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reproductive immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228286/reproductive-immunology-time-to-look-forward
#1
EDITORIAL
Gendie Lash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224678/microbiome-autoimmunity-allergy-and-helminth-infection-the-importance-of-the-pregnancy-period
#2
Xian Chen, Su Liu, Qiao Tan, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yong Zeng
Pregnancy is a special physical period in reproductive age women, which has a beneficial influence on the course of certain autoimmune diseases. It has been recently suggested that the microbiome undergoes profound changes during pregnancy that are associated with host physiological and immunological adaptations. The maternal microbiome remodeling during pregnancy is an active response of the mother, possibly to alter immune system status and to facilitate metabolic and immunological adaptations, which are needed for a successful pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223455/acute-fetal-demise-with-first-trimester-maternal-infection-resulting-from-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#3
Bryce Wolfe, Gregory J Wiepz, Michele Schotzko, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Maureen Durning, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Nancy G Faith, Emmanuel Sampene, Marulasiddappa Suresh, Sophia Kathariou, Charles J Czuprynski, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220080/validation-of-a-method-for-the-assessment-of-urinary-neopterin-levels-to-monitor-health-status-in-non-human-primate-species
#4
Verena Behringer, Jeroen M G Stevens, Fabian H Leendertz, Gottfried Hohmann, Tobias Deschner
Determining individual health status is of great importance for a better understanding of life history trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, existing immunological methods are invasive and therefore not suitable for investigating health status in wild populations. Thus, there is an urgent need for non-invasive methods to assess the immune status of animals. Neopterin is involved in the cell-mediated pathway of the immune response (Th1-type), secreted during the activation of monocytes and macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214848/human-birth-weight-and-reproductive-immunology-testing-for-interactions-between-maternal-and-offspring-kir-and-hla-c-genes
#5
Michelle M Clark, Olympe Chazara, Eric M Sobel, Håkon K Gjessing, Per Magnus, Ashley Moffett, Janet S Sinsheimer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Maternal and offspring cell contact at the site of placentation presents a plausible setting for maternal-fetal genotype (MFG) interactions affecting fetal growth. We test hypotheses regarding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and HLA-C MFG effects on human birth weight by extending the quantitative MFG (QMFG) test. METHODS: Until recently, association testing for MFG interactions had limited applications. To improve the ability to test for these interactions, we developed the extended QMFG test, a linear mixed-effect model that can use multi-locus genotype data from families...
February 18, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188686/toxic-effects-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-primary-cultured-rat-sertoli-cells-are-mediated-via-a-dysregulated-ca-2-pkc-p38-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-cascade
#6
Lingqun Ye, Fashui Hong, Xiao Ze, Lingjuan Li, Yaoming Zhou, Yuguan Ze
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can be accumulated in various animal organs and can cause toxicity, there is currently only limited data regarding reproductive toxicity especially on the toxic mechanisms of TiO2 NPs in Sertoli cells. In order to investigate the mechanism of reproductive toxicity, primary cultured rat Sertoli cells were exposed to 5, 15 or 30 μg/ml TiO2 NPs for 24 h, and TiO2 NPs internalization, expression of PKC (p-PKC) and p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK) as well as calcium homeostasis were examined...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188592/redirecting-reproductive-immunology-research-toward-pregnancy-as-a-period-of-temporary-immune-tolerance
#7
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, David H Barad
Referring to two recent publications, we here propose that clinical reproductive immunology has for decades stagnated because reproductive medicine, including assisted reproduction (AR), has failed to accept embryo implantation as an immune system-driven process, dependent on establishment of maternal tolerance toward the implanting fetal semi-allograft (and complete allograft in cases of oocyte donation). Pregnancy represents a biologically unique period of temporary (to the period of gestation restricted) tolerance, otherwise only known in association with parasitic infections...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177360/genomewide-association-of-piglet-responses-to-infection-with-one-of-two-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-isolates
#8
E H Waide, C K Tuggle, N V L Serão, M Schroyen, A Hess, R R R Rowland, J K Lunney, G Plastow, J C M Dekkers
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease in the swine industry. Identification of host genetic factors that enable selection for improved performance during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection would reduce the impact of this disease on animal welfare and production efficiency. We conducted genomewide association study (GWAS) analyses of data from 13 trials of approximately 200 commercial crossbred nursery-age piglets that were experimentally infected with 1 of 2 type 2 isolates of PRRSV (NVSL 97-7985 [NVSL] and KS2006-72109 [KS06])...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164685/declined-natural-killer-cells-emerging-in-women-with-unexplained-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion-and-further-reducing-after-medical-therapy
#9
Xianghua Lin, Dijin Lin, Jiao Liu, Yunwen Bao, Zhaofan Luo, Junyue Fang, Ying Wang, Mingpeng Zhao, Chaohui Duan
BACKGROUND: As focus grows on reproduction, the issue of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA), especially for unexplained reasons (URSA), is grabbing more and more attention in gynecological immunology. We investigated the changes of peripheral lymphocyte subsets focusing on whether they had some relationship with development of URSA. METHODS: The percentage and absolute count of lymphocyte subsets (T cells, Th cells, Ts cells, B cells, NK cells) were simultaneously evaluated by flow cytometry in URSA patients (n = 48) and healthy controls (HC, n = 22)...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125737/interleukin-21-drives-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-porcine-memory-b-cells-into-antibody-secreting-cells
#10
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
Immunological prevention of infectious disease, especially viral, is based on antigen-specific long-lived memory B cells. To test for cellular proliferation and differentiation factors in swine, an outbred model for humans, CD21+ B cells were activated in vitro with CD40L and stimulated with purported stimulatory cytokines to characterize functional responses. IL-21 induced a 3-fold expansion in total cell numbers with roughly 15% of all B cells differentiating to IgM or IgG antibody secreting cells (ASCs.) However, even with robust proliferation, cellular viability rapidly deteriorated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120462/research-priority-setting-in-organ-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#11
Allison Tong, Benedicte Sautenet, Jeremy R Chapman, Claudia Harper, Peter MacDonald, Nicholas Shackel, Sally Crowe, Camilla Hanson, Sophie Hill, Anneliese Synnot, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Barriers to access and long-term complications remain a challenge in transplantation. Further advancements may be achieved through research priority setting with patient engagement to strengthen its relevance. We evaluated research priority setting in solid organ transplantation and described stakeholder priorities. METHODS: Databases were searched to October 2016. We synthesized the findings descriptively. RESULTS: The 28 studies (n=2071 participants) addressed kidney (9 [32%]), heart (7 [25%]), liver (3 [11%]), lung (1 [4%]), pancreas (1 [4%]), and non-specified organ transplantation (7 [25%]) using consensus conferences, expert panel meetings, workshops, surveys, focus groups, interviews, and the Delphi technique...
January 25, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110785/genetic-diversity-of-orf-4-6-of-type-1-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-naturally-infected-pigs
#12
Dong-Uk Lee, Sung J Yoo, Taeyong Kwon, Sang H Je, Jeong Y Shin, Jeong J Byun, Myung H Kim, Young S Lyoo
Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been highly prevalent throughout Korea since the virus was first detected in 2005. However, genetic analyses of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea have been limited to ORF5 and/or ORF7. In the present study, we determined 10 representative sequence covering ORF4 to ORF6 and each individual ORFs of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea, and performed molecular analyses. The most variable gene among the individual ORFs of field strains was ORF4, and this gene exhibited only 74...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069904/detection-and-activity-of-11-beta-hydroxylase-cyp11b1-in-the-bovine-ovary
#13
Ayelen N Amweg, Fernanda Mariel Rodriguez, Emilia Huber, Belkis E Marelli, Natalia Gareis, Eduardo M Belotti, Florencia Rey, Natalia Raquel Salvetti, Hugo H Ortega
Glucocorticoids (GCs) such as cortisol and corticosterone are important steroid hormones with different functions in intermediate metabolism, development, cell differentiation, immune response and reproduction. In response to physiological and immunological stress, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) acts on the adrenal gland by stimulating synthesis and secretion of GCs. However, there is increasing evidence that GCs may also be synthesized by extra-adrenal tissues. Here, we examined the gene and protein expression of the enzyme 11β-hydroxylase P450c11 (CYP11B1), involved in the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol, in the different components of the bovine ovary, and determined the functionality of CYP11B1 in vitro...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#14
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051087/effects-of-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-on-the-immune-microenvironment-of-the-human-cervix-and-endometrium-implications-for-hiv-susceptibility
#15
K K Smith-McCune, J F Hilton, U Shanmugasundaram, J W Critchfield, R M Greenblatt, D Seidman, S Averbach, L C Giudice, B L Shacklett
Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate is a commonly used injectable contraceptive that has been associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition. This study compares effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate on immune parameters from several upper reproductive tract compartments relevant to HIV-1 susceptibility in repetitive samples from 15 depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate users and 27 women not on hormonal contraceptives. Compared with samples from unexposed women in the mid-luteal phase, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate use was associated with: increased endocervical concentrations of MCP1 and IFNalpha2; decreased endocervical concentrations of IL1beta and IL6; increased proportions of endometrial CD4+ and CD8+ cells expressing the activation marker HLADR; increased density of endometrial macrophages; and decreased density of endometrial regulatory T cells...
January 4, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049829/glucocorticoid-receptor-in-t-cells-mediates-protection-from-autoimmunity-in-pregnancy
#16
Jan Broder Engler, Nina Kursawe, María Emilia Solano, Kostas Patas, Sabine Wehrmann, Nina Heckmann, Fred Lühder, Holger M Reichardt, Petra Clara Arck, Stefan M Gold, Manuel A Friese
Pregnancy is one of the strongest inducers of immunological tolerance. Disease activity of many autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) is temporarily suppressed by pregnancy, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the endocrine regulation of conventional and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during reproduction. In vitro, we found the pregnancy hormone progesterone to robustly increase Treg frequencies via promiscuous binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in T cells...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045025/interferon-epsilon-promotes-hiv-restriction-at-multiple-steps-of-viral-replication
#17
Albert Garcia-Minambres, Sahar G Eid, Niamh E Mangan, Corinna Pade, San S Lim, Antony Y Matthews, Nicole A de Weerd, Paul J Hertzog, Johnson Mak
Interferon epsilon (IFNɛ) is a type I IFN that is expressed constitutively in the female reproductive tract (FRT), and contributes to protection in models of sexually transmitted infections. Using multiple cell systems, including reporter cell lines and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), we show that recombinant IFNɛ impairs HIV infection at stage(s) post HIV entry and up to the translation of viral proteins. Consistent with this, IFNɛ upregulated a number of host cell restriction factors that block HIV at these stages of the replication cycle...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008186/reproductive-immunology-b-cells-be-shells
#19
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004193/lymphocyte-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-recurrent-miscarriage-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Marcelo Borges Cavalcante, Manoel Sarno, Edward Araujo Júnior, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Ricardo Barini
PURPOSE: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) affects up to 2-3% of couples of reproductive age. There are several causes for this condition, including immunologic. The embryo is considered an allograft, subject to the rejection mechanisms of the maternal immune system. Immunotherapy involving immunization with lymphocytes is considered in cases of idiopathic RM. However, there is still no consensus regarding the efficacy and safety of this therapy. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the data available in the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of the use of immunotherapy with lymphocytes in couples with history of RM...
December 21, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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