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reproductive immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853585/domestication-and-tameness-brain-gene-expression-in-red-junglefowl-selected-for-less-fear-of-humans-suggests-effects-on-reproduction-and-immunology
#1
Johan Bélteky, Beatrix Agnvall, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Per Jensen
The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypic modifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiology and reproduction, which are consistent across a range of species. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes could have evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness, an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting from an outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of all domestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or low fear of humans for five generations...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836584/puberty-as-a-vulnerable-period-to-the-effects-of-immune-challenges-focus-on-sex-differences
#2
REVIEW
Leanne Kane, Nafissa Ismail
Puberty is a critical period of development during which sexual maturity is attained. It is also a critical period for brain reorganization and it is vulnerable to exposure to certain environmental factors. Exposure to stress during this period can cause enduring neural and behavioral alterations. More specifically, exposure to an immune challenge during this period can alter reproductive as well as a number of non-reproductive behaviors and can permanently alter the brain's response to gonadal hormones. The present review examines the enduring effect of exposure to LPS and poly(I:C) during the pubertal period...
November 8, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810339/novel-immunotherapeutic-approaches-for-treatment-of-infertility
#3
REVIEW
Samaneh Abdolmohammadi-Vahid, Shahla Danaii, Kobra Hamdi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Majid Ahmadi, Mehdi Yousefi
One of the most important reasons of infertility and human reproductive failure is related to uncontrolled immunological response of maternal immune system to early embryo or fetus, that cause rejection of this semi-allograft. Therefore, a tolerance in the immune system is essential to modulate the reactions against the fetus to avoid rejection. The immune system imbalance during implantation or pregnancy may lead to implantation failure or miscarriage. So, use of immunosuppressive or immunomodulator agents can be helpful to prevent immunological attack...
October 31, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797156/establishment-of-optimized-elisa-system-specific-for-hla-g-in-body-fluids
#4
N Ouji-Sageshima, D E Geraghty, A Ishitani, K Hatake, T Ito
Recently, human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) has been a focus in the field of reproductive immunology, tumor progression and transplantation, because of its inhibitory function as ligand to the inhibitory receptors leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) B1 and LILRB2. The HLA-G is expressed in distinct mRNA isoforms, one of which encodes a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) protein, detectable by sandwich ELISA. Therefore, sHLA-G ELISAs have been used as a noninvasive diagnosis system. While a number of sHLA-G-specific ELISAs have been described, our prior studies showed that data obtained by the conventional ELISA system detecting sHLA-G in body fluids was not consistent with the data obtained from immunoprecipitation (IP)/immunoblotting (IB)...
December 2016: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786141/immunological-castration-temporarily-reduces-testis-size-and-function-without-long-term-effects-on-libido-and-sperm-quality-in-boars
#5
D W Lugar, M L Rhoads, S G Clark-Deener, S R Callahan, A K Revercomb, K J Prusa, M J Estienne
The objective was to determine the effects of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproductive characteristics in boars. A total of 72 boars were used in a randomized design with three treatments: single immunization (SI) (10 weeks of age) or double immunization (DI) (10 and 15 weeks of age) with Improvest® and intact controls (no Improvest®; CNT) (n=24/group). At 10, 15, 20, 25 and 40 weeks of age, blood was collected and serum harvested to evaluate testosterone concentrations. Testosterone concentrations were less for DI boars compared with CNT boars and SI boars at 20 and 25 weeks (P<0...
October 27, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775569/rna-interference-in-moths-mechanisms-applications-and-progress
#6
Jin Xu, Xia-Fei Wang, Peng Chen, Fang-Tao Liu, Shuai-Chao Zheng, Hui Ye, Ming-He Mo
The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control...
October 19, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765604/functional-characterization-of-vitellogenin_n-domain-domain-of-unknown-function-1943-and-von-willebrand-factor-type-d-domain-in-vitellogenin-of-the-non-bilaterian-coral-euphyllia-ancora-implications-for-emergence-of-immune-activity-of-vitellogenin-in-basal
#7
Xiaoyuan Du, Xia Wang, Su Wang, Yang Zhou, Yu Zhang, Shicui Zhang
Our understanding of the function of vitellogenin (Vg) in reproduction has undergone a transformation over the past decade in parallel with new insights into the role of Vg in immunity. However, the time when Vg was endowed with immunological activities during animal evolution remains elusive. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the recombinant proteins rVitellogenin_N, rDUF1943, and rVWD from Vg of the basal metazoan coral Euphyllia ancora not only interact with Gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as their conserved surface components LTA and LPS but also enhance phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages...
October 17, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733150/pathological-and-immunological-characteristics-of-piglets-infected-experimentally-with-a-hp-prrsv-tj-strain
#8
Zhenguang Li, Yanliang He, Xiaoqin Xu, Xue Leng, Shufen Li, Yongjun Wen, Fengxue Wang, Mingqi Xia, Shipeng Cheng, Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains a major threat to swine industry all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis and immune responses caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). RESULTS: All piglets experimentally infected with a HP-PRRSV TJ strain virus developed typical clinical signs of PRRS. The percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) lymphocytes significantly decreased in the infected group as compared to the uninfected control animals (p < 0...
October 12, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714943/is-hla-e-a-possible-genetic-marker-relevant-for-natural-conception
#9
Georgia Fernanda Gelmini, Cynthia Hernandes Costa, Fabiola da Silva Nardi, Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Sibelle Botogosque Mattar, Alessandro Schuffner, Maria da Graça Bicalho, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio Roxo
BACKGROUND: HLA-E products, class Ib human leukocyte antigens, act in the immunology of human reproduction as modulators of the maternal immune system during pregnancy. AIMS: To evaluate HLA-E role in the establishment of a viable pregnancy. MATERIALS & METHODS: HLA-E was genotyped by sequence-based typing (SBT) and analyzed for specific polymorphisms, comparing couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment (ART) and fertile control couples...
December 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662415/a-blessing-and-a-curse-is-high-nk-cell-activity-good-for-health-and-bad-for-reproduction
#10
Sophie Templer, Gavin Sacks
Few topics in recent reproductive medicine have been the subject of as much controversy, media attention and passionate debate as natural killer (NK) cells and their role in reproductive failure. The question of whether elevated NK cell levels are a cause of infertility and pregnancy loss, and whether they provide a potential target for therapy to improve reproductive outcomes, lacks a definitive answer. It is clear, however, that a significant number of women with reproductive failure have abnormal NK cell parameters reflecting high immunological activity...
September 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660826/effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-lps-exposure-on-the-reproductive-organs-of-immature-female-rats
#11
Da Kyung Yoo, Sung-Ho Lee
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin, elicits strong immune responses in mammals. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that LPS challenge profoundly affects female reproductive function. For example, LPS exposure affects steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis, resulting in delayed puberty onset. The present study was conducted to clarify the mechanism underlying the adverse effect of LPS on the delayed puberty in female rats. LPS was daily injected for 5 days (50 μg/kg, PND 25-29) to treated animals and the date at VO was evaluated through daily visual examination...
June 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651750/how-pregnancy-can-affect-autoimmune-diseases-progression
#12
REVIEW
Marie-Pierre Piccinni, Letizia Lombardelli, Federica Logiodice, Ornela Kullolli, Paola Parronchi, Sergio Romagnani
Autoimmune disorders are characterized by tissue damage, caused by self-reactivity of different effectors mechanisms of the immune system, namely antibodies and T cells. Their occurrence may be associated with genetic and/or environmental predisposition and to some extent, have implications for fertility and obstetrics. The relationship between autoimmunity and reproduction is bidirectional. This review only addresses the impact of pregnancy on autoimmune diseases and not the influence of autoimmunity on pregnancy development...
2016: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651417/dynamics-of-persistent-oral-cytomegalovirus-shedding-during-primary-infection-in-ugandan-infants
#13
Bryan T Mayer, Laura Matrajt, Corey Casper, Elizabeth M Krantz, Lawrence Corey, Anna Wald, Soren Gantt, Joshua T Schiffer
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs frequently in young children, who are then a major source of transmission. Oral CMV shedding by 14 infants with primary infection was comprehensively characterized using quantitative PCR weekly for >9 months. Three phases of oral shedding were identified: expansion, transition, and clearance. Viral expansion occurred over a median of 7 weeks, with a median doubling time of 3 days. During the transition phase, expansion slowed over a median of 6 weeks before reaching peak viral load...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636701/neither-vaginal-nor-buccal-administration-of-800%C3%A2-%C3%AE-g-misoprostol-alters-mucosal-and-systemic-immune-activation-or-the-cervicovaginal-microbiome-a-pilot-study
#14
Spyros A Kalams, Lisa M Rogers, Rita M Smith, Louise Barnett, Katie Crumbo, Shonda Sumner, Naomi Prashad, Kyle Rybczyk, Ginger Milne, Scot E Dowd, Erica Chong, Beverly Winikoff, David M Aronoff
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which misoprostol alters mucosal or systemic immune responses following either buccal or vaginal administration. METHODS: This was a prospective, crossover pilot study of 15 healthy, reproductive-age women. Women first received 800 μg misoprostol either via buccal or vaginal administration and were crossed over 1 month later to receive the drug via the other route. Cervicovaginal lavage samples, cervical Cytobrush samples, cervicovaginal swabs, urine and blood were obtained immediately prior to drug administration and the following day...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620141/cervicovaginal-cytokines-sialidase-activity-and-bacterial-load-in-reproductive-aged-women-with-intermediate-vaginal-flora
#15
Mariana Morena de Vieira Santos-Greatti, Márcia Guimarães da Silva, Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira, Camila Marconi
: Studies have shown that not only bacterial vaginosis, but also intermediate vaginal flora has deleterious effects for women's reproductive health. However, literature still lacks information about microbiological and immunological aspects of intermediate flora. OBJECTIVE: To characterize intermediate flora regarding levels of Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-10, sialidase; loads of Gardnerella vaginalis, total bacteria and to verify whether it is closer related to normal flora or bacterial vaginosis...
November 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615505/hla-g-profile-of-infertile-couples-who-underwent-assisted-reproduction-treatment
#16
Cynthia Hernandes Costa, Georgia Fernanda Gelmini, Fabiola Silva Nardi, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio Roxo, Alessandro Schuffner, Maria da Graça Bicalho
HLA-G codes for a non-classical Class I (Ib) protein which is mainly expressed in trophoblast cells. Many pieces of evidence pointed out its essential role conferring immunological tolerance to the fetus. Some HLA-G alleles have been linked to enhanced or reduced HLA-G protein levels expression, which have been associated with reproductive failure. In this study 33 couples undergoing ART (assisted reproduction treatment; n = 66) and 120 couples who conceived naturally (controls; n = 240) were enrolled in the study...
September 8, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608293/competitive-exclusion-in-a-multi-strain-immuno-epidemiological-influenza-model-with-environmental-transmission
#17
Yan-Xia Dang, Xue-Zhi Li, Maia Martcheva
In this paper, a multi-strain model that links immunological and epidemiological dynamics across scales is formulated. On the within-host scale, the n strains eliminate each other with the strain having the largest immunological reproduction number persisting. However, on the population scale, we extend the competitive exclusion principle to a multi-strain model of SI-type for the dynamics of highly pathogenic flu in poultry that incorporates both the infection age of infectious individuals and biological age of pathogen in the environment...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606818/enriched-housing-reduces-disease-susceptibility-to-co-infection-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-virus-prrsv-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-a-pleuropneumoniae-in-young-pigs
#18
Ingrid D E van Dixhoorn, Inonge Reimert, Jenny Middelkoop, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Henk J Wisselink, Peter W G Groot Koerkamp, Bas Kemp, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579858/dendritic-cells-from-the-human-female-reproductive-tract-rapidly-capture-and-respond-to-hiv
#19
M Rodriguez-Garcia, Z Shen, F D Barr, A W Boesch, M E Ackerman, J C Kappes, C Ochsenbauer, C R Wira
Dendritic cells (DCs) throughout the female reproductive tract (FRT) were examined for phenotype, HIV capture ability and innate anti-HIV responses. Two main CD11c(+) DC subsets were identified: CD11b(+) and CD11b(low) DCs. CD11b(+)CD14(+) DCs were the most abundant throughout the tract. A majority of CD11c(+)CD14(+) cells corresponded to CD1c(+) myeloid DCs, whereas the rest lacked CD1c and CD163 expression (macrophage marker) and may represent monocyte-derived cells. In addition, we identified CD103(+) DCs, located exclusively in the endometrium, whereas DC-SIGN(+) DCs were broadly distributed throughout the FRT...
August 31, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574762/effect-of-surgical-and-immunological-castration-on-haematological-variables-reproductive-hormones-and-ejaculate-characteristics-in-mongrel-dogs
#20
Temitope A Ajadi, Oladele S Gazal
Welfare concerns are growing regarding surgical castration (SC) in pets, necessitating the need for non-surgical alternatives. Administration of vaccines against gonadotropins releasing hormone (GnRH) have been reported as alternative to SC. This study determined the effect of surgical and immunological castrations (IC) on complete blood counts, plasma testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and ejaculate characteristics in mongrel dogs. Ten intact male dogs were randomly divided into two groups (A & B)...
2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
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