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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549077/clinical-criteria-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease-biomarkers-and-longitudinal-progression
#1
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease varies widely in clinical manifestations, course of progression and biomarker profiles from person to person. Identification of distinct Parkinson's disease subtypes is of great priority to illuminate underlying pathophysiology, predict progression and develop more efficient personalized care approaches. There is currently no clear way to define and divide subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, we aimed to identify distinct subgroups via cluster analysis of a comprehensive dataset at baseline (i...
May 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546010/cognitive-training-as-a-potential-treatment-for-overweight-and-obesity-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-proposal-for-special-issue-in-appetite-executive-function-training-eating-behaviour
#2
REVIEW
Andrew Jones, Charlotte A Hardman, Natalia Lawrence, Matt Field
The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the effectiveness and candidate mechanisms of action of psychological interventions which aim to either (a) improve the capacity for self-regulatory, reflective processes or (b) reduce the impact of automatic appetitive processes, in an attempt to influence food intake and associated weight-gain. Our aim was to examine three important issues regarding each type of intervention: i) whether the intervention influenced behaviour in the laboratory, ii) whether the intervention influenced behaviour and/or body mass index in the real world, and iii) whether the proposed mechanism of action was supported by evidence...
May 22, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545945/mindfulness-and-acceptance-based-interventions-for-psychosis-our-current-understanding-and-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie Louise, Molly Fitzpatrick, Clara Strauss, Susan L Rossell, Neil Thomas
In promoting optimal recovery in persons with psychosis, psychological interventions have become a key element of treatment, with cognitive behavioural therapy being widely recommended in clinical practice guidelines. One key area of development has been the trialling of "third wave" cognitive behavioural interventions, which promote mindfulness, acceptance and compassion as means of change. Trials to date have demonstrated encouraging findings, with beneficial effects observed on measures of psychotic symptoms...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545819/comparative-approaches-to-understanding-thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-neurogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Jean-David Gothié, Barbara Demeneix, Sylvie Remaud
Thyroid hormone (TH) signalling, an evolutionary conserved pathway, is crucial for brain function and cognition throughout life, from early development to ageing. In humans, TH deficiency during pregnancy alters offspring brain development, increasing the risk of cognitive disorders. How TH regulates neurogenesis and subsequent behaviour and cognitive functions remains a major research challenge. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TH signalling on proliferation, survival, determination, migration, differentiation and maturation have been studied in mammalian animal models for over a century...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545364/bright-light-delights-effects-of-daily-light-exposure-on-emotions-rest-activity-cycles-sleep-and-melatonin-secretion-in-severely-demented-patients
#5
Mirjam Münch, Michael Schmieder, Katharina Bieler, Rolf Goldbach, Timo Fuhrmann, Naomi Zumstein, Petra Vonmoos, Jean-Louis Scartezzini, Anna Wirz-Justice, Christian Cajochen
We tested whether the effects of a dynamic lighting system are superior to conventional lighting on emotions, agitation behaviour, quality of life, melatonin secretion and circadian rest-activity cycles in severely demented patients. As a comparison, an age matched control patient group was exposed to conventional lighting. For none of the output measures, significant differences between the two lighting conditions were found during the 8 study weeks in fall/winter. Thus, we divided the patient cohort (n = 89) into two groups, solely based on the median of their daily individual light exposure...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545363/sleep-wake-patterns-and-cognition-of-older-adults-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-amci-a-comparison-with-cognitively-healthy-adults-and-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#6
Emma J Wams, Gordon K Wilcock, Russell G Foster, Katharina Wulff
Age-related cognitive impairment and the prevalence of neurodegenerative disease contribute to decreasing quality of life in affected individuals and their families as well as demand considerable societal responsibility. Sleep supports overall brain activity and contributes to both physical and mental health. As a result sleep is an attractive target for exploring ways to promote health in accelerated cognitive aging. The aims of this study were to characterise cognitive performance and sleep-wake behaviour in older adults with different degrees of cognitive impairment...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545016/statistical-learning-and-auditory-processing-in-children-with-music-training-an-erp-study
#7
Pragati Rao Mandikal Vasuki, Mridula Sharma, Ronny Ibrahim, Joanne Arciuli
OBJECTIVE: The question whether musical training is associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive abilities in children is of considerable interest. In the present study, we compared children with music training versus those without music training across a range of auditory and cognitive measures, including the ability to detect implicitly statistical regularities in input (statistical learning). METHODS: Statistical learning of regularities embedded in auditory and visual stimuli was measured in musically trained and age-matched untrained children between the ages of 9-11years...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544668/intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Melanie Brown, Lauren Robinson, Giovanna Cristina Campione, Kelsey Wuensch, Tom Hildebrandt, Nadia Micali
Intolerance of uncertainty is an empirically supported transdiagnostic construct that may have relevance in understanding eating disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of intolerance of uncertainty in eating disorders using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We calculated random-effects standardised mean differences (SMD) for studies utilising the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) and summarised additional studies descriptively...
May 23, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544504/the-impact-of-telephone-delivered-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-and-befriending-on-mood-disorders-in-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Colleen Doyle, Sunil Bhar, Marcia Fearn, David Ames, Debra Osborne, Emily You, Alex Gorelik, David Dunt
OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this pragmatic randomized controlled trial were to investigate the impact of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and an active social control (befriending) on depression and anxiety symptoms in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Eligible participants were randomly allocated to receive eight weekly telephone interventions of CBT (n = 54) or befriending (n = 56). Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess changes in scores and Cohen's d was used to assess effect sizes...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544303/a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-cognitive-therapy-skills-that-assist-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-adults-who-have-an-intellectual-disability
#10
REVIEW
Patricia Cooney, Conall Tunney, Gary O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is being increasingly adapted for use with people who have an intellectual disability. However, it remains unclear whether inherent cognitive deficits that are present in adults who have an intellectual disability preclude the use of cognitive-based therapies. This review aims to systematically examine "cognitive therapy skills" in adults who have an intellectual disability that assist engagement in CBT. METHOD: Two authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts of articles located through electronic database searching...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544180/a-cognitive-behavioral-program-for-parents-of-children-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-a-feasibility-study
#11
C Wiertz, M Goossens, E M Spek, J A Verbunt
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of a newly developed parent program for parents of children with non-specific chronic musculoskeletal pain. This program is part of the child's interdisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation treatment. The goal of the parent program is to change parent's thoughts/behaviour regarding pain with the ultimate intention to further improve their child's functioning. There were two main objectives in the study: First, to evaluate the feasibility of the parent program...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542389/cognitive-distortions-among-older-adult-gamblers-in-an-asian-context
#12
Mythily Subramaniam, Siow Ann Chong, Colette Browning, Shane Thomas
AIMS: The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above) in Singapore. METHODS: Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents) aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542356/the-use-of-preferred-social-stimuli-as-rewards-for-rhesus-macaques-in-behavioural-neuroscience
#13
Helen Gray, Bradley Pearce, Alexander Thiele, Candy Rowe
Macaques are often motivated to perform in neuroscientific experiments by implementing fluid restriction protocols. Daily access to water is controlled and the monkeys are rewarded with droplets of fluid for performing correct trials in the laboratory. Although these protocols are widely used and highly effective, it is important from a 3Rs perspective to investigate refinements that may help to lessen the severity of the fluid restriction applied. We assessed the use of social stimuli (images of conspecifics) as rewards for four rhesus macaques performing simple cognitive tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541549/cognitive-development-in-children-up-to-age-11-years-born-after-art-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
Anna Barbuscia, Melinda C Mills
STUDY QUESTION: How does the cognitive development of children conceived after ART (IVF and ICSI) - measured as cognitive skills at age 3, 5, 7 and 11 years - differ over time from those born after natural conception (NC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Improved measures of cognitive development up to age 5 years were recorded in children conceived with ART compared to NC, which attenuates by 11 years, with ART children still scoring slightly better than NC children. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Results on the cognitive outcomes of children conceived after ART have been highly contradictory...
May 24, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541238/attitudes-of-psychology-students-to-depression-and-its-treatment-implications-for-clinical-practice
#15
M Economou, L E Peppou, K Geroulanou, K Kontoangelos, A Prokopi, A Pantazi, A Zervakaki, C N Stefanis
Stigma and mental health literacy affect access to and quality of treatment of major depression. Though mental health professionals seem better able to recognize major depression than the general public, they often hold similarly stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from the disorder. These attitudes are shaped jointly by the public stigma attached to mental illnesses as well as by the content and delivery of mental health professionals' undergraduate training. In line with this, the present study aimed to explore psychology students' ability to recognize major depression, their attitudes towards the disorder, and their views surrounding helpfulness of various interventions...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540774/a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis-experiences-of-psychotherapists
#16
Charlotte Ytterberg, Charlotte Chruzander, Gunnel Backenroth, Marie Kierkegaard, Gerd Ahlström, Kristina Gottberg
PURPOSE: To investigate how psychotherapists experience using individual, face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) aimed at alleviating depressive symptoms in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with three psychotherapists were conducted after CBT with 12 participants with MS, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Two main themes emerged: Trusting their expertise as psychotherapists whilst lacking MS-specific knowledge, and The process of exploring the participants' readiness for CBT with modifications of content and delivery...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540038/effectiveness-of-paliperidone-depot-injection-in-seriously-violent-men-with-comorbid-schizophrenia-and-dissocial-personality-disorder-in-a-uk-high-security-hospital
#17
Anna-Marie Mortlock, Fintan Larkin, Callum C Ross, Nitin Gupta, Samrat Sengupta, Mrigendra Das
BACKGROUND: High-security hospital patients are often complex in presentation and are characterized by treatment resistance, medication nonadherence and history of violence. Paliperidone is licensed both as an oral and depot antipsychotic medication in the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical trials have shown that paliperidone depot is well tolerated with similar efficacy to risperidone depot but with additional practical advantages. Whilst data exist for the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (PP), there are no studies involving patients in forensic settings or those with comorbid personality disorder...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539508/what-makes-specialized-food-caching-mountain-chickadees-successful-city-slickers
#18
Dovid Y Kozlovsky, Emily A Weissgerber, Vladimir V Pravosudov
Anthropogenic environments are a dominant feature of the modern world; therefore, understanding which traits allow animals to succeed in these urban environments is especially important. Overall, generalist species are thought to be most successful in urban environments, with better general cognition and less neophobia as suggested critical traits. It is less clear, however, which traits would be favoured in urban environments in highly specialized species. Here, we compared highly specialized food-caching mountain chickadees living in an urban environment (Reno, NV, USA) with those living in their natural environment to investigate what makes this species successful in the city...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537558/rapid-short-term-reorganization-in-the-language-network
#19
Gesa Hartwigsen, Danilo Bzdok, Maren Klein, Max Wawrzyniak, Anika Stockert, Katrin Wrede, Joseph Classen, Dorothee Saur
The adaptive potential of the language network to compensate for lesions remains elusive. We show that perturbation of a semantic region in the healthy brain induced suppression of activity in a large semantic network and upregulation of neighbouring phonological areas. After perturbation, the disrupted area increased its inhibitory influence on another semantic key node. The inhibitory influence predicted the individual delay in response speed, indicating that inhibition at remote nodes is functionally relevant...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535815/internet-based-attentional-bias-modification-training-as-add-on-to-regular-treatment-in-alcohol-and-cannabis-dependent-outpatients-a-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-control-trial
#20
Janika Heitmann, Madelon E van Hemel-Ruiter, Karin M Vermeulen, Brian D Ostafin, Colin MacLeod, Reinout W Wiers, Laura DeFuentes-Merillas, Martine Fledderus, Wiebren Markus, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND: The automatic tendency to attend to and focus on substance-related cues in the environment (attentional bias), has been found to contribute to the persistence of addiction. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions might, therefore, contribute to treatment outcome and the reduction of relapse rates. Based on some promising research findings, we designed a study to test the clinical relevance of ABM as an add-on component of regular intervention for alcohol and cannabis patients...
May 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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