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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138669/medical-and-dental-students-attitude-and-practice-of-prevention-strategies-against-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-a-nigerian-university
#1
Oyebimpe Jumoke Adenlewo, Peter Olalekan Adeosun, Olawunmi Adedoyin Fatusi
Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an occupational hazard for them and a leading cause of death globally. Prevention strategies include vaccination and observance of standard precaution. However, available reports claim utilization of the prevention strategies is low. This study evaluated the attitude of the students towards HBV vaccine and cross-infection practices. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out at the College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128345/infectious-gastroenteritis-and-the-need-for-strict-contact-precaution-procedures-in-adults-presenting-in-the-emergency-department-a-danish-register-based-study
#2
Florence Skyum, Vibeke Andersen, Ming Chen, Court Pedersen, Christian Backer Mogensen
BACKGROUND: Acute infectious gastroenteritis requires contact precautions to prevent spreading. On acute admission the cause of diarrhoea is unknown, so the decision of whom to isolate has to be made on clinical information with a risk of inexpedient use of contact precautions. AIM: The aims of the study were to investigate how often gastroenteritis occurs, and thus the isolation indication has to be assessed, in Danish emergency departments, and how often patients have to remain on contact precaution according to the results of the faecal samples...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112710/interventions-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-hospital-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-an-agent-based-modeling-approach-to-evaluate-clinical-effectiveness-in-adult-acute-care-hospitals
#3
Anna K Barker, Oguzhan Alagoz, Nasia Safdar
Background: Despite intensified efforts to reduce hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (C. difficile; HO-CDI), its clinical and economic impacts continue to worsen. Many institutions have adopted bundled interventions that vary considerably in composition, strength of evidence, and effectiveness. Considerable gaps remain in our knowledge of intervention effectiveness and disease transmission, which hinders HO-CDI prevention. Methods: We developed an agent-based model of C...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107767/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-burn-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Mohammad Emaneini, Reza Beigverdi, Willem B van Leeuwen, Hosseinali Rahdar, Morteza Karami-Zarandi, Faride Hosseinkhani, Fereshteh Jabalameli
OBJECTIVES: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has considered as a major cause of infection and mortality in burn patients, especially when nosocomially acquired. Limited information is available on the prevalence of MRSA among burn patient in Iran. METHODS: We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases including: Medline (via Pubmed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Database. Meta-analysis was performed by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat V2...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102989/universal-or-targeted-approach-to-prevent-the-transmission-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-intensive-care-units-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#5
Lidia Kardaś-Słoma, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Anne Perozziello, Camille Pelat, Gabriel Birgand, Etienne Ruppé, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Antoine Andremont, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
OBJECTIVE: Several control strategies have been used to limit the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms in hospitals. However, their implementation is expensive and effectiveness of interventions for the control of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) spread is controversial. Here, we aim to assess the cost-effectiveness of hospital-based strategies to prevent ESBL-PE transmission and infections. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis based on dynamic, stochastic transmission model over a 1-year time horizon...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083219/smokers-who-are-unmotivated-to-quit-and-have-a-child-with-asthma-are-more-likely-to-quit-with-intensive-motivational-interviewing-and-repeated-biomarker-feedback
#6
Belinda Borrelli, Romano Endrighi, S Katharine Hammond, Shira Dunsiger
OBJECTIVE: Smokers who are not motivated to quit are an important group for intervention, particularly if they have children with asthma. Research indicates that unmotivated smokers are less responsive to intensive interventions, although motivation-by-treatment interactions have not been tested. This study examines whether motivation to quit moderates the effect of a cessation induction intervention. METHOD: Parents had an asthmatic child requiring urgent care, and did not have to want to quit smoking to be eligible for the study...
November 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080706/performance-of-an-esbl-pcr-assay-for-rapid-and-direct-detection-of-esbl-carriage-from-rectal-swabs-and-enrichment-broth
#7
Wouter van den Bijllaardt, Marco M Janssens, Anton G Buiting, Anouk E Muller, Johan W Mouton, Jaco J Verweij
BACKGROUND: ESBL screening and contact precautions on patients at high risk for ESBL carriage are considered important infection control measures. Since contact precautions are costly and may negatively impact patient care, rapid exclusion of ESBL carriage and therefore earlier discontinuation of contact precautions are desired. AIM: In the present study, the performance of an ESBL PCR targeting blaCTX-M genes was evaluated as a screening assay for ESBL carriage...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068091/a-serratia-marcescens-outbreak-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-was-successfully-managed-by-rapid-hospital-hygiene-interventions-and-screening
#8
Emilia Åttman, Päivi Korhonen, Outi Tammela, Risto Vuento, Janne Aittoniemi, Jaana Syrjänen, Erja Mattila, Monica Österblad, Reetta Huttunen
AIM: Serratia marcescens is a rare, but important, pathogen in hospital-acquired infections, especially in neonatal units. Outbreaks may cause significant mortality among neonates. This paper describes how an outbreak of Serratia marcescens was handled in a neonatal intensive care unit in Finland in June 2015. METHODS: Tampere University Hospital is the only hospital that offers intensive care for preterm neonates in the Pirkanmaa health district area in Finland...
October 25, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056688/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-an-outbreak-of-cryptosporidiosis-among-veterinary-students
#9
Jackie Benschop, Christina M Booker, Tui Shadbolt, Jenny F Weston
An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among a cohort of 56 veterinary technology and 100 veterinary science students at Massey University over an eight-week period in 2013. This coincided with calving in New Zealand's seasonal dairy farming system and a time when calves with diarrhoea are commonly seen by veterinarians. Laboratory and epidemiological investigations were instigated by MidCentral Public Health Service (MCPHS) in conjunction with the Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences (IVABS) at Massey University...
May 24, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056109/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-control-challenges-with-a-novel-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-a-tertiary-medical-center
#10
Parham Sendi, Adrian Egli, Marc Dangel, Reno Frei, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES To evaluate host characteristics, mode of infection acquisition, and infection control procedures in patients with a positive respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) test result after the introduction of the GenXpert Influenza/RSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS Adults with a positive PCR test result for RSV who were hospitalized in a tertiary academic medical center between January 2015 and December 2016 were included in this study. Our infection control policy applies contact isolation precautions only for immunocompromised patients...
October 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049279/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-related-to-ebola-virus-disease-at-the-end-of-a-national-epidemic-guinea-august-2015
#11
Mohamed F Jalloh, Susan J Robinson, Jamaica Corker, Wenshu Li, Kathleen Irwin, Alpha M Barry, Paulyne Ngalame Ntuba, Alpha A Diallo, Mohammad B Jalloh, James Nyuma, Musa Sellu, Amanda VanSteelandt, Megan Ramsden, LaRee Tracy, Pratima L Raghunathan, John T Redd, Lise Martel, Barbara Marston, Rebecca Bunnell
Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré)...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038269/clinical-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#12
Karlijn van Loon, Anne F Voor In 't Holt, Margreet C Vos
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are major healthcare-associated pathogens and responsible for hospital outbreaks worldwide. To prevent a further increase in CRE infections and to improve infection prevention strategies, it is important to summarize the current knowledge about CRE prevention in hospital settings. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors for CRE acquisition among hospitalized patients. In addition, we summarized environmental sources/reservoirs and the most successful infection prevention strategies related to CRE...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031432/discontinuing-contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Marin L Schweizer, Grace W Ryan, Daniel J Diekema
BACKGROUND: Several single-center studies have suggested that eliminating contact precautions (CPs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) control in nonoutbreak settings has no impact on infection rates. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of discontinuing contact precautions in the acute care setting. METHODS: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Embase through December 2016 for studies evaluating discontinuation of contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020224/approach-to-the-investigation-and-management-of-patients-with-candida-auris-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-yeast
#14
Sharon Tsay, Alexander Kallen, Brendan R Jackson, Tom M Chiller, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread in healthcare settings. It can cause invasive infections with high mortality and is difficult to identify using traditional yeast identification methods. C. auris has been reported in over a dozen countries, and as of July 2017, 99 clinical cases have been reported in the United States;.C. auris can colonize skin and persist in the healthcare environment, allowing for transmission between patients. Prompt investigation and aggressive interventions, including notification of public health agencies, implementation of contact precautions, thorough environmental cleaning and disinfection, infection control assessments, contact tracing and screening contacts to assess for colonization, and retrospective review of microbiology records and prospective surveillance for cases at laboratories are all needed to limit the spread of C...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019307/control-measures-following-a-case-of-imported-lassa-fever-from-togo-north-rhine-westphalia-germany-2016
#15
Clara Lehmann, Matthias Kochanek, Diana Abdulla, Stephan Becker, Boris Böll, Anne Bunte, Daniel Cadar, Arno Dormann, Markus Eickmann, Petra Emmerich, Torsten Feldt, Christina Frank, Jochen Fries, Martin Gabriel, Udo Goetsch, René Gottschalk, Stephan Günther, Michael Hallek, Dieter Häussinger, Christian Herzog, Björn Jensen, Felix Kolibay, Michael Krakau, Georg Langebartels, Toni Rieger, Lars Schaade, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Edgar Schömig, Gundolf Schüttfort, Alexander Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon, Ulrike Wieland, Gerhard Wiesmüller, Timo Wolf, Gerd Fätkenheuer
In a patient transferred from Togo to Cologne, Germany, Lassa fever was diagnosed 12 days post mortem. Sixty-two contacts in Cologne were categorised according to the level of exposure, and gradual infection control measures were applied. No clinical signs of Lassa virus infection or Lassa specific antibodies were observed in the 62 contacts. Thirty-three individuals had direct contact to blood, other body fluids or tissue of the patients. Notably, with standard precautions, no transmission occurred between the index patient and healthcare workers...
September 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017249/characterization-of-aerosols-generated-during-patient-care-activities
#16
Caroline A O'Neil, Jiayu Li, Anna Leavey, Yang Wang, Matthew Hink, Meghan Wallace, Pratim Biswas, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Hilary M Babcock
Background: Questions remain about the degree to which aerosols are generated during routine patient care activities and whether such aerosols could transmit viable pathogens to healthcare personnel (HCP). The objective of this study was to measure aerosol production during multiple patient care activities and to examine the samples for bacterial pathogens. Methods: Five aerosol characterization instruments were used to measure aerosols during 7 patient care activities: patient bathing, changing bed linens, pouring and flushing liquid waste, bronchoscopy, noninvasive ventilation, and nebulized medication administration (NMA)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989527/influenza-outbreak-in-a-canadian-correctional-facility
#17
Jonathan Besney, Danusia Moreau, Angela Jacobs, Dan Woods, Diane Pyne, A Mark Joffe, Rabia Ahmed
Correctional facilities face increased risk of communicable disease transmission and outbreaks. We describe the progression of an influenza outbreak in a Canadian remand facility and suggest strategies for preventing, identifying and responding to outbreaks in this setting. In total, six inmates had laboratory-confirmed influenza resulting in 144 exposed contacts. Control measures included enhanced isolation precautions, restricting admissions to affected living units, targeted vaccination and antiviral prophylaxis...
July 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987641/flocked-nylon-swabs-versus-rodac-plates-for-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-on-environmental-surfaces-in-intensive-care-units
#18
K Okamoto, Y Rhee, M Schoeny, K Lolans, J Cheng, S Reddy, R A Weinstein, M K Hayden, K J Popovich
To compare two culture methods [nylon fiber flocked swabs with broth enrichment versus RODAC ('replicate organism detection and counting') plates] for recovery of multidrug-resistant organisms, 780 environmental surfaces in 63 rooms of patients on contact precautions in four intensive care units at one hospital were examined. Among sites that had at least one positive culture, swab culture with broth enrichment detected the target organisms more frequently than RODAC plates (37.5% vs 26.0%, P = 0.06). There was moderate agreement between the two methods (κ = 0...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984751/bla-oxa48-gene-microorganisms-outbreak-in-a-tertiary-children-s-hospital-over-3-years-2012-2014-case-report
#19
Rafael Herruzo, Guillermo Ruiz, Veronica Perez-Blanco, Sara Gallego, Eduardo Mora, Maria Jose Vizcaino, Felix Omeñaca
RATIONALE: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging problem in children. Nosocomial spread remains the principal risk factor for acquisition of these microorganisms. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We describe an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae OXA48 (KOXA48) in a tertiary children's hospital during the years 2012 to 2014, as well as the preventive measures put in place in colonized and infected cases. DIAGNOSES: We studied, "in vitro," the KOXA48 susceptibility to antiseptics and surface disinfectants...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976995/knowledge-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-ccmv-among-physical-and-occupational-therapists-in-the-united-states
#20
Kathleen M Muldoon, Amy Armstrong-Heimsoth, Jodi Thomas
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva...
2017: PloS One
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