on a targeted (i.e., as needed) basis. Understanding risk factors for drinking and naltrexone effects within-person in young adults may help to optimize the use of targeted naltrexone. The current study was a secondary analysis of daily diary data from 127 (n = 40 female) young adults (age 18-25) enrolled in a double-blind clinical trial of daily (25 mg) plus targeted (25 mg) naltrexone versus placebo...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Elizabeth McGill, Dalya Marks, Colin Sumpter, Matt Egan
OBJECTIVES: Increasingly, English local authorities have encouraged the implementation of an intervention called 'Reducing the Strength' (RtS) whereby off-licences voluntarily stop selling inexpensive 'super-strength' (≥6.5% alcohol by volume (ABV)) beers and ciders. We conceptualised RtS as an event within a complex system in order to identify pathways by which the intervention may lead to intended and unintended consequences. DESIGN: A qualitative study including a focus group and semistructured interviews...
2016: BMJ Open
Phil Brüll, Robert A C Ruiter, Reinout W Wiers, Gerjo Kok
OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes...
September 28, 2016: Games for Health
Kyle J Holody, Christina Anderson, Clay Craig, Mark Flynn
The current study investigated the prevalence of multiple risk behaviors in popular music lyrics as well as the contexts within which they occur. We conducted a content analysis of the top 20 Billboard songs from 2009 to 2013 in the genres of rap, country, adult contemporary, rock, R&B/hip-hop, and pop, coding for the presence of alcohol, marijuana, nonmarijuana drugs, and sex as well as the contexts intoxication, binging/addiction, partying/socializing, disregard for consequences, and emotional states. The contexts relationship status and degradation were also coded for when sex was present...
October 2016: Journal of Health Communication
Amy Pennay, Rebecca Jenkinson, Brendan Quinn, Nicolas Tom Droste, Amy Peacock, Daniel Ian Lubman, Peter G Miller
BACKGROUND: Understanding the characteristics of drug users in the night-time economy (NTE), and whether particular drugs are associated with risky practices and experience of harm, is necessary to inform targeted policy responses in this context. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlates of drugs used in the Australian NTE relating to demographics, alcohol use, and experience of harm. METHODS: Patrons were interviewed in the NTE of five Australian cities in 2012-2013 (n = 7,028; 61...
September 26, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Thomas B Mike, Daniel S Shaw, Erika E Forbes, Stephanie L Sitnick, Brant P Hasler
BACKGROUND: Although an association between adolescent sleep and substance use is supported by the literature, few studies have characterized the longitudinal relationship between early adolescent sleep and subsequent substance use. The current study examined the prospective association between the duration and quality of sleep at age 11 and alcohol and cannabis use throughout adolescence. METHODS: The present study, drawn from a cohort of 310 boys taking part in a longitudinal study in Western Pennsylvania, includes 186 boys whose mothers completed the Child Sleep Questionnaire; sleep duration and quality at age 11 were calculated based on these reports...
September 7, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ida Fredriksson, Sweta Adhikary, Pia Steensland, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Antonello Bonci, Yavin Shaham, Jennifer M Bossert
The gateway hypothesis posits that initial exposure to legal drugs promotes subsequent addiction to illicit drugs. However, epidemiological studies are correlational and cannot rule out the alternative hypothesis of shared addiction vulnerability to legal and illegal drugs. We tested the gateway hypothesis using established rat alcohol exposure procedures and cocaine self-administration and reinstatement (relapse) procedures. We gave Wistar or alcohol-preferring (P) rats intermittent access to water or 20% alcohol in their homecage for 7 weeks (three 24-h sessions/week)...
September 21, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Michael Liebrenz, Marcel Schneider, Anna Buadze, Marie-Therese Gehring, Anish Dube, Carlo Caflisch
Associations between criminal activity and the use of psychotropic substances are well established. Flunitrazepam, specifically, has been suspected of triggering, per se, violent criminal behavior and severe memory disturbances in the form of anterograde amnesia. However, data from investigations of this relationship are scarce and have been primarily derived from forensic institutions, where there may be a reporting bias. This study was a qualitative exploration of high-dose benzodiazepine users' experiences of anterograde amnesia symptoms and their beliefs about their behavior during the phases of memory impairment in a nonforensic setting...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
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