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cognitive behavioural

Rory J McCrimmon
Despite the introduction of newer technologies and improved insulin formulations, recurrent hypoglycaemia continues to affect the lives of many people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Developing strategies or therapies designed to prevent or minimize hypoglycaemia risk is of utmost importance to help individuals safely achieve glycaemic targets. Novel, educational or behavioural approaches need to be based on a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning both the detection of hypoglycaemia and why repeated exposure to hypoglycaemia leads to the development of a clinical syndrome referred to as impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Andre J Szameitat, Rahmi Saylik, Andrew Parton
It is known that neuroticism impairs cognitive performance mostly in difficult tasks, but not so much in easier tasks. One pervasive situation of this type is multitasking, in which the combination of two simple tasks creates a highly demanding dual-task, and consequently high neurotics show higher dual-task costs than low neurotics. However, the functional neuroanatomical correlates of these additional performance impairments in high neurotics are unknown. To test for this, we assessed brain activity by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 low and 15 high neurotics while they were performing a demanding dual-task and the less demanding component tasks as single-tasks...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Franziska Richter, Julia Gerstenberger, Anne Bauer, Chun-Chi Liang, Angelika Richter
Hereditary generalized dystonia is often caused by a GAG deletion in TOR1A (DYT1) that encodes for the protein torsinA. Although mutation carriers show alterations in neuronal connectivity and sensorimotor deficits, only 30% develop dystonia. Uncovering the factors triggering the dystonic symptoms and underlying pathophysiology would greatly benefit the development of more effective therapies. In DYT1 knock-in (KI) mice, the expression of torsinA mutant alters the connectivity of neurons and the function of striatal cholinergic interneurons...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
S Micheletti, F Palestra, P Martelli, P Accorsi, J Galli, L Giordano, V Trebeschi, E Fazzi
BACKGROUND: Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopment disorder resulting from deficient expression or function of the maternally inherited allele of UBE3A gene. The aim of the study is to attempt at providing a detailed definition of neurodevelopmental profile in AS, with particular regard to motor, cognitive, communicative, behavioural and neurovisual, features by using standardized instruments. METHOD: A total of ten subjects aged from 5 to 11 years (4 males and 6 females) with molecular confirmed diagnosis of AS (7 15q11...
October 21, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Ting Zhou, Xue Li, Ye Pei, Jianan Gao, Junhui Kong
BACKGROUND: Subthreshold depression has a considerable impact on individuals' subjective well-being and psychosocial functioning and is a predictor of major depressive disorder. Internet-based cognitive behavioural treatments (iCBTs) have been used to reduce the symptoms of subthreshold depression. This meta-analysis aims to systematically review evidence indicating the efficacy of iCBT programs on the improvement of depressive symptoms in this population. METHODS: Articles published from January 2005 to July 2016 were searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PsycArticles and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Joel Rocha, Jenny Paxman, Caroline Dalton, Edward Winter, David R Broom
This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention...
July 15, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Laurence Questienne, Filip Van Opstal, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Wim Gevers
Cognitive control allows adapting our behaviour to improve performance. A behavioural signature of cognitive control is the Gratton effect. This effect is observed in conflict tasks and indicates smaller congruency effects after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. Metacognitive experience may play a role in this effect: when participants introspect on their conflict experience, the Gratton effect follows the conflict introspection instead of the stimulus congruency (Desender, Van Opstal, & Van den Bussche, 2014)...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Miguel M Gonçalves, Joana Ribeiro Silva, Inês Mendes, Catarina Rosa, António P Ribeiro, João Batista, Inês Sousa, Carlos F Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: Innovative moments (IMs) are new and more adjusted ways of thinking, acting, feeling and relating that emerge during psychotherapy. Previous research on IMs has provided sustainable evidence that IMs differentiate recovered from unchanged psychotherapy cases. However, studies with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are so far absent. The present study tests whether IMs can be reliably identified in CBT and examines if IMs and symptoms' improvement are associated. METHODS: The following variables were assessed in each session from a sample of six cases of CBT for depression (a total of 111 sessions): (a) symptomatology outcomes (Outcome Questionnaire-OQ-10) and (b) IMs...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Lawrence T Lam, Mary K Lam
Excessive use of the Internet is considered a problematic behaviour by clinicians and researchers. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been advocated for a long time as a treatment approach and has been extended to include family therapy in the recent years. As eTherapy (eHealth) has become an important component in the treatment of many mental health problems, it is prudent to explore the current status of the eHealth approach as an intervention option for this problem. This systematic review aims to examine the current development of online intervention programmes for this particular condition...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Tania Dukic Willstrand, Thomas Broberg, Helena Selander
BACKGROUND: To maintain the mobility of older people in later life, it is essential to sustain their autonomy; however, driving is a complex task, requiring a large range of visual, psychomotor and cognitive abilities. Subsequently, a key issue is to measure and evaluate the fitness to drive of older drivers. Several methods have been proposed, among them the useful field of view (UFOV) test. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify driving characteristics in older drivers and the relationship between the UFOV test and the on-road driving results...
October 21, 2016: Gerontology
Paul C Knox, Ian J C MacCormick, Emme Mbale, Macpherson Malewa, Gabriela Czanner, Simon P Harding
Paediatric cerebral malaria is the most serious complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. While the majority recover, long-term cognitive impairment has been highlighted as a significant and neglected problem. Persistent or serious deficits in processes such as attention or behavioural inhibition should be manifest in changes to performance on oculomotor tasks. Therefore we investigated the impact of cerebral malaria on the development of reflexive pro-saccades and antisaccades. In a longitudinal study, 47 children previously admitted with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria (mean age at admission 54 months), were compared with 37 local healthy controls (mean ages at first study visit 117 and 110 months respectively)...
2016: PloS One
Isabelle Biseul, Romain Icick, Perrine Seguin, Frank Bellivier, Jan Scott
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an integrated group therapy (called HABIT) for comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUD) (BD-ASUD), a disabling clinical presentation for which no specific treatment has been validated. The 14-session HABIT programme employs psychoeducation-oriented cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) followed by mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) therapy. METHOD: Potential group participants were recruited from adult clients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD and an ASUD who were referred by their treating clinician...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Madhuri S Kurdi, Sindhu Priya Muthukalai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Melatonin (MT), a naturally occurring pituitary hormone has a sleep promoting effect. There are very few studies on pre-operative oral MT (0.2-0.5 mg/kg) in children. We planned a study to assess the efficacy of oral MT in two doses and compare it with oral midazolam and placebo for pre-operative anxiolysis, sedation, maintenance of cognition and psychomotor skills, parental separation behaviour and venepuncture compliance. METHODS: This prospective double-blind randomised study was conducted after ethical committee approval on 100 children aged 5-15 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective surgery at our hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Corrado Sinigaglia
The mirror mechanism is a basic brain mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' behaviour into one's own motor or visceromotor representations concerning that behaviour. According to its location in the brain, it may fulfil a range of cognitive functions, including action and emotion understanding. In each case, it may enable a route to knowledge of others' behaviour, which mainly depends on one's own motor or visceromotor representations.
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
S Kennedy, E L Davies, L Ryan, M E Clegg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
T A M Teunissen, S H Lo Fong Wong, A L M Lagro-Janssen
Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the abuse. Doctors often do not recognize the signs of sexual abuse. Most victims of rape have symptoms that may develop into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if they persist for more than 4 weeks, such as sleep problems or panic attacks...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Victor E Ezeugwu, Neera Garga, Patricia J Manns
PURPOSE: Understanding the determinants of sedentary behaviour (sitting or lying with low energy expenditure) in stroke survivors can enhance the development of successful behaviour change strategies. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of stroke survivors about sedentary behaviour and ways in which it can be changed. METHODS: An interpretative qualitative inquiry was used with thematic analysis of interview data. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured guide with 13 stroke survivors...
October 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Viktor S Kokhan, Marina I Matveeva, Azat Mukhametov, Andrey S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. Gravitational overloads, hypo-magnetic field and ionizing radiation are the main SFF that perturb the normal activity of the central nervous system (CNS). Acute and chronic CNS risks include alterations in cognitive abilities, reduction of motor functions and behavioural changes. Multiple experimental works have been devoted to the SFF effects on integrative functional activity of the brain; however, the model parameters utilized have not always been ideal and consistent...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Bettina K Steiger, Hennric Jokeit
Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions...
October 11, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Rebecca M Stanley, Rachel A Jones, Dylan P Cliff, Stewart G Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John J Reilly, Ngiare Brown, Karen J Mickle, Steven J Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul Chandler, Penny Cross, Fay Gowers, Anthony D Okely
BACKGROUND: Participation in regular physical activity (PA) during the early years helps children achieve healthy body weight and can substantially improve motor development, bone health, psychosocial health and cognitive development. Despite common assumptions that young children are naturally active, evidence shows that they are insufficiently active for health and developmental benefits. Exploring strategies to increase physical activity in young children is a public health and research priority...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
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