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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208211/changes-in-projected-spatial-and-seasonal-groundwater-recharge-in-the-upper-colorado-river-basin
#1
Fred D Tillman, Subhrendu Gangopadhyay, Tom Pruitt
The Colorado River is an important source of water in the western United States, supplying the needs of more than 38 million people in the United States and Mexico. Groundwater discharge to streams has been shown to be a critical component of streamflow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), particularly during low-flow periods. Understanding impacts on groundwater in the basin from projected climate change will assist water managers in the region in planning for potential changes in the river and groundwater system...
February 16, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208132/an-outbreak-of-acute-hepatitis-caused-by-genotype-ib-hepatitis-a-viruses-contaminating-the-water-supply-in-thailand
#2
Kriangsak Ruchusatsawat, Jongkonnee Wongpiyabovorn, Chonthicha Kawidam, Laddawan Thiemsing, Somchai Sangkitporn, Sayaka Yoshizaki, Masashi Tatsumi, Naokazu Takeda, Koji Ishii
BACKGROUND: In 2000, an outbreak of acute hepatitis A was reported in a province adjacent to Bangkok, Thailand. AIMS: To investigate the cause of the 2000 hepatitis A outbreaks in Thailand using molecular epidemiological analysis. METHODS: Serum and stool specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis. Water samples from drinking water and deep-drilled wells were also collected. These specimens were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the VP1/2A region of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) genome...
February 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205433/a-battery-operated-atomic-emission-analyzer-for-waterborne-arsenic-based-on-atmospheric-pressure-glow-discharge-excitation-source
#3
Chun Yang, Dong He, Zhenli Zhu, Huan Peng, Zhifu Liu, Guojun Wen, Jianghao Bai, Hongtao Zheng, Shenghong Hu, Yanxin Wang
In this paper, a sensitive atomic emission spectrometer (AES) based on a new low power and low argon consumption (< 8 W, 100 mL min(-1)) miniature direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma (3 mm×5 mm) excitation source was developed for the determination of arsenic in water samples. In this method, arsenic in water was reduced to AsH3 by hydride generation (HG), which was then transported to the APGD source for excitation and detected by a compact CCD (charge-coupled device) microspectrometer...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203672/sources-and-fate-of-high-levels-of-ammonium-in-surface-water-and-shallow-groundwater-of-the-jianghan-plain-central-china
#4
Yao Du, Teng Ma, Yamin Deng, Shuai Shen, Zongjie Lu
High levels of ammonium from anthropogenic sources threaten the quality of surface waters and groundwaters in some areas worldwide, but elevated ammonium levels of natural sources also have been identified. High levels of ammonium have been detected in both surface water and shallow groundwater of the Jianghan Plain, an alluvial plain of the Yangtze River. This study used N isotopes coupled with ancillary chemistry to identify ammonium in this region. Ammonium in the Tongshun River (up to 10.25 mg L(-1)) showed a sharp accumulation in the upstream and gradual attenuation in the downstream...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202348/assessment-of-environmental-risks-to-groundwater-ecosystems-related-to-use-of-veterinary-medicinal-products
#5
Boris Kolar, Antonio Finizio
The current EU guidelines for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceutical products (VMPs) in groundwater (GW) suggest an approach based on the comparison between the calculated concentration in GW (PECgw) and a threshold concentration of 0.1 μg/L. The latter is the upper limit of the concentration for pesticides in groundwater in the EU. If the calculated PECgw does not exceed the threshold, then the risk is considered acceptable. It is assumed that the concentration of 0.1 μg/L is by default safe for both humans and exposed GW organisms...
February 12, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202241/geochemical-and-mineralogical-characterization-of-sulfur-and-iron-in-coal-waste-rock-elk-valley-british-columbia-canada
#6
Joseph Essilfie-Dughan, M Jim Hendry, James J Dynes, Yongfeng Hu, Ashis Biswas, S Lee Barbour, S Day
Exposure of coal waste rock to atmospheric oxygen can result in the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and associated trace elements (e.g., Se, As, Cd, and Zn) to groundwaters and surface waters. Similarly, reduced iron minerals such as siderite, ankerite, and the sulfide, pyrite, present in the waste rock can also undergo oxidation, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxides that can adsorb trace elements released from the oxidation of the sulfide minerals. Characterization and quantification of the distribution of sulfide and iron minerals, their oxidation products, as well as leaching rates are critical to assessing present-day and future impacts of SO4(2-) and associated trace elements on receiving waters...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199878/large-decadal-scale-changes-in-uranium-and-bicarbonate-in-groundwater-of-the-irrigated-western-u-s
#7
Karen R Burow, Kenneth Belitz, Neil M Dubrovsky, Bryant C Jurgens
Samples collected about one decade apart from 1105 wells from across the U.S. were compiled to assess whether uranium concentrations in the arid climate are linked to changing bicarbonate concentrations in the irrigated western U.S. Uranium concentrations in groundwater were high in the arid climate in the western U.S, where uranium sources are abundant. Sixty-four wells (6%) were above the U.S. EPA MCL of 30μg/L; all but one are in the arid west. Concentrations were low to non-detectable in the humid climate...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199875/examining-the-impacts-of-increased-corn-production-on-groundwater-quality-using-a-coupled-modeling-system
#8
Valerie Garcia, Ellen Cooter, James Crooks, Brian Hinckley, Mark Murphy, Xiangnan Xing
This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199861/the-vato-project-development-and-validation-of-a-dynamic-transfer-model-of-tritium-in-grassland-ecosystem
#9
S Le Dizès, C Aulagnier, D Maro, M Rozet, F Vermorel, D Hébert, C Voiseux, L Solier, C Godinot, B Fievet, P Laguionie, O Connan, O Cazimajou, M Morillon
In this paper, a dynamic compartment model with a high temporal resolution has been investigated to describe tritium transfer in grassland ecosystems exposed to atmospheric (3)H releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. TOCATTA-χ model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims to assess the fate and transport of a wide range of radionuclides in various environmental systems. In this context, the conceptual and mathematical models of TOCATTA-χ have been designed to be relatively simple, minimizing the number of compartments and input parameters required...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198664/microbial-fouling-and-corrosion-of-carbon-steel-in-deep-anoxic-alkaline-groundwater
#10
Pauliina Rajala, Malin Bomberg, Mikko Vepsäläinen, Leena Carpén
Understanding the corrosion of carbon steel materials of low and intermediate level radioactive waste under repository conditions is crucial to ensure the safe storage of radioactive contaminated materials. The waste will be in contact with the concrete of repository silos and storage containers, and eventually with groundwater. In this study, the corrosion of carbon steel under repository conditions as well as the microbial community forming biofilm on the carbon steel samples, consisting of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, was studied over a period of three years in a groundwater environment with and without inserted concrete...
February 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198039/combined-environmental-risk-assessment-for-the-antiviral-pharmaceuticals-ganciclovir-and-valganciclovir-in-europe
#11
Jürg Oliver Straub
Potential environmental risks of the old antiviral pharmaceuticals ganciclovir (GCV) and valganciclovir (VGCV) were re-assessed based on new environmental fate and chronic ecotoxicity tests and on actual use data for Europe. VGCV is hydrolyzed to GCV by intestinal and hepatic esterases, hence the new environmental tests only refer to GCV. A sorption study showed that GCV will not sorb significantly, excluding the soil as a relevant environmental compartment. Despite earlier data suggesting non-degradability, a new water/sediment fate test showed GCV to be primarily and ultimately degraded and to be non-persistent...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196754/determination-of-groundwater-recharge-mechanism-in-the-deep-loessial-unsaturated-zone-by-environmental-tracers
#12
Zhi Li, Xi Chen, Wenzhao Liu, Bingcheng Si
Studying the groundwater recharge mechanism in regions with thick unsaturated zone can greatly improve our understanding of hydrological processes since these regions have complex groundwater processes. This study attempted to discuss the groundwater recharge in a region covered by loess over 130m deep in China's Loess Plateau. The water stable isotope, tritium and chloride in precipitation, groundwater and soil water were determined and used as inputs of mass balance methods. The tracer technique is found to be applicable and effective this region with thick unsaturated zone...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196322/ecosystem-services-mapping-for-sustainable-agricultural-water-management-in-california-s-central-valley
#13
Edward Matios, Jennifer Anne Burney
Accurate information on agricultural water needs and withdrawals at appropriate spatial and temporal scales remains a key limitation to joint water and land management decision-making. We use InVEST ecosystem service mapping to estimate water yield and water consumption as functions of land use in Fresno County, a key farming region in California's Central Valley. Our calculations show that in recent years (2010-2015), total annual water yield for the county has varied dramatically from ~0.97 km(3) to 5.37 km(3) (all ± ~17%; 1 MAF ≈ 1...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194673/assessment-of-groundwater-vulnerability-using-supervised-committee-to-combine-fuzzy-logic-models
#14
Ata Allah Nadiri, Maryam Gharekhani, Rahman Khatibi, Asghar Asghari Moghaddam
Vulnerability indices of an aquifer assessed by different fuzzy logic (FL) models often give rise to differing values with no theoretical or empirical basis to establish a validated baseline or to develop a comparison basis between the modeling results and baselines, if any. Therefore, this research presents a supervised committee fuzzy logic (SCFL) method, which uses artificial neural networks to overarch and combine a selection of FL models. The indices are expressed by the widely used DRASTIC framework, which include geological, hydrological, and hydrogeological parameters often subject to uncertainty...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193064/vapor-pressure-isotope-effects-in-halogenated-organic-compounds-and-alcohols-dissolved-in-water
#15
Axel Horst, Georges Lacrampe-Couloume, Barbara Sherwood Lollar
Volatilization causes changes in the isotopic composition of organic compounds as a result of different vapor pressures of molecules containing heavy and light isotopes. Both normal and inverse vapor pressure isotope effects (VPIE) have been observed, depending on molecular interactions in the liquid phase and the investigated element. Previous studies have focused mostly on pure compound volatilization or on compounds dissolved in organic liquids. Environmentally relevant scenarios, such as isotope fractionation during volatilization of organics from open water surfaces, have largely been neglected...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192351/application-of-coupled-zero-valent-iron-biochar-system-for-degradation-of-chlorobenzene-contaminated-groundwater
#16
Xu Zhang, Yanqing Wu
A novel iron-carbon micro-electrolysis system, bamboo-derived biochar coupled with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was investigated for chlorobenzene (CB)-contaminated groundwater removal. Influences of initial pH value, mass ratio of the ZVI/Biochar, initial CB concentration and ionic strength of the ZVI/Biochar micro-electrolysis were studied. The results indicated that the increase of initial pH led to the decrease of the CB removal efficiency. While the optimum mass ratio of ZVI to biochar was 2:1, the improved initial concentration and reaction time were 33...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190906/gauging-climate-preparedness-to-inform-adaptation-needs-local-level-adaptation-in-drinking-water-quality-in-ca-usa
#17
Julia A Ekstrom, Louise Bedsworth, Amanda Fencl
Understanding resource managers' perceptions of climate change, analytic capacity, and current adaptation activities can provide insight into what can help support adaptation processes at the local level. In California, where a major drought currently demonstrates some of the hardships that could be regularly encountered under a changing climate, we present results from a survey of drinking water utilities about the perceived threat, analytic capacity, and adaptation actions related to maintaining water quality in the face of climate change...
2017: Climatic Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189108/adsorbent-synthesis-of-polypyrrole-tio2-for-effective-fluoride-removal-from-aqueous-solution-for-drinking-water-purification-adsorbent-characterization-and-adsorption-mechanism
#18
Jie Chen, Chiajung Shu, Ning Wang, Jiangtao Feng, Hongyu Ma, Wei Yan
More than 20 countries are still suffering problems of excessive fluoride containing water, and greater than 8mg/L fluoride groundwater has been reported in some villages in China. In order to meet the challenge in the drinking water defluoridation engineering, a high efficiency and affinity defluoridation adsorbent PPy/TiO2 composite was designed and synthetized by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction Investigator (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Thermogravimetric analysis (TG), N2 isotherm analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Zeta potential analysis were conducted to characterize surface and textural properties of the as-prepared PPy/TiO2, and the possibility of fluoride adsorption was carefully estimated by adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188550/quantification-of-the-fate-of-mesotrione-applied-alone-or-in-a-herbicide-mixture-in-two-brazilian-arable-soils
#19
Kassio Ferreira Mendes, Bianca Assis Barbosa Martins, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Reis, Rodrigo Floriano Pimpinato, Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo
The effects of mesotrione, S-metolachlor, and terbuthylazine, applied in mixture, on soil biodegradation remain insufficiently researched. However, herbicide mixtures have been a common practice in agricultural systems in the last years. Understanding the fate of soil-applied herbicides may help on planning weed management tactics towards more sustainable and efficient weed control. Therefore, this study evaluated the fate of mesotrione alone and in mixture with S-metolachlor and terbuthylazine when applied to two contrasting arable Brazilian soils...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187392/reductive-immobilization-of-pertechnetate-in-soil-and-groundwater-using-synthetic-pyrite-nanoparticles
#20
Lijuan Huo, Wenbo Xie, Tianwei Qian, Xiaohong Guan, Dongye Zhao
Radioactive technetium ((99)Tc) is of intense concern because of its toxicity and high mobility in the environment. Reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) decreases the mobility and availability of technetium in soil and groundwater. In this study, pyrite nanoparticles (FeS2) were synthesized, characterized and tested for immobilizing/removing (99)Tc(VII) in soil and groundwater through batch and column experiments. Influences of particle dosage, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and pH on the reductive immobilization kinetics were examined...
February 5, 2017: Chemosphere
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