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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929113/predicting-suicidal-behaviour-after-first-episode-of-non-affective-psychosis-the-role-of-neurocognitive-functioning
#1
M Canal-Rivero, J D López-Moríñigo, E Setién-Suero, M Ruiz-Veguilla, J L Ayuso-Mateos, R Ayesa-Arriola, B Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Suicide has been recognised as one of the major causes of premature death in psychosis. However, predicting suicidal behaviour (SB) is still challenging in the clinical setting and the association of neurocognition with SB in psychosis remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of neurocognitive performance as predictor of SB. Also, we sought to explore differences in the evolution of clinical and neurocognitive functioning between participants with/without history of suicide attempts (SA) over follow-up period...
June 18, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929085/schizotypal-traits-and-their-relation-to-rejection-sensitivity-in-the-general-population-their-mediation-by-quality-of-life-agreeableness-and-neuroticism
#2
Preethi Premkumar, Juliana Onwumere, Lucy Betts, Fränze Kibowski, Elizabeth Kuipers
Schizotypal traits are a cluster of personality styles suggesting a potential liability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Interpersonal schizotypal traits include cognitive disorganisation which consists of social anxiety, and introvertive anhedonia which consists of a lack of pleasure in social activities. Rejection sensitivity is evident all along this continuum. This study aimed to determine whether psychosocial quality of life (QOL), neuroticism and agreeableness mediates the relation between schizotypy and rejection sensitivity...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929062/stillbirth-and-perinatal-care-are-professionals-trained-to-address-parents-needs
#3
Claudia Ravaldi, Miriam Levi, Elena Angeli, Gianpaolo Romeo, Marco Biffino, Roberto Bonaiuti, Alfredo Vannacci
OBJECTIVE: To assess current practices of health care providers (HCPs) caring for women experiencing a stillbirth and to explore their needs for training to better support bereaved families. DESIGN: Nationwide cross-sectional survey. The main outcome measures were the evaluation of HCPs cognition, emotions and behaviours with regard to the care of women with a stillbirth care, as well as their compliance with international guidelines. PARTICIPANTS: 750 HCPs, in 11 Italian hospitals, were administered a multiple-choice questionnaire...
June 7, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926817/how-random-is-the-random-forest-random-forest-algorithm-on-the-service-of-structural-imaging-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-from-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-adni-database
#4
REVIEW
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Dimitris Liparas
Neuroinformatics is a fascinating research field that applies computational models and analytical tools to high dimensional experimental neuroscience data for a better understanding of how the brain functions or dysfunctions in brain diseases. Neuroinformaticians work in the intersection of neuroscience and informatics supporting the integration of various sub-disciplines (behavioural neuroscience, genetics, cognitive psychology, etc.) working on brain research. Neuroinformaticians are the pathway of information exchange between informaticians and clinicians for a better understanding of the outcome of computational models and the clinical interpretation of the analysis...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925557/enhancement-of-ptsd-treatment-through-social-support-in-idobata-nagaya-community-housing-after-fukushima-s-triple-disaster
#5
Arinobu Hori, Tomohiro Morita, Izumi Yoshida, Masaharu Tsubokura
Cognitive-behavioural therapy is a first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is difficult to implement in disaster settings. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman, who was diagnosed with PTSD after the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear plant accident) in Fukushima. Her recovery was greatly enhanced by the social support she received while living in Idobata-Nagaya community housing, established by Soma city in Fukushima, where residents could naturally discuss their traumatic experiences...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923478/group-based-worry-intervention-for-persecutory-delusions-an-initial-feasibility-study
#6
Louise Isham, Heidemarie Grafahrend, Alecia Nickless, Katherine Pugh, Steve Pleasants, Nicola Smedley, Daniel Freeman, Alison Mulligan
BACKGROUND: A one-to-one cognitive behavioural therapy intervention targeting worry significantly reduces both worry and persecutory delusions (Freeman et al., 2015). AIM: To adapt this intervention for group delivery and conduct a feasibility trial within routine clinical practice. METHOD: Thirteen participants were randomized to a weekly 8-session worry intervention group (n = 7) or wait-list control (n = 6). RESULTS: All but one participant completed measures at all time points...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923348/schizotypal-personality-traits-and-social-cognition-are-associated-with-childhood-trauma-exposure
#7
Yann Quidé, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Nicole O'Reilly, Vaughan J Carr, Bernet M Elzinga, Melissa J Green
OBJECTIVES: Childhood trauma is a common risk factor for adult psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar-I disorder (BD). However, its association with schizotypal personality traits, as well as cognitive and social cognitive abilities, is less well studied in these populations. METHODS: In a cohort of 79 SZ cases, 84 BD cases, and 75 healthy controls (HCs), clinically significant levels of childhood trauma exposure (according to scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; CTQ) were evident in 54 SZ, 55 BD, and 26 HC individuals...
June 20, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923184/donepezil-for-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jacqueline S Birks, Richard J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor.This review is an updated version of a review first published in 1998...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922481/anterior-cingulate-cortex-activity-as-a-candidate-biomarker-for-treatment-selection-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#9
Andreas Frick, Jonas Engman, Kurt Wahlstedt, Malin Gingnell, Mats Fredrikson, Tomas Furmark
We aimed to identify biomarkers to guide the decision to add selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to psychological treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Forty-eight patients with SAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and collection of clinical and demographic variables before treatment with cognitive-behavioural therapy, combined on a double-blind basis with either escitalopram or placebo for 9 weeks. Pre-treatment neural reactivity to aversive faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), but not clinical/demographic variables, moderated clinical outcomes...
2018: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921245/facilitators-and-barriers-to-modifying-dietary-and-hygiene-behaviours-as-adjuvant-treatment-in-patients-with-depression-in-primary-care-a-qualitative-study
#10
B Olivan-Blázquez, J Montero-Marin, M García-Toro, E Vicens-Pons, M J Serrano-Ripoll, A Castro-Gracia, M C Sarasa-Bosque, J M Mendive-Arbeloa, Y López-Del-Hoyo, J Garcia-Campayo
BACKGROUND: Major depression is a highly prevalent condition. Its pathogenesis is related to a wide variety of biological and psychosocial factors and among these is factors related to lifestyle. Lifestyle-based interventions seem to be appropriate strategies as coadjutant treatment. The objective of this study is to explore and identify expectations and experiences of both patients and healthcare professionals that can point to the main barriers and facilitators with regard to the promotion of healthy dietary and hygiene behaviours in patients suffering from major depression...
June 19, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920356/clitoria-ternatea-l-rootextract-ameliorated-the-cognitive-and-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-deficits-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-the-rat
#11
Thenmoly Damodaran, Byorn Wei Liang Tan, Ping Liao, Surash Ramanathan, Lim Gin Keat, Zurina Hassan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clitoria ternatea L. (CT), commonly known as Butterfly pea, is used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine to promote brain function and treat mental disorders. Root of CT has been proven to enhance memory, but its role in an animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which has been considered as a major cause of brain disorders, has yet to be explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the motor and cognitive effects of acute oral administration of CT root methanolic extract and hippocampal long-term plasticity in the CA1 region of the CCH rat model...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914997/the-case-of-cause-neurobiological-mechanisms-for-grounding-an-abstract-concept
#12
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
How can we understand causal relationships and how can we understand words such as 'cause'? Some theorists assume that the underlying abstract concept is given to us, and that perceptual correlation provides the relevant hints towards inferring causation from perceived real-life events. A different approach emphasizes the role of actions and their typical consequences for the emergence of the concept of causation and the application of the related term. A model of causation is proposed that highlights the family resemblance between causal actions and postulates that symbols are necessary for binding together the different partially shared semantic features of subsets of causal actions and their goals...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914995/dynamic-grounding-of-emotion-concepts
#13
REVIEW
Piotr Winkielman, Seana Coulson, Paula Niedenthal
Emotion concepts are important. They help us to understand, experience and predict human behaviour. Emotion concepts also link the realm of the abstract with the realm of bodily experience and actions. Accordingly, the key question is how such concepts are created, represented and used. Embodied cognition theories hold that concepts are grounded in neural systems that produce experiential and motor states. Concepts are also contextually situated and thus engage sensorimotor resources in a dynamic, flexible way...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914574/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-interpersonal-psychotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-post-natal-depression-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
George Stamou, Azucena García-Palacios, Cristina Botella
BACKGROUND: Post-natal Depression (PND) is a depressive disorder that causes significant distress or impairment on different levels in the individual's life and their families. There is already evidence of the efficacy of psychological treatments for PND. We conducted a narrative review and researched the literature for identifying systematic reviews and studies for the best psychological treatments of PND, and examined what parameters made those treatments successful. METHODS: We searched 4 electronic databases...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914406/management-of-patients-with-persistent-medically-unexplained-symptoms-a-descriptive-study
#15
Kate Sitnikova, Rinske Pret-Oskam, Sandra M A Dijkstra-Kersten, Stephanie S Leone, Harm W J van Marwijk, Henriëtte E van der Horst, Johannes C van der Wouden
BACKGROUND: In 2013 the Dutch guideline for management of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) was published. The aim of this study is to assess medical care for patients with persistent MUS as recorded in their electronic medical records, to investigate if this is in line with the national guideline for persistent MUS and whether there are changes in care over time. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of adult primary care patients with MUS. Routinely recorded health care data were extracted from electronic medical records of patients participating in an ongoing randomised controlled trial in 30 general practices in the Netherlands...
June 18, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913736/effects-of-the-excitatory-amino-acid-transporter-subtype-2-eaat-2-inducer-ceftriaxone-on-different-pain-modalities-in-rat
#16
Laila Eljaja, Ole J Bjerrum, Per Hartvig Honoré, Bjarke Abrahamsen
Glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid in the mammalian CNS and is involved in transmission of pain together with processes for cognition, memory and learning. In order to terminate glutamatergic neurotransmission and avoid excitotoxic damage, a balanced glutamate homeostasis is of critical importance. The level of glutamate in the synaptic cleft is regulated through the action of five subtypes of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1-5). Ceftriaxone, a β-lactam, induces EAAT-2 and has proven effect for the treatment of neuropathic pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912630/less-is-more-effects-of-exhaustive-vs-minimal-emotion-labelling-on-emotion-regulation-strategy-planning
#17
Vera Vine, Emily E Bernstein, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Previous research suggests that labelling emotions, or describing affective states using emotion words, facilitates emotion regulation. But how much labelling promotes emotion regulation? And which emotion regulation strategies does emotion labelling promote? Drawing on cognitive theories of emotion, we predicted that labelling emotions using fewer words would be less confusing and would facilitate forms of emotion regulation requiring more cognitively demanding processing of context. Participants (N = 82) mentally immersed themselves in an emotional vignette, were randomly assigned to an exhaustive or minimal emotion labelling manipulation, and then completed an emotion regulation strategy planning task...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912388/mental-health-service-acceptability-for-the-armed-forces-veteran-community
#18
P Farrand, A Jeffs, T Bloomfield, N Greenberg, E Watkins, E Mullan
Background: Despite developments in mental health services for armed forces veterans and family members, barriers to access associated with poor levels of acceptability regarding service provision remain. Adapting a Step 2 mental health service based on low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions to represent a familiar context and meet the needs of the armed forces veteran community may serve to enhance acceptability and reduce help-seeking barriers. Aims: To examine acceptability of a Step 2 low-intensity CBT mental health service adapted for armed forces veterans and family members provided by a UK Armed Forces charity...
June 15, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911653/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-in-women-with-fibromyalgia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Bo Karlsson, Gunilla Burell, Ulla-Maria Anderberg, Kurt Svärdsudd
Background and aims Stress has been pointed out as an important influential factor in the development and maintaining of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) . Since stress may worsen the pain experience, the development of individual strategies for coping with stress is essential to reduce the impact of FMS on daily life. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a group based stress management cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) programme could influence self-reported stress, wellbeing and life control, as well as self-reported pain behaviour in female FMS patients...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911651/action-identification-and-meaning-in-life-in-chronic-pain
#20
Helen Richardson, Stephen Morley
Background and aims We explore the relationship between behaviour and cognition in chronic pain by applying Action Identification Theory (AIT). AIT holds that every action may be construed in several ways. High level construals confer greater meaning than lower level construals. When an action is interrupted a lower level, more concrete identity with reduced meaning is elicited. We hypothesized that interference of activity by chronic pain affects the meaning ascribed to activity and thus a person's overall sense of meaning in life...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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