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Adult Cardiomyocyte turnover

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872447/evolving-approaches-to-heart-regeneration-by-therapeutic-stimulation-of-resident-cardiomyocyte-cell-cycle
#1
Raife Dilek Turan, Galip Servet Aslan, Doğacan Yücel, Remziye Döğer, Fatih Kocabaş
Heart has long been considered a terminally differentiated organ. Recent studies, however, have suggested that there is a modest degree of cardiomyocyte (CM) turnover in adult mammalian heart, albeit not sufficient for replacement of lost CMs following cardiac injuries. Cardiac regeneration studies in various model organisms including zebrafish, newt, and more recently in neonatal mouse, have demonstrated that CM dedifferentiation and concomitant proliferation play important roles in replacement of lost CMs and restoration of cardiac contractility...
November 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572127/endogenous-mechanisms-of-cardiac-regeneration
#2
M S W Xiang, K Kikuchi
Zebrafish possess a remarkable capacity for cardiac regeneration throughout their lifetime, providing a model for investigating endogenous cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating myocardial regeneration. By contrast, adult mammals have an extremely limited capacity for cardiac regeneration, contributing to mortality and morbidity from cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. However, the viewpoint of the mammalian heart as a postmitotic organ was recently revised based on findings that the mammalian heart contains multiple undifferentiated cell types with cardiogenic potential as well as a robust regenerative capacity during a short period early in life...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484198/innate-heart-regeneration-endogenous-cellular-sources-and-exogenous-therapeutic-amplification
#3
Konstantinos Malliaras, Styliani Vakrou, Chris J Kapelios, John N Nanas
INTRODUCTION: The -once viewed as heretical- concept of the adult mammalian heart as a dynamic organ capable of endogenous regeneration has recently gained traction. However, estimated rates of myocyte turnover vary wildly and the underlying mechanisms of cardiac plasticity remain controversial. It is still unclear whether the adult mammalian heart gives birth to new myocytes through proliferation of resident myocytes, through cardiomyogenic differentiation of endogenous progenitors or through both mechanisms...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26693003/sex-differences-in-porcine-left-ventricular-myocardial-remodeling-due-to-right-ventricular-pacing
#4
Liliana Kiczak, Alicja Tomaszek, Urszula Pasławska, Jacek Bania, Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Piotr Skrzypczak, Robert Pasławski, Maciej Zacharski, Adrian Janiszewski, Piotr Kuropka, Piotr Ponikowski, Ewa A Jankowska
BACKGROUND: Although sex differences in heart failure (HF) prevalence and severity have been recognized, its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We used a tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy model to determine the sex specific remodeling pattern in male and female adult pigs. METHODS: We compared the echocardiographic and molecular measures of myocardial remodeling in 19 male and 12 female pigs with chronic symptomatic systolic HF due to right ventricle (RV) pacing (170 bpm) and 6 male and 5 female sham-operated controls...
2015: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26683871/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-phenotypic-screening-a-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-type-1-receptor-kinase-inhibitor-induces-efficient-cardiac-differentiation
#5
Lauren Drowley, Chad Koonce, Samantha Peel, Anna Jonebring, Alleyn T Plowright, Steven J Kattman, Henrik Andersson, Blake Anson, Bradley J Swanson, Qing-Dong Wang, Gabriella Brolen
Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies...
February 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503423/cardiac-bmi1-cells-contribute-to-myocardial-renewal-in-the-murine-adult-heart
#6
Iñigo Valiente-Alandi, Carmen Albo-Castellanos, Diego Herrero, Elvira Arza, Maria Garcia-Gomez, José C Segovia, Mario Capecchi, Antonio Bernad
INTRODUCTION: The mammalian adult heart maintains a continuous, low cardiomyocyte turnover rate throughout life. Although many cardiac stem cell populations have been studied, the natural source for homeostatic repair has not yet been defined. The Polycomb protein BMI1 is the most representative marker of mouse adult stem cell systems. We have evaluated the relevance and role of cardiac Bmi1 (+) cells in cardiac physiological homeostasis. METHODS: Bmi1 (CreER/+);Rosa26 (YFP/+) (Bmi1-YFP) mice were used for lineage tracing strategy...
October 26, 2015: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366230/nanopatterned-human-ipsc-based-model-of-a-dystrophin-null-cardiomyopathic-phenotype
#7
Jesse Macadangdang, Xuan Guan, Alec S T Smith, Rachel Lucero, Stefan Czerniecki, Martin K Childers, David L Mack, Deok-Ho Kim
Human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) offer unprecedented opportunities to study inherited heart conditions in vitro, but are phenotypically immature, limiting their ability to effectively model adult-onset diseases. Cardiomyopathy is becoming the leading cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but the pathogenesis of this disease phenotype is not fully understood. Therefore, we aimed to test whether biomimetic nanotopography could further stratify the disease phenotype of DMD hiPSC-CMs to create more translationally relevant cardiomyocytes for disease modeling applications...
September 2015: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26331604/members-only-hypoxia-induced-cell-cycle-activation-in-cardiomyocytes
#8
COMMENT
Arun Sharma, Sean M Wu
A low level of cardiomyocyte turnover occurs in the adult mammalian heart, but the source of these new cells remains unknown. Kimura et al., 2015 utilized a novel hypoxia-induced fate mapping system to identify a rare population of adult cardiomyocytes undergoing cell-cycle entry and expansion in healthy adult hearts and following ischemic injury.
September 1, 2015: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26178404/s-nitrosoglutathione-reductase-deficiency-enhances-the-proliferative-expansion-of-adult-heart-progenitors-and-myocytes-post-myocardial-infarction
#9
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Ellena C Paulino, Raul A Dulce, Lauro M Takeuchi, Michael A Bellio, Shathiyah Kulandavelu, Yenong Cao, Wayne Balkan, Rosemeire M Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Joshua M Hare
BACKGROUND: Mammalian heart regenerative activity is lost before adulthood but increases after cardiac injury. Cardiac repair mechanisms, which involve both endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and cardiomyocyte cell-cycle reentry, are inadequate to achieve full recovery after myocardial infarction (MI). Mice deficient in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR(-⁄-)), an enzyme regulating S-nitrosothiol turnover, have preserved cardiac function after MI. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GSNOR activity modulates cardiac cell proliferation in the post-MI adult heart...
July 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26157574/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-heart-regeneration
#10
Gunes Ozhan, Gilbert Weidinger
The ability to repair damaged or lost tissues varies significantly among vertebrates. The regenerative ability of the heart is clinically very relevant, because adult teleost fish and amphibians can regenerate heart tissue, but we mammals cannot. Interestingly, heart regeneration is possible in neonatal mice, but this ability is lost within 7 days after birth. In zebrafish and neonatal mice, lost cardiomyocytes are regenerated via proliferation of spared, differentiated cardiomyocytes. While some cardiomyocyte turnover occurs in adult mammals, the cardiomyocyte production rate is too low in response to injury to regenerate the heart...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26098368/hypoxia-fate-mapping-identifies-cycling-cardiomyocytes-in-the-adult-heart
#11
Wataru Kimura, Feng Xiao, Diana C Canseco, Shalini Muralidhar, SuWannee Thet, Helen M Zhang, Yezan Abderrahman, Rui Chen, Joseph A Garcia, John M Shelton, James A Richardson, Abdelrahman M Ashour, Aroumougame Asaithamby, Hanquan Liang, Chao Xing, Zhigang Lu, Cheng Cheng Zhang, Hesham A Sadek
Although the adult mammalian heart is incapable of meaningful functional recovery following substantial cardiomyocyte loss, it is now clear that modest cardiomyocyte turnover occurs in adult mouse and human hearts, mediated primarily by proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. However, fate mapping of these cycling cardiomyocytes has not been possible thus far owing to the lack of identifiable genetic markers. In several organs, stem or progenitor cells reside in relatively hypoxic microenvironments where the stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif-1α) subunit is critical for their maintenance and function...
July 9, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25961199/mechanisms-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-erk1-2-activation-in-fetal-cardiomyocytes
#12
Xing Yin, Lian Hu, Hao Feng, Lazar Z Krsmanovic, Kevin J Catt
Fetal cardiomyocytes have been utilized in studies on myocardial repair in the damaged hearts of rodents and other species. Changes in angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor expression, especially decline of its type II receptor (AT2), are known to occur during the growth of cardiomyocytes from fetus to adult. However, the extent to which changes in the signaling pathways of Ang II type I (AT1) and AT2 receptors via p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) activation affect the physiological and pathophysiological functions in cardiomyocytes has not been defined...
August 1, 2010: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25925989/transgenic-systems-for-unequivocal-identification-of-cardiac-myocyte-nuclei-and-analysis-of-cardiomyocyte-cell-cycle-status
#13
Alexandra Raulf, Hannes Horder, Laura Tarnawski, Caroline Geisen, Annika Ottersbach, Wilhelm Röll, Stefan Jovinge, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael Hesse
Even though the mammalian heart has been investigated for many years, there are still uncertainties in the fields of cardiac cell biology and regeneration with regard to exact fractions of cardiomyocytes (CMs) at different developmental stages, their plasticity after cardiac lesion and also their basal turnover rate. A main shortcoming is the accurate identification of CM and the demonstration of CM division. Therefore, an in vivo model taking advantage of a live reporter-based identification of CM nuclei and their cell cycle status is needed...
May 2015: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25796005/biomarkers-of-cardiomyocyte-injury-and-stress-identify-left-atrial-and-left-ventricular-remodelling-and-dysfunction-a-population-based-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Susana Ravassa, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Nerea Varo, Lutgarde Thijs, Christian Delles, Anna Dominiczak, Javier Díez, Jan A Staessen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The validation of effective screening tools for the identification of patients with subclinical myocardial remodelling is a major clinical need. Thus, we explored the associations of circulating biomarkers of cardiomyocyte injury and stress with subclinical cardiac remodelling and dysfunction, and with biomarkers reflecting collagen turnover. METHODS: We randomly recruited 727 subjects from a general population (51.2% women; mean age 51.3 years)...
April 15, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25505241/the-pdz-motif-of-the-%C3%AE-1c-subunit-is-not-required-for-surface-trafficking-and-adrenergic-modulation-of-cav1-2-channel-in-the-heart
#15
Lin Yang, Alexander Katchman, Richard L Weinberg, Jeffrey Abrams, Tahmina Samad, Elaine Wan, Geoffrey S Pitt, Steven O Marx
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels play a key role in initiating muscle excitation-contraction coupling, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and hormone secretion. The association of CaV1.2 with a supramolecular complex impacts trafficking, localization, turnover, and, most importantly, multifaceted regulation of its function in the heart. Several studies hint at an important role for the C terminus of the α1C subunit as a hub for multidimensional regulation of CaV1.2 channel trafficking and function. Recent studies have demonstrated an important role for the four-residue PDZ binding motif at the C terminus of α1C in interacting with scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, in the subcellular localization of CaV1...
January 23, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25218814/comprehensive-biomarker-profiling-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
Micha T Maeder, Werner Strobel, Michael Christ, John Todd, Joel Estis, Karin Wildi, Gregor Thalmann, Jonas Hilti, Martin Brutsche, Raphael Twerenbold, Hans Rickli, Christian Mueller
OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiological links between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and cardiovascular mortality are incompletely understood. We aimed to contribute to a better characterization by using comprehensive biomarker profiling quantifying hemodynamic cardiac stress, cardiomyocyte injury, inflammation, endothelial function, matrix turnover and metabolism. DESIGN AND METHODS: In 65 patients with moderate or severe OSAS [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 39±20/h] and 33 patients with no or mild OSAS (AHI 8+4/h), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and insulin were measured before and after sleep...
March 2015: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25147815/inhibition-of-mmp-2-expression-with-sirna-increases-baseline-cardiomyocyte-contractility-and-protects-against-simulated-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#17
Han-Bin Lin, Virgilio J J Cadete, Bikramjit Sra, Jolanta Sawicka, Zhicheng Chen, Lane K Bekar, Francisco Cayabyab, Grzegorz Sawicki
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) significantly contribute to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, namely, by the degradation of contractile proteins. However, due to the experimental models adopted and lack of isoform specificity of MMP inhibitors, the cellular source and identity of the MMP(s) involved in I/R injury remain to be elucidated. Using isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes, subjected to chemically induced I/R-like injury, we show that specific inhibition of MMP-2 expression and activity using MMP-2 siRNA significantly protected cardiomyocyte contractility from I/R-like injury...
2014: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25001281/endothelial-cells-contribute-to-generation-of-adult-ventricular-myocytes-during-cardiac-homeostasis
#18
Bryan A Fioret, Jeremy D Heimfeld, David T Paik, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
Cardiac tissue undergoes renewal with low rates. Although resident stem cell populations have been identified to support cardiomyocyte turnover, the source of the cardiac stem cells and their niche remain elusive. Using Cre/Lox-based cell lineage tracing strategies, we discovered that labeling of endothelial cells in the adult heart yields progeny that have cardiac stem cell characteristics and express Gata4 and Sca1. Endothelial-derived cardiac progenitor cells were localized in the arterial coronary walls with quiescent and proliferative cells in the media and adventitia layers, respectively...
July 10, 2014: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25000143/redox-signaling-in-cardiac-renewal
#19
REVIEW
Wataru Kimura, Shalini Muralidhar, Diana C Canseco, Bao Puente, Cheng Cheng Zhang, Feng Xiao, Yezan H Abderrahman, Hesham A Sadek
SIGNIFICANCE: Utilizing oxygen (O2) through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation enables organisms to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with a higher efficiency than glycolysis, but it results in increased reactive oxygen species production from mitochondria, which can result in stem cell dysfunction and senescence. RECENT ADVANCES: In the postnatal organism, the hematopoietic system represents a classic example of the role of stem cells in cellular turnover and regeneration...
October 10, 2014: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24926741/sca-1-cardiac-progenitor-cells-and-heart-making-a-critical-synopsis
#20
REVIEW
Mariana Valente, Diana Santos Nascimento, Ana Cumano, Perpétua Pinto-do-Ó
The identification, in the adult, of cardiomyocyte turnover events and of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) has revolutionized the field of cardiovascular medicine. However, the low rate of CPCs differentiation events reported both in vitro and in vivo, even after injury, raised concerns on the biological significance of these subsets. In this Comprehensive Review, we discuss the current understanding of cardiac Lin(-)Sca-1(+) cells in light of what is also known for cellular compartments with similar phenotypes in other organs...
October 1, 2014: Stem Cells and Development
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