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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786423/electrochemical-determination-of-tnt-dnt-rdx-and-hmx-with-gold-nanoparticles-poly-carbazole-aniline-film-modified-glassy-carbon-sensor-electrodes-imprinted-for-molecular-recognition-of-nitroaromatics-and-nitramines
#1
Şener Sağlam, Ayşem Üzer, Erol Erçağ, Reşat Apak
Since nitroaromatic and nitramine type energetic materials, mostly arising from military activities, are persistent pollutants in soil and groundwater, on-site sensing of these hazardous chemicals has gained importance. A novel electrochemical sensor was designed for detecting nitroaromatic and nitramine type energetic materials, relying on gold nanoparticles (Aunano ) -modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode coated with nitro-energetic memory poly(carbazole-aniline) copolymer (Cz- co-ANI) film (e.g., TNT memory-GC/P(Cz- co-ANI)-Aunano modified electrode)...
May 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784017/investigating-aquifer-contamination-and-groundwater-quality-in-eastern-terai-region-of-nepal
#2
Sanjay Mahato, Asmita Mahato, Pankaj Kumar Karna, Nisha Balmiki
OBJECTIVE: This study aims at assessing the groundwater quality of the three districts of Eastern Terai region of Nepal viz. Morang, Jhapa, Sunsari using physicochemical characteristics and statistical approach so that possible contamination of water reservoir can be understood. pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, color, total dissolved solids, fluorides, ammonia, nitrates, chloride, total hardness, calcium hardness, calcium, magnesium, total alkalinity, iron, manganese, arsenic have to be analyzed to know the present status of groundwater quality...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783843/big-groundwater-datasets-reveal-possible-rare-contamination-amid-otherwise-improved-water-quality-for-some-analytes-in-a-region-of-marcellus-shale-development
#3
Tao Wen, Xianzeng Niu, Matthew Gonzales, Guanjie Zheng, Zhenhui Li, Susan Louise Brantley
Eleven thousand groundwater samples collected in the 2010s in an area of Marcellus shale-gas development are analyzed to assess spatial and temporal patterns of water quality. Using a new data mining technique, we confirm previous observations that methane concentrations in groundwater tend to be naturally elevated in valleys and near faults, but we also show that methane is also more concentrated near anticlines. Data mining also highlights waters with elevated methane that are not otherwise explained by geologic features...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783177/evaluating-long-term-patterns-of-decreasing-groundwater-discharge-through-a-lake-bottom-permeable-reactive-barrier
#4
Timothy D McCobb, Martin A Briggs, Denis R LeBlanc, Frederick D Day-Lewis, Carole D Johnson
Identifying and quantifying groundwater exchange is critical when considering contaminant fate and transport at the groundwater/surface-water interface. In this paper, areally distributed temperature and point seepage measurements are used to efficiently assess spatial and temporal groundwater discharge patterns through a glacial-kettle lakebed area containing a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB). Concern was that the PRB was becoming less permeable with time owing to biogeochemical processes within the PRB...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780177/the-challenges-of-pfas-remediation
#5
Ramona Darlington, Edwin Barth, John McKernan
Many military bases and their surrounding communities are impacted by contamination with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFFs). Soil sorption technologies provide a promising solution to immobilize PFAS in the soil and prevent groundwater and drinking water contamination. This article is the result of a collaborative effort between Battelle and the U.S. EPA's review of the most promising technologies.
January 1, 2018: The Military engineer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778760/electrochemical-disinfection-of-groundwater-for-civil-use-an-example-of-an-effective-endogenous-advanced-oxidation-process
#6
Achille De Battisti, Paolo Formaglio, Sergio Ferro, Mustafa Al Aukidy, Paola Verlicchi
Lab-scale experiments using real groundwater were carried out using the CabECO® reactor system in order to evaluate its suitability for producing safe water, acceptable for civil purposes. Trials were carried out in discontinuous and in continuous mode, analyzing the influence of electrical and hydraulic process parameters on the quality of treated water. The use of highly boron-doped diamond electrodes in the reactor allowed the electrosynthesis of considerable amounts of ozone. Because of the relatively high amount of chloride in the groundwater samples, a mixture of HOCl/ClO- was also synthesized...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778675/groundwater-contamination-and-land-drainage-induce-divergent-responses-in-boreal-spring-ecosystems
#7
Kaisa Lehosmaa, Jussi Jyväsjärvi, Jari Ilmonen, Pekka M Rossi, Lauri Paasivirta, Timo Muotka
Degradation of freshwater ecosystems has engendered legislative mandates for the protection and management of surface waters while groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have received much less attention. This is so despite biodiversity and functioning of GDEs are currently threatened by several anthropogenic stressors, particularly intensified land use and groundwater contamination. We assessed the impacts of land drainage (increased input of dissolved organic carbon, DOC, from peatland drainage) and impaired groundwater chemical quality (NO3 - -N enrichment from agricultural or urban land use) on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in 20 southern Finnish cold-water springs using several taxonomic and functional measures...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778080/atrazine-xenobiotic-nuclear-receptor-interactions-induce-cardiac-inflammation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-quail-coturnix-coturnix-coturnix
#8
Xue-Nan Li, Yu-Zhu Zuo, Lei Qin, Wei Liu, Yan-Hua Li, Jin-Long Li
Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most extensively used herbicide that eventually leaches into groundwater and surface water from agricultural areas. Exposure to ATR does harm to the health of human and animals, especially the heart. However, ATR exposure caused cardiotoxicity in bird remains unclear. To evaluate ATR-exerted potential cardiotoxicity in heart, quail were exposed with 0, 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day ATR by gavage treatment for 45 days. Cardiac histopathological alternation was observed in ATR-induced quail...
May 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775938/treatment-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-by-heat-activated-persulfate-under-conditions-representative-of-in-situ-chemical-oxidation
#9
Thomas A Bruton, David L Sedlak
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a class of organic contaminants notable for their extreme persistence. The unique chemical properties of these compounds make them difficult to remove from water using most standard water treatment techniques. To gain insight into the possibility of remediating contaminated groundwater by in situ chemical oxidation with heat-activated persulfate, PFAA removal and the generation of transformation products were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Solution pH had a strong influence on the removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), resulting in its transformation into shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) at pH values below 3...
April 21, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775100/phytoremediation-of-btex-and-naphthalene-from-produced-water-spill-sites-using-poaceae
#10
Amanda Rose Shores, Brittany Hethcock, Melinda Laituri
Surface spills of water produced from hydraulic fracturing can expose soil and groundwater to organics such as BTEX and naphthalene (BTEX&N) as well as high concentrations of salt. As an alternative to soil excavation, we evaluated the effectiveness of BTEX&N soil remediation using 2 grasses present in Colorado. Perennial ryegrass and foxtail barley were grown separately in pots in the greenhouse and exposed to salt or a synthesized produced-water slurry containing relevant levels of salt and BTEX&N...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772466/research-on-the-contamination-levels-of-norovirus-in-food-facilities-using-groundwater-in-south-korea-2015-2016
#11
Jeong Su Lee, In Sun Joo, Si Yeon Ju, Min Hee Jeong, Yun-Hee Song, Hyo Sun Kwak
Norovirus (NoV) is a major pathogenic virus that is responsible for foodborne and waterborne gastroenteritis outbreaks. Groundwater is an important source of drinking water and is used in agriculture and food manufacturing processes. This study investigated norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems at 1360 sites in seven metropolitan areas and nine provinces in 2015-2016. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, and turbidity content were assessed to analyze the water quality. In 2015, six sites were positive for the presence of NoV (0...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772424/enhanced-hexavalent-chromium-removal-performance-and-stabilization-by-magnetic-iron-nanoparticles-assisted-biochar-in-aqueous-solution-mechanisms-and-application-potential
#12
Shishu Zhu, Xiaochen Huang, Dawei Wang, Li Wang, Fang Ma
The superiority of the nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) assisted biochar (BC) composites compared to traditional nZVI and its application feasibility are still unclear. This study aimed to provide valuable information for practical application. Firstly, the Fe/BC mass ratio of 2:1 during the preparation of nZVI-BC was proved obtaining the complete Cr6+ removal. Then, results revealed that the initial pH value tuned Cr6+ removal performance via varying existing Cr6+ species, surface charge, and chemical states of iron nanoparticles (NPs)...
May 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769728/emerging-trends-in-global-freshwater-availability
#13
M Rodell, J S Famiglietti, D N Wiese, J T Reager, H K Beaudoing, F W Landerer, M-H Lo
Freshwater availability is changing worldwide. Here we quantify 34 trends in terrestrial water storage observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites during 2002-2016 and categorize their drivers as natural interannual variability, unsustainable groundwater consumption, climate change or combinations thereof. Several of these trends had been lacking thorough investigation and attribution, including massive changes in northwestern China and the Okavango Delta. Others are consistent with climate model predictions...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767715/stable-isotope-probing-of-hypoxic-toluene-degradation-at-the-sikl%C3%A3-s-aquifer-reveals-prominent-role-of-rhodocyclaceae
#14
András Táncsics, Anna Róza Szalay, Milan Farkas, Tibor Benedek, S Szoboszlay, I Szabó, Tillmann Lueders
The availability of oxygen is often a limiting factor for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in subsurface environments. However, while both aerobic and anaerobic degraders have been intensively studied, degradation betwixt, under micro- or hypoxic conditions has rarely been addressed. It is speculated that in environments with limited, but sustained oxygen supply, such as in the vicinity of groundwater monitoring wells, hypoxic degradation may take place. A large diversity of subfamily I.2.C extradiol dioxygenase genes has been previously detected in a BTEX-contaminated aquifer in Hungary...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766497/hydraulic-conductivity-calibration-of-logging-nmr-in-a-granite-aquifer-laramie-range-wyoming
#15
Shuangpo Ren, Andrew D Parsekian, Ye Zhang, Bradley J Carr
In granite aquifers, fractures can provide both storage volume and conduits for groundwater. Characterization of fracture hydraulic conductivity (K) in such aquifers is important for predicting flow rate and calibrating models. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well logging is a method to quickly obtain near-borehole hydraulic conductivity (i.e., KNMR ) at high vertical resolution. On the other hand, FLUTe flexible liner technology can produce a K profile at comparable resolution but requires a fluid driving force between borehole and formation...
May 15, 2018: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765651/surrogate-modelling-for-the-prediction-of-spatial-fields-based-on-simultaneous-dimensionality-reduction-of-high-dimensional-input-output-spaces
#16
D Crevillén-García
Time-consuming numerical simulators for solving groundwater flow and dissolution models of physico-chemical processes in deep aquifers normally require some of the model inputs to be defined in high-dimensional spaces in order to return realistic results. Sometimes, the outputs of interest are spatial fields leading to high-dimensional output spaces. Although Gaussian process emulation has been satisfactorily used for computing faithful and inexpensive approximations of complex simulators, these have been mostly applied to problems defined in low-dimensional input spaces...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763875/green-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-dispersion-through-a-sandy-column-using-different-injection-sequences
#17
António Soares, Sandra Ramos, Tomás Albergaria, Cristina Delerue-Matos
The contamination of soils is a global environmental problem that urges an increased effort to recover polluted sites. In Europe, there are an estimated 20,000 polluted sites that need to be remediated and around 350,000 sites that are classified as potentially contaminated by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Remediation is a part of the solution to this problem, requiring the most innovative and sustainable technologies. In this context, the use of zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) is a promising, low cost and efficient technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762550/hysogs250m-global-gridded-hydrologic-soil-groups-for-curve-number-based-runoff-modeling
#18
C Wade Ross, Lara Prihodko, Julius Anchang, Sanath Kumar, Wenjie Ji, Niall P Hanan
Hydrologic soil groups (HSGs) are a fundamental component of the USDA curve-number (CN) method for estimation of rainfall runoff; yet these data are not readily available in a format or spatial-resolution suitable for regional- and global-scale modeling applications. We developed a globally consistent, gridded dataset defining HSGs from soil texture, bedrock depth, and groundwater. The resulting data product-HYSOGs250m-represents runoff potential at 250 m spatial resolution. Our analysis indicates that the global distribution of soil is dominated by moderately high runoff potential, followed by moderately low, high, and low runoff potential...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758921/mineral-n-stock-and-nitrate-accumulation-in-the-50-to-200m-profile-on-the-loess-plateau
#19
Xiaoxu Jia, Yuanjun Zhu, Laiming Huang, Xiaorong Wei, Yunting Fang, Lianhai Wu, Andrew Binley, Mingan Shao
Nitrogen (N) stored in deep profiles is important in assessing regional and/or global N stocks and nitrate leaching risk to groundwater. The Chinese Loess Plateau, which is characterized by significantly thick loess deposits, potentially stores immense stocks of mineral N, posing future threats to groundwater quality. In order to determine the vertical distributions of nitrate and ammonium content in the region, as well as to characterize the potential accumulation of nitrate in the deep loess profile, we study loess samples collected at five sites (Yangling, Changwu, Fuxian, An'sai and Shenmu) through a 50 to 200m loess profile...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758919/uranium-concentrations-in-sediment-pore-waters-of-lake-neusiedl-austria
#20
Regina Krachler, Rudolf Krachler, Fadime Gülce, Bernhard K Keppler, Gabriele Wallner
The goal of the present investigation was to measure 234 U/238 U activity ratios in pore waters of Lake Neusiedl, Austria, in order to learn more about uranium in groundwaters of the Lake Neusiedl/Seewinkel region. Pore waters of waterlogged sediments (at 1m depth) in the littoral zone of Lake Neusiedl were analyzed. The pore water samples were collected in the National Park Lake Neusiedl/Seewinkel from pristine sites that were not influenced by neighboring fertilized fields or vineyards. Uranium isotopes were extracted from 1...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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