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Jia Wen, Ying Fang, Guangming Zeng
The efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) from the environment has become an important issue from both biological and environmental perspectives. Recently, porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), combining central metals and organic ligands, have been proposed as promising materials in the capture of various toxic substances, including HMs, due to their unique characteristics. Here we review recent progress in the field of water remediation from the perspective of primary HMs (including divalent metals and variable-valent metals) in water pollution and the corresponding MOFs (including virgin and modified MOFs, magnetic MOFs composites and so on) that can remove these metals from water...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Yilong Hua, Wei Wang, Xiaoyue Huang, Tianhang Gu, Dexin Ding, Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
Bicarbonate, ubiquitous in natural and waste waters is an important factor regulating the rate and efficiency of pollutant separation and transformation. For example, it can form complexes with U(VI) in the aqueous phase and at the solid-water interface. In this work, we investigated the effect of bicarbonate on the aging of nanoscale zero-valent (nZVI) in the context of U(VI) reduction and removal from wastewater. For fresh nZVI, over 99% aqueous uranium was separated in less than 10 min, of which 83% was reduced from U(VI) to U(IV)...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Eloi Parladé, Andrea Hom-Diaz, Paqui Blánquez, Maira Martínez-Alonso, Teresa Vicent, Nuria Gaju
The use of microalgal consortia for urban wastewater treatment is an increasing trend, as it allows simultaneous nutrient removal and biomass production. Emerging contaminants proposed for the list of priority substances such as the hormone 17β-estradiol are commonly found in urban wastewater, and their removal using algal monocultures has been accomplished. Due to the inherent potential of algae-based systems, this study aimed to assess the capability of native photobioreactor biomass to remove 17β-estradiol under indoor and outdoor conditions...
March 3, 2018: Water Research
Shiyun Chi, Cuizhen Wei, Jinxiu Zheng, Jun Hu, Ming Li, Juxiang Hu
In this study, the Li River and the middle-lower reaches of the Shaying River in the Shaying River basin were selected for an investigation on the effects of floodgates on macroinvertebrate communities; additionally, the relationships among floodgates, macroinvertebrate communities and river longitudinal connectivity were explored. The Li and Shaying rivers had similar ratios of molluscs and scrapers, but their species compositions were significantly different. The water level fluctuations in the Li River were based on natural hydrological characteristics, and these were very different from the fluctuations in the reaches of the Shaying River that were divided by a serious of floodgates...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pengfei Guo, Yuejin Zhang, Yongjun Zhao
Abstract : Co-cultivation of microalgae and microbes for pollutant removal from sewage is considered as an effective wastewater treatment method. The aim of this study is to screen the optimal photoperiod, light intensity and microalgae co-cultivation method for simultaneously removing nutrients in biogas slurry and capturing CO₂ in biogas. The microalgae-fungi pellets are deemed to be a viable option because of their high specific growth rate and nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency under the photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anyu Yu, Guangshe Jia, Jianxin You, Puwei Zhang
The particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) is a serious air-pollutant emission in China, which has caused serious risks to public health. To reduce the pollution and corresponding public mortality, this paper proposes a method by incorporating slacks-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) and an integrated exposure risk (IER) model. By identifying the relationship between the PM2.5 concentration and mortality, the potential PM2.5 concentration efficiency and mortality reduction were measured. The proposed method has been applied to China's 243 cities in 2015...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael J Fay, Lauren A C Alt, Dominika Ryba, Ribhi Salamah, Ryan Peach, Alexander Papaeliou, Sabina Zawadzka, Andrew Weiss, Nil Patel, Asad Rahman, Zyaria Stubbs-Russell, Peter C Lamar, Joshua R Edwards, Walter C Prozialeck
Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Even though the effects of Cd on the kidney have been well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular and physiologic function by modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The goal of the present study was to determine if Cd affects renal cortex miRNA expression in a well-established animal model of Cd-induced kidney injury...
March 15, 2018: Toxics
Michelle Wong, Esther Bejarano, Graeme Carvlin, Katie Fellows, Galatea King, Humberto Lugo, Michael Jerrett, Dan Meltzer, Amanda Northcross, Luis Olmedo, Edmund Seto, Alexa Wilkie, Paul English
Air pollution continues to be a global public health threat, and the expanding availability of small, low-cost air sensors has led to increased interest in both personal and crowd-sourced air monitoring. However, to date, few low-cost air monitoring networks have been developed with the scientific rigor or continuity needed to conduct public health surveillance and inform policy. In Imperial County, California, near the U.S./Mexico border, we used a collaborative, community-engaged process to develop a community air monitoring network that attains the scientific rigor required for research, while also achieving community priorities...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yuko Arita, Michael Kirk, Neha Gupta, Ramkumar Menon, Darios Getahun, Morgan R Peltier
OBJECTIVE: Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. METHODS: Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Jiaqi Zhang, Zipeng Xing, Jiayi Cui, Zhenzi Li, Siyu Tan, Junwei Yin, Jinlong Zou, Qi Zhu, Wei Zhou
Herein, C,N co-doped porous TiO2 hollow sphere visible light photocatalysts were fabricated using biocompatible N-lauroyl-l-glutamic acid as a doped precursor and soft-template by a mild and facile self-assembly soft-template method, followed by calcination at 550 °C in air. The structure, morphology, and surface elemental composition were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Lai Lyu, Dengbiao Yan, Guangfei Yu, Wenrui Cao, Chun Hu
Carbon nitride compounds (CN) complexed with the in-situ produced Cu(II) on the surface of CuAlO2 substrate (CN-Cu(II)-CuAlO2) is prepared via a surface growth process for the first time, which exhibits exceptionally high activity and efficiency for the degradation of the refractory pollutants in water through a Fenton-like process in a wide pH range. The reaction rate for BPA removal is ~25 times higher than that of the CuAlO2. According to the characterization, Cu(II) generation on the surface of CuAlO2 during the surface growth process result in the marked decrease of the surface oxygen vacancies and the formation of the C-O-Cu bridges between CN and Cu(II)-CuAlO2 in the catalyst...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Je Min Yoo, Baekwon Park, Sang Jin Kim, Yong Seok Choi, Sungmin Park, Eun Hye Jeong, Hyukjin Lee, Byung Hee Hong
Ferrous ion-based catalysts have been widely employed to oxidatively destruct the major industrial pollutants such as phenolic compounds through advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). These agents, however, inevitably show several drawbacks including the need for pH adjustment and further purification steps to remove residual salts. Here we report the use of a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene film as a novel metal-free catalyst for the AOP-based degradation of phenols in aqueous solution, which does not require additional steps for salt removal nor external energy to activate the process...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Sulagna Patnaik, Gayatri Swain, K M Parida
Herein, a novel Cu-MoO3 /g-C3 N4 hybrid nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a two-step strategy of one-pot pyrolysis followed by the impregnation method. The structure, phase, morphology and electronic environment of MoO3 , g-C3 N4 and Cu in the composite were determined by various characterization methods. The oxygen vacancies of MoO3 were ascertained by UV-DRS, Raman, and XPS analysis. The formation of the heterostructure was characterised by electrochemical measurements. The photocatalytic performance of the composite was investigated by the water reduction reaction and the reduction of an important inorganic pollutant, Cr(vi)...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Liancheng Bing, Aixiu Tian, Fang Wang, Kaifeng Yi, Xingyuan Sun, Guangjian Wang
Hierarchical SSZ-13 microspheres with abundant mesoporous channels have been successfully synthesized by addition of calcined SSZ-13 crystals in the starting gel in the absence of any organic templates. This strategy not only remarkably reduces the production cost and environmental pollution but also significantly decreases the crystallization time as well as evidently reducing the zeolite crystal sizes in many cases. The synthesized sample was characterized by XRD, BET, ICP, SEM, TEM, TG, and NH3-TPD, which indicates that the organic template free synthesized SSZ-13 exhibits high crystallinity, textural properties, and acidity...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
William Bullock, E Reed Smith, Craig Heligman
A number of recent incidents in the United States resulted in a large number of citizens reporting to the Emergency Room seeking reassurance that they were okay. These citizens are being referred to in the medical community as the "Worried Well." We conducted a review of a transportation incident involving a chemical release and fire, which resulted in over 100 people reporting to the local emergency room for evaluation. Few, if any of the patients seen in the hospital had a potential exposure to the chemical or combustion byproducts...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
E Kondera, B Teodorczuk, K Ługowska, M Witeska
The effects of Roundup (glyphosate-based herbicide) on peripheral blood parameters and hematopoietic tissue cellular composition and activity in common carp juveniles were evaluated. The fish were exposed for 7 days at 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, or 5.0 mg/L of glyphosate. In fish exposed to Roundup, hematological alterations were observed; however, most of them were not directly related to the herbicide concentration. An increase in Ht and MCV, and decrease in Hb, MCH, and MCHC compared to the control were observed. Fish exposed to Roundup showed also a reduction in WBC and oxidative metabolic activity of phagocytes (NBT) compared to the control...
March 14, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Prabha R Nair, Revathy S Ajayakumar, Liji Mary David, Imran A Girach, Kavitha Mottungan
This paper presents the first observational results from an Indian station on the long-term changes in surface ozone (O3 )-a major environmental pollutant and green house gas-over a period of about 40 years. It is based on the in situ measurements carried out during 1973-1975, 1983-1985, 1997-1998 and 2004-2014 at the tropical coastal station, Thiruvananthapuram. From 1973 to 1997, surface O3 shows a slow increase of ~ 0.1 ppb year-1 and a faster increase of 0.4 ppb year-1 afterwards till 2009 after which it showed a levelling off till 2012 followed by a minor decrease...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ying Dai, Lei Chen, Xiaoshu Hou, Zhenyao Shen
Detailed urban drainage data are important for urban nonpoint source (NPS) pollution prediction. However, the difficulties in collecting complete pipeline data usually interfere with urban NPS pollution studies, especially in large-scale study areas. In this study, NPS pollution models were constructed for a typical urban catchment using the SWMM, based on five drainage datasets with different resolution levels. The influence of the data resolution on the simulation results was examined. The calibration and validation results of the higher-resolution (HR) model indicated a satisfactory model performance with relatively detailed drainage data...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Liqun Xing, Lichao Wang, Rui Zhang
It has become a great habit for driving to work in people's daily life in China. In order to understand the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in vehicles and the health risks related to inhalation exposure to VOCs, this study investigated the pollution characteristics and health risks posed by VOCs emitted from interior materials in vehicles. A total of 47 of 62 VOCs were studied, using 23 randomly selected vehicles of different brands in Nanjing city, China. The potential cancer and non-cancer health risks associated with VOC inhalation were assessed based on conventional approaches proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Érica Prado Domingues, Guilherme Gomes Silva, Andrei Barbassa Oliveira, Lorrany Marins Mota, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Edimar Olegário de Campos, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
Workers in several occupational environments are exposed to pollutants. Street vendors, for example, typically work in a high-traffic urban environment and are exposed to numerous air pollutants, including genotoxic substances emitted by motor vehicles. This study examined the genotoxic effects of exposure to air pollution. We conducted cytological analyses to assess frequencies of micronucleated (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells in a sample of exfoliated oral mucosa cells. We compared street vendors and control subjects in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and also collected quantitative information on exposure conditions of all test subjects, including concentrations of particulate matter...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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