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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531966/how-do-disturbances-and-climate-effects-on-carbon-and-water-fluxes-differ-between-multi-aged-and-even-aged-coniferous-forests
#1
Xuguang Tang, Hengpeng Li, Mingguo Ma, Li Yao, Matthias Peichl, Altaf Arain, Xibao Xu, Michael Goulden
Disturbances and climatic changes significantly affect forest ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon (C) flux dynamics. A deep understanding of terrestrial feedbacks to such effects and recovery mechanisms in forests across contrasting climatic regimes is essential to predict future regional/global C and water budgets, which are also closely related to the potential forest management decisions. However, the resilience of multi-aged and even-aged forests to disturbances has been debated for >60years because of technical measurement constraints...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531952/groundwater-quality-in-the-alluvial-aquifer-system-of-northwest-india-new-evidence-of-the-extent-of-anthropogenic-and-geogenic-contamination
#2
D J Lapworth, G Krishan, A M MacDonald, M S Rao
Groundwater depletion has been widely studied in northwest India, but water quality concerns are still poorly constrained. In this study, we explore the hydrochemistry of the top 160m of the aquifer system, through detailed field studies in the Bist-Doab region, considering both anthropogenic and geogenic controls. A detailed comparison is made between sites dominated by urban and agricultural landuse. Salinity, nitrate, chloride and lead concentrations are significantly higher in the shallow (0-50m) groundwater system due to surface anthropogenic contaminant loading from agricultural and urban sources...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531951/identifying-and-quantifying-geochemical-and-mixing-processes-in-the-matanza-riachuelo-aquifer-system-argentina
#3
S Armengol, M Manzano, S A Bea, S Martínez
The Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin, in the Northeast of the Buenos Aires Province, is one of the most industrialized and populated region in Argentina and it is worldwide known for its alarming environmental degradation. In order to prevent further damages, the aquifer system, which consists of two overlaid aquifers, is being monitored from 2008 by the river basin authority, Autoridad de la Cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo. The groundwater chemical baseline has been established in a previous paper (Zabala et al., 2016), and this one is devoted to the identification of the main physical and hydrogeochemical processes that control groundwater chemistry and its areal distribution...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531946/the-role-of-mobilisation-and-delivery-processes-on-contrasting-dissolved-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-exports-in-groundwater-fed-catchments
#4
Rémi Dupas, Per-Erik Mellander, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux, Ophélie Fovet, Eoin B McAleer, Noeleen T McDonald, Mairead Shore, Phil Jordan
Diffuse transfer of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in agricultural catchments is controlled by the mobilisation of sources and their delivery to receiving waters. While plot scale experiments have focused on mobilisation processes, many catchment scale studies have hitherto concentrated on the controls of dominant flow pathways on nutrient delivery. To place mobilisation and delivery at a catchment scale, this study investigated their relative influence on contrasting nitrate-N and soluble P concentrations and N:P ratios in two shallow groundwater fed catchments with different land use (grassland and arable) on the Atlantic seaboard of Europe...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531123/evaluation-of-drinking-water-disinfectant-byproducts-compliance-data-as-an-indirect-measure-for-short-term-exposure-in-humans
#5
Shahid Parvez, Kali Frost, Madhura Sundararajan
In the absence of shorter term disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) data on regulated Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs), epidemiologists and risk assessors have used long-term annual compliance (LRAA) or quarterly (QA) data to evaluate the association between DBP exposure and adverse birth outcomes, which resulted in inconclusive findings. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of using long-term LRAA and QA data as an indirect measure for short-term exposure. Short-term residential tap water samples were collected in peak DBP months (May-August) in a community water system with five separate treatment stations and were sourced from surface or groundwater...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528235/mapping-natural-radioactivity-of-soil-samples-in-different-regions-of-punjab-india
#6
Komal Saini, B S Bajwa
Thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector and multi channel analyzer has been utilized to measure gamma rays emitted by radio nuclides found in soil samples of south-west (SW) region of Punjab state, India where elevated level of uranium of around value of 700µg/l in groundwater has been reported. For comparative study, soil samples were also collected and analyzed from west (W) and north east (NE) regions of the state. Uranium and potassium has been found to be comparatively higher in SW region whereas thorium level is higher in W and NE part of Punjab state...
May 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527141/rice-agriculture-impacts-catchment-hydrographic-patterns-and-nitrogen-export-characteristics-in-subtropical-central-china-a-paired-catchment-study
#7
Yi Wang, Xinliang Liu, Hua Wang, Yong Li, Yuyuan Li, Feng Liu, Runlin Xiao, Jianlin Shen, Jinshui Wu
Increased nitrogen (N) concentrations in water bodies have highlighted issues regarding nutrient pollution in agricultural catchments. In this study, the ammonium-N (NH4(+)-N), nitrate-N (NO3(-)-N), and total N (TN) concentrations were observed in the stream water and groundwater of two contrasting catchments (named Tuojia and Jianshan) in subtropical central China from 2010 to 2014, to determine the rice agriculture impacts on the hydrographic patterns, and N export characteristics of the catchments. The results suggested that greater amounts of stream flow (523...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526789/a-novel-iron-dependent-enzyme-that-catalyzes-the-initial-step-in-the-biodegradation-of-n-nitroglycine-by-variovorax-sp-strain-js1663
#8
Kristina M Mahan, Hangping Zheng, Tekle T Fida, Ronald J Parry, David E Graham, Jim C Spain
Nitramines are key constituents of most of the explosives in current use and consequently contaminate soil and groundwater at many military facilities around the world. Toxicity from nitramine contamination poses a health risk to plants and animals, thus understanding how nitramines are biodegraded is critical to environmental remediation. The biodegradation of synthetic nitramine compounds such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine (RDX) has been studied for decades, but little is known about the catabolism of naturally produced nitramine compounds...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525879/application-of-calcium-peroxide-in-water-and-soil-treatment-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Shuguang Lu, Xiang Zhang, Yunfei Xue
Calcium peroxide (CP) has been progressively applied in terms of environmental protection due to its certain physical and chemical properties. This review focuses on the latest progresses in the applications of CP in water and soil treatment, including wastewater treatment, surface water restoration and groundwater and soil remediation. The stability of CP makes it an effective solid phase to supply H2O2 and O2 for aerobic biodegradation and chemical degradation of contaminants in water and soil. CP has exerted great performance in the removal of dyes, chlorinated hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, heavy metals and various other contaminants...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523826/occurrence-and-abundance-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-and-bacteria-from-the-surface-to-below-the-water-table-in-deep-soil-and-their-contributions-to-nitrification
#10
Lei Zheng, Xue Zhao, Guibing Zhu, Wei Yang, Chao Xia, Tao Xu
Using molecular biology methods (qualitative and quantitative PCR), we determined the occurrence and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) from a dry inland soil in Basel, Switzerland, and from the riparian zone of Baiyangdian Lake, China. We also determined the contributions of these microorganisms to ammonia oxidization at different depths based on the nitrification rate. The number of archaeal amoA genes (the key functional gene in AOA) was larger than the number of bacterial amoA genes in each sample, suggesting a dominant role for the AOA amoA gene in environments with a low ammonium concentration...
May 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521168/ecotoxicity-testing-and-environmental-risk-assessment-of-iron-nanomaterials-for-sub-surface-remediation-recommendations-from-the-fp7-project-nanorem
#11
Rune Hjorth, Claire Coutris, Nhung H A Nguyen, Alena Sevcu, Juliàn Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Anders Baun, Erik J Joner
Nanoremediation with iron (Fe) nanomaterials opens new doors for treating contaminated soil and groundwater, but is also accompanied by new potential risks as large quantities of engineered nanomaterials are introduced into the environment. In this study, we have assessed the ecotoxicity of four engineered Fe nanomaterials, specifically, Nano-Goethite, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites, Carbo-Iron(®) and FerMEG12, developed within the European FP7 project NanoRem for sub-surface remediation towards a test battery consisting of eight ecotoxicity tests on bacteria (V...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521159/distribution-and-genetic-diversity-of-microbial-populations-in-the-pilot-scale-biofilter-for-simultaneous-removal-of-ammonia-iron-and-manganese-from-real-groundwater
#12
Qingfeng Cheng, Lichao Nengzi, Linlin Bao, Yang Huang, Shengyu Liu, Xiuwen Cheng, Bo Li, Jie Zhang
A pilot-scale biofilter treating real groundwater was developed in this study, which showed that ammonia, iron and manganese were mainly removed at 0.4, 0.4 and 0.8 m of the filter bed, respectively, and the corresponding removal efficiencies were 90.82%, 95.48% and 95.90% in steady phase, respectively. The variation of microbial populations in the biofilter during start-up process was also investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing (HTP). Results indicated that the main functional microbes for ammonia, iron and manganese removal were Nitrosomonas, Crenothrix and Crenothrix, respectively, which was mainly distributed at 0...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520714/alteration-of-stream-temperature-by-natural-and-artificial-beaver-dams
#13
Nicholas Weber, Nicolaas Bouwes, Michael M Pollock, Carol Volk, Joseph M Wheaton, Gus Wathen, Jacob Wirtz, Chris E Jordan
Beaver are an integral component of hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic processes within North American stream systems, and their propensity to build dams alters stream and riparian structure and function to the benefit of many aquatic and terrestrial species. Recognizing this, beaver relocation efforts and/or application of structures designed to mimic the function of beaver dams are increasingly being utilized as effective and cost-efficient stream and riparian restoration approaches. Despite these verities, the notion that beaver dams negatively impact stream habitat remains common, specifically the assumption that beaver dams increase stream temperatures during summer to the detriment of sensitive biota such as salmonids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516406/degradation-and-adsorption-of-tralkoxydim-in-chinese-soils-and-water-sediment-environments
#14
Wen Zhu Wu, Zheng Jun Shan, De Yang Kong, Jian He
Tralkoxydim is a cyclohexanedione herbicide primarily used for gramineous weed control in China. In this paper, we present results of a tralkoxydim laboratory environmental fate study characterizing its degradation, adsorption, and mobility behavior in three different soils and two water-sediment systems (river and lake) in China. Degradation half-life of tralkoxydim in soil under aerobic conditions was 5.1, 7.7, and 7.9 days in Jiangxi red soil, Taihu paddy soil, and Northeast China black soil, respectively...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516350/evaluation-of-vascular-effect-of-arsenic-using-in-vivo-assays
#15
Bharat Patel, Rajat Das, Anil Gautam, Mugdha Tiwari, Sukhdev Acharya, Sunil Kumar
Arsenic (As) is an abundant toxicant present in groundwater and soil in various parts of the world including eastern part of India. The epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to developmental defects and miscarriage. Placenta is known to utilize vasculogenesis to develop its vasculature circulation. The effects of four different doses of sodium meta-arsenite (0, 10, 20, 75, and 150 ppm) were assessed on the vascular structure using two different in vivo models, i.e., Matrigel and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512710/effects-of-coexisting-bde-47-on-the-migration-and-biodegradation-of-bde-99-in-river-based-aquifer-media-recharged-with-reclaimed-water
#16
Y Yan, Y Li, M Ma, W Ma, X Cheng, K Xu
Two prominent polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners have been included in the persistent organic pollutant list, 2,2',4,4',5-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) and 2,2,4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), which have been detected in treated municipal wastewater, river water, and sediments in China. A lab-scale column experiment was established to investigate the effects of the competitive sorption of BDE-47 on BDE-99 biodegradation and migration in two types of river-based aquifer soils during groundwater recharge with reclaimed water...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512707/geochemistry-and-sources-of-fluoride-and-nitrate-contamination-of-groundwater-in-lar-area-south-iran
#17
Mohsen Rezaei, Masume Nikbakht, Ata Shakeri
Groundwater quality in bone-dry and semiarid areas of Iran is decreasing because of contaminants from natural origins and anthropogenic sources. Among many harmful contaminants, nitrate and fluoride ions are more common. This study was carried out with the aim of determining geochemical processes controlling chemistry of groundwater with special reference to nitrate and fluoride enrichment in groundwater in Lar plain aquifer, south of Iran. Groundwater samples were collected from 17 sites and analyzed for main constituents (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4(2-), HCO3(-), F(-), and NO3(-))...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511359/occurrence-of-chemical-contaminants-in-peri-urban-agricultural-irrigation-waters-and-assessment-of-their-phytotoxicity-and-crop-productivity
#18
Anna Margenat, Víctor Matamoros, Sergi Díez, Núria Cañameras, Jordi Comas, Josep M Bayona
Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areas where water demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, it must cope with the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging from trace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants (i.e., 15 TEs, 34 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)), bulk parameters, and nutrients from irrigation waters and crop productivity (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511357/establishing-and-testing-a-catchment-water-footprint-framework-to-inform-sustainable-irrigation-water-use-for-an-aquifer-under-stress
#19
Betsie le Roux, Michael van der Laan, Teunis Vahrmeijer, Keith L Bristow, John G Annandale
Future water scarcities in the face of an increasing population, climate change and the unsustainable use of aquifers will present major challenges to global food production. The ability of water footprints (WFs) to inform water resource management at catchment-scale was investigated on the Steenkoppies Aquifer, South Africa. Yields based on cropping areas were multiplied with season-specific WFs for each crop to determine blue and green water consumption by agriculture. Precipitation and evapotranspiration of natural vegetation and other uses of blue water were included with the agricultural WFs to compare water availability and consumption in a catchment sustainability assessment...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511136/fate-of-pharmaceuticals-in-soil-after-application-of-stps-products-influence-of-physicochemical-properties-and-modelling-approach
#20
Xela García-Santiago, Juan M Garrido, Juan M Lema, Amaya Franco-Uría
Depurated effluents can be employed as reclaimed water for irrigation in regions with low precipitations, while nutrients-rich biosolids are usually applied as fertilizer for agricultural purposes. However, both practices may result in the accumulation of micropollutants in the soil compartment, the contamination of groundwater, and/or their biotransfer to different living organisms until they finally may reach human receptors. The fate and transport of seven pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) with different physicochemical properties was analysed for these scenarios employing two different models: the buckets model and the HYDRUS-1D software package...
May 11, 2017: Chemosphere
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