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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332946/optimal-groundwater-extraction-under-uncertainty-and-a-spatial-stock-externality
#1
Nathaniel H Merrill, Todd Guilfoos
We introduce a model that incorporates two important elements to estimating welfare gains from groundwater management: stochasticity and a spatial stock externality. We estimate welfare gains resulting from optimal management under uncertainty as well as a gradual stock externality that produces the dynamics of a large aquifer being slowly exhausted. This groundwater model imposes an important aspect of a depletable natural resource without the extreme assumption of complete exhaustion that is necessary in a traditional single cell (bathtub) model of groundwater extraction...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Agricultural Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332280/hydrogeochemical-processes-and-influence-of-seawater-intrusion-in-coastal-aquifers-south-of-chennai-tamil-nadu-india
#2
G Kanagaraj, L Elango, S G D Sridhar, G Gowrisankar
Seawater intrusion promotes the salinity of groundwater, and it poses a great environmental impact on a global scale. The present study was carried out to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and influence of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifers using geophysical, geochemical, and stable isotope techniques. The true resistivity value ranges from 0.5 to 8008.5 Ω-m which has been measured using vertical electrical sounding (VES) based on the Schlumberger method. About 33 groundwater samples were collected during post-monsoon (POM) (January 2012) and pre-monsoon (PRM) (June 2012) seasons from open and bore wells and were analyzed for major ions and stable isotopes...
January 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332176/characteristics-of-petroleum-contaminated-groundwater-during-natural-attenuation-a-case-study-in-northeast-china
#3
Hong Qian, Yuling Zhang, Jiali Wang, Chaoqun Si, Zaixing Chen
The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe3+), sulfate (SO42-), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O)...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331896/environmentally-available-hexavalent-chromium-in-soils-and-sediments-impacted-by-dispersed-fly-ash-in-sarigkiol-basin-northern-greece
#4
Nerantzis Kazakis, Nikolaos Kantiranis, Kyriaki Kalaitzidou, Efthimia Kaprara, Manassis Mitrakas, Robert Frei, George Vargemezis, Dimitrios Vogiatzis, Anastasios Zouboulis, Anestis Filippidis
Hexavalent chromium is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic species known and can be released into the environment from several sources. In Sarigkiol basin (N Greece) the presence of Cr(VI) in soil, sediments and groundwater may originate from both natural (ophiolitic rocks and their weathering products) and anthropogenic (dispersed fly ash produced from lignite power plants) sources. In this study, the distribution of contents and origin of environmentally available Cr(VI) in soils, sediments, regoliths and fly ash of Sarigkiol basin is presented...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331834/land-water-food-nexus-and-indications-of-crop-adjustment-for-water-shortage-solution
#5
Dandan Ren, Yonghui Yang, Yanmin Yang, Keith Richards, Xinyao Zhou
While agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example) by: (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain is produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions; and (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus...
January 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330820/effect-of-ion-exchange-on-the-rate-of-aerobic-microbial-oxidation-of-ammonium-in-hyporheic-zone-sediments
#6
Ailan Yan, Chongxuan Liu, Yuanyuan Liu, Fen Xu
Microbially mediated ammonium oxidation is a major process affecting nitrogen transformation and cycling in natural environments. This study investigated whether ion exchange process can affect microbially mediated aerobic oxidation of ammonium in a hyporheic zone (HZ) sediments from the Columbia River at US Department of Energy's Hanford site, Washington State. Experiments were conducted using synthetic groundwater and river water to investigate their effect on ammonium oxidation. Results indicated that ammonium sorption through ion exchange reactions decreased the rate of ammonium oxidation, apparently resulting from the influence of the ion exchange on dissolved ammonium concentration, thus decreasing the bioavailability of ammonium for microbial oxidation...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329087/occurrence-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfas-in-garden-produce-at-homes-with-a-history-of-pfas-contaminated-drinking-water
#7
Deanna P Scher, James E Kelly, Carin A Huset, Kitrina M Barry, Richard W Hoffbeck, Virginia L Yingling, Rita B Messing
The decades-long disposal of manufacturing waste containing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in landfills resulted in contamination of groundwater serving as the drinking water supply for the eastern Twin Cities metropolitan region. While measures were taken to reduce the levels of PFAS in the drinking water, questions remained about possible non-drinking water pathways of exposure in these communities. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) investigated whether PFAS in water used for yard and garden irrigation results in elevated concentrations of PFAS in soil and home-grown produce...
December 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327421/ionic-liquid-chemically-bonded-basalt-fibers-for-in-tube-solid-phase-microextraction
#8
Juanjuan Feng, Huijun Mao, Xiuqin Wang, Yu Tian, Chuannan Luo, Min Sun
Ionic liquids have been widely used in different fields by advantage of its specific property. In this work, 1-methyl-3-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)imidazolium chloride was prepared and chemically bonded onto basalt fibers for in-tube solid-phase microextraction. Through combining in-tube extraction device with high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a diode array detector, an online enrichment and analysis method for eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was established under the optimum conditions...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327318/evaluation-of-water-quality-and-human-risk-assessment-due-to-heavy-metals-in-groundwater-around-muledane-area-of-vhembe-district-limpopo-province-south-africa
#9
Joshua Nosa Edokpayi, Abimbola Motunrayo Enitan, Ntwanano Mutileni, John Ogony Odiyo
Groundwater is considered as good alternative to potable water because of its low turbidity and perceived low contamination. The study assessed the physio-chemical and heavy metals concentrations in eight randomly selected boreholes water at Muledane village in Limpopo Province of South Africa and the results were compared with South African National standard permissible limit. The impacts of heavy metals on human health was further determined by performing quantitative risk assessment through ingestion and dermal adsorption of heavy metals separately for adults and children in order to estimate the magnitude of heavy metals in the borehole samples...
January 12, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327189/using-a-high-organic-matter-biowall-to-treat-a-trichloroethylene-plume-at-the-beaver-dam-road-landfill
#10
Gabriela T Niño de Guzmán, Cathleen J Hapeman, Patricia D Millner, Laura L McConnell, Dana Jackson, David Kindig, Alba Torrents
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a highly effective industrial degreasing agent and known carcinogen. It was frequently buried improperly in landfills and has subsequently become one of the most common groundwater and soil contaminants in the USA. A common strategy to remediate TCE-contaminated sites and to prevent movement of the TCE plumes into waterways is to construct biowalls which consist of biomaterials and amendments to enhance biodegradation. This approach was chosen to contain a TCE plume emanating from a closed landfill in Maryland...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325802/utilization-of-large-volume-zwitterionic-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-for-the-analysis-of-polar-pharmaceuticals-in-aqueous-environmental-samples-benefits-and-limitations
#11
Lise Boulard, Georg Dierkes, Thomas Ternes
Benefits and limitations of HILIC were studied for the analysis of extreme polar organic contaminants in aqueous environmental matrices. A sensitive analytical method was developed and validated for the detection of 11 pharmaceuticals, 15 pharmaceutical metabolites and transformation products and the artificial sweetener acesulfame in aqueous environmental samples. The analytical method consisted of a simple and non-specific sample preparation based on freeze-drying followed by detection with large injection volume (70 μL) zwitterionic HILIC-ESI-MS/MS...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324294/microbial-community-of-a-gasworks-aquifer-and-identification-of-nitrate-reducing-azoarcus-and-georgfuchsia-as-key-players-in-btex-degradation
#12
Martin Sperfeld, Charlotte Rauschenbach, Gabriele Diekert, Sandra Studenik
We analyzed a coal tar polluted aquifer of a former gasworks site in Thuringia (Germany) for the presence and function of aromatic compound-degrading bacteria (ACDB) by 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing, bamA clone library sequencing and cultivation attempts. The relative abundance of ACDB was highest close to the source of contamination. Up to 44% of total 16S rRNA sequences were affiliated to ACDB including genera such as Azoarcus, Georgfuchsia, Rhodoferax, Sulfuritalea (all Betaproteobacteria) and Pelotomaculum (Firmicutes)...
December 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314644/comammox-nitrospira-are-abundant-ammonia-oxidizers-in-diverse-groundwater-fed-rapid-sand-filter-communities
#13
Susan Jane Fowler, Alejandro Palomo, Arnaud Dechesne, Paul D Mines, Barth F Smets
The recent discovery of completely nitrifying Nitrospira demands a re-examination of nitrifying environments to evaluate their contribution to nitrogen cycling. To approach this challenge, tools are needed to detect and quantify comammox Nitrospira. We present primers for the simultaneous quantification and diversity assessement of both comammox Nitrospira clades. The primers cover a wide range of comammox diversity, spanning all available high quality sequences. We applied these primers to 12 groundwater-fed rapid sand filters, and found comammox Nitrospira to be abundant in all filters...
December 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314392/using-isotopic-spike-from-tropical-storm-to-understand-water-exchange-on-large-scale-case-study-of-hurricane-rafael-in-the-lesser-antilles-archipelago-october-2012
#14
Luc Lambs, Félix Bompy, Maguy Dulormne
RATIONALE: Studies of wetland eco-hydrology in tropical coastal area are scarce, and the use of water stable isotopes can be of great help. Key constraints for their analysis are (i) the small difference in δ18 O values between seawater and old evaporated freshwater, and (ii) the fact that the presence of old brackish water limits the determination of the water origin and dynamic. METHODS: The water of tropical storms displays distinctively depleted heavy stable isotopes, in comparison with usual tropical rainfall without strong convective thunderstorms...
January 3, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313201/water-and-nitrate-dynamics-in-safflower-field-lysimeters-under-different-irrigation-strategies-planting-methods-and-nitrogen-fertilization-and-application-of-hydrus-1d-model
#15
Mohammad Hossein Shahrokhnia, Ali Reza Sepaskhah
World recent concerns about the shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater supplies have motivated scientists seeking for more efficient techniques in irrigation and fertilization of farms while taking the advantage of models. The objective of this study is to address how water and nitrogen (N) dynamics are affected by efficient management strategies and to evaluate the application of HYDRUS-1D model in these conditions. In terms of using management policies, different irrigation strategies, planting methods, and different N fertilization rates applied on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313157/microbial-community-response-reveals-underlying-mechanism-of-industrial-scale-manganese-sand-biofilters-used-for-the-simultaneous-removal-of-iron-manganese-and-ammonia-from-groundwater
#16
Yu Zhang, Rui Sun, Aijuan Zhou, Jiaguang Zhang, Yunbo Luan, Jianna Jia, Xiuping Yue, Jie Zhang
Most studies have employed aeration-biofiltration process for the simultaneous removal of iron, manganese and ammonia in groundwater. However, what's inside the "black box", i.e., the potential contribution of functional microorganisms behavior and interactions have seldom been investigated. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the correlations between environmental variables and functional microorganisms. In this study, the performance of industrial-scale biofilters for the contaminated groundwater treatment was studied...
January 8, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306834/a-study-of-bangladesh-s-sub-surface-water-storages-using-satellite-products-and-data-assimilation-scheme
#17
M Khaki, E Forootan, M Kuhn, J Awange, F Papa, C K Shum
Climate change can significantly influence terrestrial water changes around the world particularly in places that have been proven to be more vulnerable such as Bangladesh. In the past few decades, climate impacts, together with those of excessive human water use have changed the country's water availability structure. In this study, we use multi-mission remotely sensed measurements along with a hydrological model to separately analyze groundwater and soil moisture variations for the period 2003-2013, and their interactions with rainfall in Bangladesh...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306813/rhodococcus-wratislaviensis-strain-9-an-efficient-p-nitrophenol-degrader-with-a-great-potential-for-bioremediation
#18
Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Kannan Krishnan, Ravi Naidu, Robin Lockington, Mallavarapu Megharaj
A Gram-positive bacterium, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain 9, was isolated from groundwater contaminated with nitrophenolics and trichloroethene following enrichment culture technique. The cells of strain 9 grown on LB broth (uninduced) degraded 720 μM p-nitrophenol (PNP) within 12 h, and utilized as a source of carbon and energy. Orthogonal experimental design analysis to determine optimal conditions for biodegradation of PNP showed that pH had a significant positive effect (P ≤ .05) on bacterial degradation of PNP, while glucose, di- and tri-nitrophenols exhibited significant negative effect...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306701/methane-supported-nitrate-removal-from-groundwater-in-a-membrane-biofilm-reactor
#19
Jing-Huan Luo, Hui Chen, Zhiguo Yuan, Jianhua Guo
The discovery of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) has not only improved our understanding of global methane and nitrogen cycles, but also provided new technology options for removal of nitrate from nitrate-contaminated water. Previous studies have demonstrated DAMO organisms could remove nitrate and nitrite from wastewater under strictly anaerobically conditions. In the study, we investigate the feasibility of nitrate removal from groundwater, which contains dissolved oxygen in addition to nitrate...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306200/mass-balance-of-emerging-contaminants-in-the-water-cycle-of-a-highly-urbanized-and-industrialized-area-of-italy
#20
Sara Castiglioni, Enrico Davoli, Francesco Riva, Marinella Palmiotto, Paolo Camporini, Angela Manenti, Ettore Zuccato
The occurrence of several classes of emerging contaminants (ECs) was assessed in the River Lambro basin, one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas of Italy. The study aims were to identify the main sources of ECs, quantify their amounts circulating in the water cycle, and study their fate in the aquatic environment. More than 80 ECs were selected among pharmaceuticals (PHARM), personal care products (PCPs), disinfectants (DIS), illicit drugs (IDs), perfluorinated compounds (PERF), alkylphenols and bisphenol A (Alk-BPA), and anthropogenic markers (AM)...
December 22, 2017: Water Research
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