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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231747/practice-patterns-to-improve-pre-and-post-transplant-medication-adherence-in-heart-transplant-centres-a-secondary-data-analysis-of-the-international-bright-study
#1
Yuliya Senft, Monika Kirsch, Kris Denhaerynck, Fabienne Dobbels, Remon Helmy, Cynthia L Russell, Lut Berben, Sabina De Geest
BACKGROUND: As medication non-adherence is a major risk factor for poor post-transplant outcomes, we explored how adherence is assessed, enhanced and integrated across the transplant continuum. AIM: The aim of this study was to study practice patterns regarding pre- and post-transplant medication adherence assessment and interventions in international heart transplant centres. METHODS: We used data from the Building Research Initiative Group: chronic illness management and adherence in heart transplantation (BRIGHT) study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 36 heart transplant centres in 11 countries...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231138/cholinesterase-inhibitor-6-chlorotacrine-in-vivo-toxicological-profile-and-behavioural-effects
#2
Jan Misik, Eugenie Nepovimova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Jiri Kassa, Jan Korabecny, Ondrej Soukup
BACKGROUND: 6-chlorotacrine is a cholinesterase inhibitor showing good inhibitory potential, even better than parent compound tacrine, in vitro. Despite tacrine scaffold is broadly used for design and synthesis of novel compounds with anti-Alzheimer's potential, no in vivo effects have been investigated so far. Thus, basic toxicological and behavioural evaluation has been carried out throughout this study. METHODS: Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and median lethal dose (LD50) were assessed in BALB/c mice and Wistar rats...
December 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230619/neuroanatomical-and-molecular-correlates-of-cognitive-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-hypogonadal-males
#3
O B Akinola, M O Gabriel
Robust epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence supports emerging roles for the sex steroids in such domains as neurodevelopment, behaviour, learning and cognition. Regions of the mammalian brain that are involved in cognitive development and memory do not only express the classical nuclear androgen receptor, but also the non-genomic membrane receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates some rapid effects of the androgens on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Under physiological conditions, hippocampal neurons do express the enzyme aromatase, and therefore actively aromatize testosterone to oestradiol...
December 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229968/individual-differences-in-empathy-are-associated-with-apathy-motivation
#4
Patricia L Lockwood, Yuen-Siang Ang, Masud Husain, Molly J Crockett
Empathy - the capacity to understand and resonate with the experiences of other people - is considered an essential aspect of social cognition. However, although empathy is often thought to be automatic, recent theories have argued that there is a key role for motivation in modulating empathic experiences. Here we administered self-report measures of empathy and apathy-motivation to a large sample of healthy people (n = 378) to test whether people who are more empathic are also more motivated. We then sought to replicate our findings in an independent sample (n = 198) that also completed a behavioural task to measure state affective empathy and emotion recognition...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229942/a-neuronal-signature-of-accurate-imitative-learning-in-wild-caught-songbirds-swamp-sparrows-melospiza-georgiana
#5
Dana L Moseley, Narendra R Joshi, Jonathan F Prather, Jeffrey Podos, Luke Remage-Healey
In humans and other animals, behavioural variation in learning has been associated with variation in neural features like morphology and myelination. By contrast, it is essentially unknown whether cognitive performance scales with electrophysiological properties of individual neurons. Birdsong learning offers a rich system to investigate this topic as song acquisition is similar to human language learning. Here, we address the interface between behavioural learning and neurophysiology in a cohort of wild-caught, hand-reared songbirds (swamp sparrows, Melospiza georgiana)...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229939/synaesthesia-type-associations-and-perceptual-changes-induced-by-hypnotic-suggestion
#6
Sakari Kallio, Mika Koivisto, Johanna K Kaakinen
Are synaesthetic experiences congenital and so hard-wired, or can a functional analogue be created? We induced an equivalent of form-colour synaesthesia using hypnotic suggestions in which symbols in an array (circles, crosses, squares) were suggested always to have a certain colour. In a Stroop type-naming task, three of the four highly hypnotizable participants showed a strong synaesthesia-type association between symbol and colour. This was verified both by their subjective reports and objective eye-movement behaviour...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229413/constant-light-environment-suppresses-maturation-and-reduces-complexity-of-new-born-neuron-processes-in-the-hippocampus-and-caudal-nidopallium-of-a-diurnal-corvid-implication-for-impairment-of-the-learning-and-cognitive-performance
#7
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Periodic day-night environment shapes the temporal pattern in the behaviour and physiology (e.g. 24-h activity-rest and sleep-wake cycles) and the advanced brain function, such as learning, memory and decision making. In a previous study, we showed the abolition of 24-h rhythm in the activity-rest pattern, and an attenuated cognitive performance in diurnal Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) under constant light (no-night; LL) environment. Present study extended this, and investigated LL-induced effects on the neurogenesis (birth, maturation and neurite complexity of new born neurons) in the hippocampus and caudal nidopallium, the brain regions directly associated with learning and cognition in birds...
December 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229213/swearing-as-a-response-to-pain-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-british-and-japanese-participants
#8
Olivia Robertson, Sarita Jane Robinson, Richard Stephens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research suggests swearing can moderate pain perception. The present study assessed whether changes in pain perception due to swearing reflect a "scripting" effect by comparing swearing as a response to pain in native English and Japanese speakers. Cognitive psychology denotes a 'script' to be a sequence of learnt behaviours expected for given situations. Japanese participants were included as they rarely, if ever, swear as a response to pain and therefore do not possess an available script for swearing in the context of pain...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226782/patterns-of-source-monitoring-bias-in-incarcerated-youths-with-and-without-conduct-problems
#9
Larisa Morosan, Deborah Badoud, George Salaminios, Stephan Eliez, Martial Van der Linden, Patrick Heller, Martin Debbané
INTRODUCTION: Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). METHODS: Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15...
December 10, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226494/how-does-routinely-delivered-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-gambling-disorder-compare-to-gold-standard-clinical-trial
#10
David P Smith, A Kate Fairweather-Schmidt, Peter W Harvey, Malcolm W Battersby
Currently, it is unknown whether treatment outcomes derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for problem gamblers still hold when applied to patients seen in routine practice. Thus, data from an RCT of cognitive therapy versus exposure therapy for problem gambling versus patients of a gambling help service were compared. Assessments of problem gambling severity, psychosocial impairment, and alcohol use were undertaken at baseline and post-treatment and evaluated within a counterfactual framework...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224181/social-cognition-and-aggression-in-methamphetamine-dependence-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#11
Anne Uhlmann, Jonathan C Ipser, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
In substance use and psychotic disorders, socially problematic behaviours, such as high aggression may, in part, be explained by deficits in social cognition skills, like the detection of emotions or intentions in others. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of social cognition impairment and its association with aggression in individuals with methamphetamine (MA) dependence, methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP), and healthy controls (CTRL). A total of 20 MAP participants, 21 MA-dependent participants without psychosis, and 21 CTRL participants performed a facial morphing emotion recognition task (ERT) across four basic emotions (anger, fear, happiness and sadness) and the reading the mind in the eyes task (RMET), and completed the aggression questionnaire...
December 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222423/voluntary-modulation-of-mental-effort-investment-an-fmri-study
#12
Omar T Khachouf, Gang Chen, Davide Duzzi, Carlo A Porro, Giuseppe Pagnoni
Mental effort is a common phenomenological construct deeply linked to volition and self-control. While it is often assumed that the amount of exertion invested in a task can be voluntarily regulated, the neural bases of such faculty and its behavioural effects are yet insufficiently understood. In this study, we investigated how the instructions to execute a demanding cognitive task either "with maximum exertion" or "as relaxed as possible" affected performance and brain activity. The maximum exertion condition, compared to relaxed execution, was associated with speeded motor responses without an accuracy trade-off, and an amplification of both task-related activations in dorsal frontoparietal and cerebellar regions, and task-related deactivations in default mode network (DMN) areas...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221554/-psychological-commitment-adaptive-functions-paradoxes-modalities-and-components
#13
Anne Brault-Labbé
The process of psychological commitment, its adaptive functions and some of the difficulties that go along with it are specific. A description of the multimodal model of commitment provides an illustration of how motivational, affective, cognitive and behavioural mechanisms can be combined. These lead to different ways of entering into the commitment, with differing consequences on how the individual functions.
December 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221427/validity-of-the-dutch-modified-paindetect-questionnaire-for-patients-with-hip-or-knee-osteoarthritis
#14
Wietske Rienstra, Tim Blikman, Baukje Dijkstra, Jos van Raay, Geranda Slager, Sjoerd Bulstra, Martin Stevens, Inge van den Akker-Scheek
BACKGROUND: The modified painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ) is a self-reported questionnaire to discriminate between nociceptive and neuropathic-like pain in patients with knee/hip osteoarthritis (OA). This study aims to assess the structural and construct validity of this questionnaire. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis and hypothesis-testing was used. For 168 patients, predefined hypotheses were formulated on the correlation between the modified painDETECT and several other questionnaires, and in a subsample of 46 with pain pressure thresholds (PPTs)...
December 8, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219156/research-into-food-portion-size-methodological-aspects-and-applications
#15
REVIEW
Eva Almiron-Roig, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Peter Emery, J Alfredo Martínez
Portion sizes for certain foods have been increasing dramatically in recent years alongside obesity rates, concurring with the phenomenon of the portion size effect (more is consumed when more is offered). Portion size may be defined based on different purposes such as for dietary assessment, or therapeutic advice or food labelling, resulting in a variety of measurement methods and specifications. This situation has resulted in disagreements on establishing portion size recommendations by manufacturers, food distributors, restaurants, health professionals and policy makers, contributing to confusion amongst consumers on the amounts of food to be consumed, and potentially increasing the likelihood of overeating and other obesity-related behaviours...
December 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219104/adherence-to-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-and-associations-with-social-cognitive-development-among-australian-preschool-children
#16
Dylan P Cliff, Jade McNeill, Stewart A Vella, Steven J Howard, Rute Santos, Marijka Batterham, Edward Melhuish, Anthony D Okely, Marc de Rosnay
BACKGROUND: The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. METHODS: Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219092/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-sedentary-behaviour-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#17
Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Xanne Janssen, Salome Aubert, Valerie Carson, Guy Faulkner, Gary S Goldfield, John J Reilly, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between sedentary behaviour (SB) and health indicators in children aged 0 to 4 years, and to determine what doses of SB (i.e., duration, patterns [frequency, interruptions], and type) were associated with health indicators. METHODS: Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, 1 month to 4.99 years), intervention/exposure and comparator (durations, patterns, and types of SB), and outcome/health indicator (critical: adiposity, motor development, psychosocial health, cognitive development; important: bone and skeletal health, cardiometabolic health, fitness, risks/harm)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219078/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-sleep-duration-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#18
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Casey E Gray, Veronica J Poitras, Valerie Carson, Reut Gruber, Catherine S Birken, Joanna E MacLean, Salomé Aubert, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review was to examine for the first time the associations between sleep duration and a broad range of health indicators in children aged 0 to 4 years. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched with no limits on date or study design. Included studies (published in English or French) were peer-reviewed and met the a priori determined population (apparently healthy children aged 1 month to 4.99 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (various sleep durations), and outcome criteria (adiposity, emotional regulation, cognitive development, motor development, growth, cardiometabolic health, sedentary behaviour, physical activity, quality of life/well-being, and risks/injuries)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219071/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-combinations-of-movement-behaviours-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#19
Nicholas Kuzik, Veronica J Poitras, Mark S Tremblay, Eun-Young Lee, Stephen Hunter, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: A recent review highlighted important relationships between combinations of movement behaviours (i.e., sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity) and health indicators among school-aged children and youth (aged 5-17 years). It is unclear whether similar relationships exist in younger children. Therefore, this review sought to examine the relationships between combinations of movement behaviours and health indicators in the early years (1.00 month to 4.99 years)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217836/drug-development-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-lessons-learned-from-fragile-x-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth M Berry-Kravis, Lothar Lindemann, Aia E Jønch, George Apostol, Mark F Bear, Randall L Carpenter, Jacqueline N Crawley, Aurore Curie, Vincent Des Portes, Farah Hossain, Fabrizio Gasparini, Baltazar Gomez-Mancilla, David Hessl, Eva Loth, Sebastian H Scharf, Paul P Wang, Florian Von Raison, Randi Hagerman, Will Spooren, Sébastien Jacquemont
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) result in lifelong cognitive and behavioural deficits and represent a major public health burden. FXS is the most frequent monogenic form of intellectual disability and autism, and the underlying pathophysiology linked to its causal gene, FMR1, has been the focus of intense research. Key alterations in synaptic function thought to underlie this neurodevelopmental disorder have been characterized and rescued in animal models of FXS using genetic and pharmacological approaches...
December 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
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