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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092000/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-wastewater-use-and-herd-environment-on-the-occurrence-of-animal-diseases-and-animal-health-in-pakistan
#1
Ehsan Elahi, Liqin Zhang, Muhammad Abid, Muhammad Tariq Javed, Han Xinru
The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091886/levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-breast-milk-of-maya-women-in-yucatan-mexico
#2
Ángel G Polanco Rodríguez, M Inmaculada Riba López, T Angel DelValls Casillas, Jesús Alfredo Araujo León, B Anjan Kumar Prusty, Fernando J Álvarez Cervera
In this study, 24 breast milk samples, obtained from rural Maya women, from municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues by gas chromatography. Recent studies have shown that Maya communities have a poor perception about the proper usage and handling of OCP. The karstic soil in this area has a high vulnerability to groundwater pollution by the use of OCP in agriculture and livestock activities. The impact of the ecosystem on human health is much more critical due to the prevailing poverty and a very low educational level of these communities...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091885/assessing-the-impact-of-preload-on-pyrite-rich-sediment-and-groundwater-quality
#3
Ohene Karikari-Yeboah, Jonas Addai-Mensah
Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091883/ground-penetrating-radar-gpr-responses-for-sub-surface-salt-contamination-and-solid-waste-modeling-and-controlled-lysimeter-studies
#4
Y N S Wijewardana, A T Shilpadi, M I M Mowjood, K Kawamoto, L W Galagedara
The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2)...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088722/in-situ-denitrification-and-dnra-rates-in-groundwater-beneath-an-integrated-constructed-wetland
#5
M M R Jahangir, O Fenton, C Müller, R Harrington, P Johnston, K G Richards
Evaluation of the environmental benefits of constructed wetlands (CWs) requires an understanding of their impacts on the groundwater quality under the wetlands. Empirical mass-balance (nitrogen in/nitrogen out) approaches for estimating nitrogen (N) removal in CWs do not characterise the final fate of N; where nitrate (NO3(-)-N) could be reduced to either ammonium (NH4(+)-N) or N2 with the potential for significant production of N2O. Herein, in situ denitrification and DNRA (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) rates were measured in groundwater beneath cells of an earthen lined integrated constructed wetland (ICW, used to remove the nutrients from municipal wastewater) using the (15)N-enriched NO3(-)-N push-pull method...
January 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088548/soil-carbon-dioxide-emissions-from-a-rubber-plantation-on-tropical-peat
#6
Nur Wakhid, Takashi Hirano, Yosuke Okimoto, Siti Nurzakiah, Dedi Nursyamsi
Land-use change in tropical peatland potentially results in a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions owing to drainage, which lowers groundwater level (GWL) and consequently enhances oxidative peat decomposition. However, field information on carbon balance is lacking for rubber plantations, which are expanding into Indonesia's peatlands. To assess soil CO2 emissions from an eight-year-old rubber plantation established on peat after compaction, soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly using a closed chamber system from December 2014 to December 2015, in which a strong El Niño event occurred, and consequently GWL lowered deeply...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087074/quantifying-loading-toxic-concentrations-and-systemic-persistence-of-chloride-in-a-contemporary-mixed-land-use-watershed-using-an-experimental-watershed-approach
#7
J A Hubbart, E Kellner, L W Hooper, S Zeiger
A nested-scale experimental watershed study was implemented to quantify loading and persistence of chloride in an urbanizing, mixed-land-use watershed. A Midwest USA (Missouri) watershed was partitioned into five sub-basins with contrasting dominant land use. Streamwater was tested for chloride concentration four days per week from October 2009 through May 2014 at each site. Monitoring sites included co-located gauging and climate stations recording variables at 30-minute intervals. Results indicate significant (p<0...
January 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080043/plasma-based-water-treatment-efficient-transformation-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-in-prepared-solutions-and-contaminated-groundwater
#8
Gunnar R Stratton, Fei Dai, Christopher L Bellona, Thomas M Holsen, Eric Reyvell Velazquez Dickenson, Selma Mededovic Thagard
A process based on electrical discharge plasma was tested for the transformation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The plasma-based process was adapted for two cases, high removal rate and high removal efficiency. During a 30 minute treatment, the PFOA concentration in 1.4 L aqueous solutions was reduced by 90% with the high rate process (76.5 W input power) and 25% with the high efficiency process (4.1 W input power). Both achieved remarkably high PFOA removal and defluorination efficiencies compared to leading alternative technologies...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078392/carbon-footprint-assessment-of-western-australian-groundwater-recycling-scheme
#9
Andrew Simms, Stacey Hamilton, Wahidul K Biswas
This research has determined the carbon footprint or the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) of potable water production from a groundwater recycling scheme, consisting of the Beenyup wastewater treatment plant, the Beenyup groundwater replenishment trial plant and the Wanneroo groundwater treatment plant in Western Australia, using a life cycle assessment approach. It was found that the scheme produces 1300 tonnes of CO2 eq per gigalitre (GL) of water produced, which is 933 tonnes of CO2 eq higher than the desalination plant at Binningup in Western Australia powered by 100% renewable energy generated electricity...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078370/evaluation-of-groundwater-quality-in-the-eastern-district-of-abu-dhabi-emirate-uae
#10
Mohamed M Mohamed, Ahmed Murad, RezaulKabir Chowdhury
Water samples were collected to evaluate the groundwater quality in the shallow unconfined alluvial aquifer in the eastern part of Abu-Dhabi Emirate, UAE. The chemical monitoring revealed some spatial variability in chemical parameters as influenced by matrix aquifer changes in geological formations. Results show that changes in groundwater chemistry in the aquifer is mainly controlled by evaporation, silicate mineral dissolution, evaporite dissolution, and cation exchange. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved sodium, chloride, and sulphate...
January 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076700/correlation-between-acute-toxicity-for-daphnia-magna-aliivibrio-fischeri-and-physicochemical-variables-of-the-leachate-produced-in-landfill-simulator-reactors
#11
José J Barrios Restrepo, Letícia Flohr, Silvia P Melegari, Cristina H da Costa, Cristiane F Fuzinatto, Armando B de Castilhos, William G Matias
Due to the diversified nature of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the different stages of its decomposition, the formed leachates result in a complex chemical mixture with toxic potential. These chemicals can cause environmental problems, such as the contamination of surface or groundwater, thus affecting the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of leachates in Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri and to identify the main physicochemical variables that influence the toxicity of the landfill leachates produced in reactors within pilot simulations...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076658/the-development-of-groundwater-modeling-the-end-of-an-era
#12
EDITORIAL
Fred J Molz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075122/acetylene-fuels-tce-reductive-dechlorination-by-defined-dehalococcoides-pelobacter-consortia
#13
Xinwei Mao, Ronald S Oremland, Tong Liu, Sara Gushgari, Abigail Amanda Landers, Shaun M Baesman, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen
Acetylene (C2H2) can be generated in contaminated groundwater sites as a consequence of chemical degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) by in situ minerals, and C2H2 is known to inhibit bacterial dechlorination. In this study, we show that while high C2H2 (1.3 mM) concentrations reversibly inhibit reductive dechlorination of TCE by Dehalococcoides mccartyi isolates as well as enrichment cultures containing D. mccartyi sp., low C2H2 (0.4 mM) concentrations do not inhibit growth or metabolism of D. mccartyi. Co-cultures of Pelobacter SFB93, a C2H2-fermenting bacterium, with D...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074368/evaluation-of-2d-resistivity-imaging-technique-for-delineating-subsurface-seepage-of-hydrocarbon-contaminated-water-southeast-of-karbala-city-iraq
#14
Firas H Al-Menshed, Jassim M Thabit
2D imaging technique was applied in (8) transects near a pit of contaminated water near contaminated well southeast of Karbala city, Iraq. Each transect was 30 m long with 1 m electrode spacing. Data acquisition was fulfilled by using Wenner electrode array. The resistivity of water-contaminated zone is found less than 3Ω.m and the top dry zone recorded relatively high resistivity (more than 170Ω.m). It is found that the greatest amount of seepage was found moving towards northeast direction coincided with groundwater movement direction, whereas there was no movement towards northwest and southeast directions and restricted on the closest areas to the pit location...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074366/improved-slant-drilling-well-for-in-situ-remediation-of-groundwater-and-soil-at-contaminated-sites
#15
Yasuhide Furukawa, Kazuhiro Mukai, Keisuke Ohmura, Takeshi Kobayashi
Soil contamination has become a crucial issue in urban redevelopment. Japan has many contaminated sites on which manufacturing has been conducted over several decades. Site holders are now under pressure to manage chemical contamination; however, the use of heavy machinery is difficult in remedial operations on restricted sites, especially where there are still working factories. The slant well is a potentially useful technique in such settings, but its use is technically challenging because of the need for high drilling accuracy and the difficulty in sealing the slanted bores...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073640/pharmaceuticals-in-a-temperate-forest-water-reuse-system
#16
Andrew D McEachran, Damian Shea, Elizabeth Guthrie Nichols
Forest-water reuse systems infiltrate municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastewaters through forest soils to shallow aquifers that ultimately discharge to surface waters. Their ability to mitigate regulated nutrients, metals, and organic chemicals is well known, but the fate of non-regulated chemicals in these systems is largely unstudied. This study quantified 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in soils, groundwaters, and surface waters in a 2000-hectare forest that receives ~1200mm/year of secondary-treated, municipal wastewater in addition to natural rainfall (~1300mm/year)...
January 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073323/protective-effect-exerted-by-soil-phosphorus-on-soybean-subjected-to-arsenic-and-fluoride
#17
Carolina Bustingorri, Guillermo Noriega, Raúl S Lavado, Karina Balestrasse
: Objetive: Arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) are found in groundwater and soils around the world, causing different problems to crops. Because these elements compete against phosphorus (P) in soils and plants, their relationship is complex. The aim of this work was to study the oxidative stress of soybean plants subjected to different concentrations of As and F, and the effect of P. METHODS: The following 10 treatments were carried out in each of two soils with different P content: three As levels (low 10 mg As kg(-1), medium 50 mg As kg(-1) and high 100 mg As kg(-1)), three F levels (low 160 mg F kg(-1), medium 250 mg F kg(-1) and high 500 mg F kg(-1)) and three As + F levels (same concentrations), and the control treatment (soil with the background As and F concentrations) Lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll, gluthatione contents and antioxidant enzymes activities were determination...
January 10, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071702/nitrogen-loss-by-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-in-unconfined-aquifer-soils
#18
Shanyun Wang, Dirk Radny, Shuangbing Huang, Linjie Zhuang, Siyan Zhao, Michael Berg, Mike S M Jetten, Guibing Zhu
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen cycling, yet little is known about its role in the subsurface biosphere. In this study, we investigated the presence, abundance, and role of anammox bacteria in upland soil cores from Tianjin, China (20 m depth) and Basel, Switzerland (10 m depth), using isotope-tracing techniques, (q)PCR assays, and 16 S rRNA &hzsB gene clone libraries, along with nutrient profiles of soil core samples. Anammox in the phreatic (water-saturated) zone contributed to 37...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069314/a-data-parsimonious-model-for-capturing-snapshots-of-groundwater-pollution-sources
#19
Jyoti Chaubey, Deepak Kashyap
Presented herein is a data parsimonious model for identification of regional and local groundwater pollution sources at a reference time employing corresponding fields of head, concentration and its time derivative. The regional source flux, assumed to be uniformly distributed, is viewed as the causative factor for the widely prevalent background concentration. The localized concentration-excesses are attributed to flux from local sources distributed around the respective centroids. The groundwater pollution is parameterized by flux from regional and local sources, and distribution parameters of the latter...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067285/residential-exposure-to-chlorinated-hydrocarbons-from-groundwater-contamination-and-the-impairment-of-renal-function-an-ecological-study
#20
Hui-Ming Chen, Ming-Tsang Wu
Groundwater pollution from the petrochemical industry causes serious deterioration of soil and groundwater quality and impacts on human health worldwide. However, few studies have examined the effect of residential exposure to petrochemical chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater on renal function impairment in humans. We conducted an ecological study to investigate the two. A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant was located in one of the six villages, the study area, in Kaohsiung city of southwestern Taiwan...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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