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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345117/candida-auris-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-current-updates-on-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-pathogen
#1
John Osei Sekyere
From 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a multidrug-resistant ascomycete yeast pathogen with the capacity for easy transmission between patients and hospitals, as well as persistence on environmental surfaces. Its association with high mortalities, breakthrough and persistent candidaemia, inconsistencies in susceptibility testing results, misidentification by available commercial identification systems and treatment failure, complicates its management and detection. Within the last nine years, C. auris has been increasingly reported from far-Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, South and North America with substantial fatalities and misidentification...
January 18, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336853/updated-guidelines-on-infection-prevention-in-pediatric-ambulatory-settings
#2
Deborah L McBride
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently released updated guidelines on infection control and prevention in pediatric outpatient settings. Key recommendations include mandatory influenza vaccination for all healthcare workers offered free to all staff, expanded guidance on infection control practices for children with cystic fibrosis, guidance on additional prevention procedures during community outbreaks of infectious diseases and recommendations on improving communication between healthcare facilities when referring potentially contagious patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336847/frequent-contamination-of-nursing-scrubs-is-associated-with-specific-care-activities
#3
Kerri A Thom, Daniel Escobar, Mallory A Boutin, Min Zhan, Anthony D Harris, J Kristie Johnson
BACKGROUND: The objective of this article is to assess health care worker (HCW) and patient care factors associated with bacterial contamination of scrubs. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of critical care HCWs. Participants were given 4 sets of new scrubs; each set was sampled 8 times during the 8-month study period on random days in the last 4 hours of the shift. Total colony counts and presence of prespecified pathogenic bacteria were assessed. Generalized estimating equation was used to identify factors associated with contamination...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331160/reduction-in-rate-of-nosocomial-respiratory-virus-infections-in-a-children-s-hospital-associated-with-enhanced-isolation-precautions
#4
Lorry G Rubin, Nina Kohn, Susan Nullet, Margaret Hill
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital...
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321078/duration-of-contact-precautions-for-acute-care-settings
#5
David B Banach, Gonzalo Bearman, Marsha Barnden, Jennifer A Hanrahan, Surbhi Leekha, Daniel J Morgan, Rekha Murthy, L Silvia Munoz-Price, Kaede V Sullivan, Kyle J Popovich, Timothy L Wiemken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317259/adherence-to-contact-precautions-among-different-types-of-healthcare-workers-through-video-monitoring-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#6
Yuichi Katanami, Kayoko Hayakawa, Takeshi Shimazaki, Yuko Sugiki, Saho Takaya, Kei Yamamoto, Satoshi Kutsuna, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari
BACKGROUND: Contact precautions are required to prevent transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms; however, reports on adherence rates vary. Through video monitoring, we evaluated adherence to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among different types of healthcare workers. METHODS: This study was an observational study conducted in a 781-bed tertiary hospital from July 2016 to March 2017. We installed cameras in areas where staff don PPE. Infection control teams observed the videos and assessed adherence rates...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306883/clinical-decisions-presented-to-patients-in-hospital-encounters-a-cross-sectional-study-using-a-novel-taxonomy
#7
Eirik Hugaas Ofstad, Jan C Frich, Edvin Schei, Richard M Frankel, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Pål Gulbrandsen
OBJECTIVE: To identify and classify all clinical decisions that emerged in a sample of patient-physician encounters and compare different categories of decisions across clinical settings and personal characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive evaluation of hospital encounters videotaped in 2007-2008 using a novel taxonomy to identify and classify clinically relevant decisions (both actions and judgements). PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 372 patients and 58 physicians from 17 clinical specialties in ward round (WR), emergency room (ER) and outpatient (OP) encounters in a Norwegian university hospital...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305281/impact-of-real-time-notification-of-clostridium-difficile-test-results-and-early-initiation-of-effective-antimicrobial-therapy
#8
Christian B Polen, William R Judd, Patrick D Ratliff, Gregory S King
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a prominent nosocomial pathogen and is the most common causative organism of health care-associated diarrhea. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the impact of real-time notification of culture results with rapid antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) intervention in the setting of C difficile infection (CDI). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of real-time notification of detection of toxigenic C difficile by DNA amplification results in patients with confirmed CDI...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286935/neonatal-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-infection
#9
Yoko Shirai, Hiroko Arai, Kazutomo Tamaki, Hiroe Konishi, Yasuhiro Kawase, Norikazu Shimizu, Kazuhiro Tateda, Hitoshi Yoda
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common etiological agent of a life-threatening infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Neonates with very low birth weight and patients with serious diseases are more likely to be exposed to invasive procedures which make them at a high risk of MRSA colonization and infection. Since MRSA colonization is a risk factor for MRSA infection, prevention of MRSA transmission is an important issue in NICUs. NICUs in Japan practice standard contact precautions and active surveillance cultures (ASC) to prevent MRSA transmission...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249218/direct-costs-of-a-contact-isolation-day-a-prospective-cost-analysis-at-a-swiss-university-hospital
#10
Jan A Roth, Claudia Hornung-Winter, Isabel Radicke, Balthasar L Hug, Monika Biedert, Christian Abshagen, Manuel Battegay, Andreas F Widmer
We prospectively evaluated direct costs of contact precautions using on-site observation. Additional mean costs per patient day were calculated for extra materials used, increased workload, and one-off isolation activities. The cost of contact precautions was $158.90 (95% confidence interval, $124.90‒$192.80) per patient day. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:101-103.
January 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248358/risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-colonization-among-patients-admitted-to-obstetrical-units-a-nested-case-control-study
#11
Bing Wang, Kathryn N Suh, Katherine A Muldoon, Natalie Oake, Alan Forster, Karam Ramotar, Virginia R Roth
OBJECTIVE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among obstetrical patients can increase birth complications for both mothers and infants, but little is known about the risk factors for MRSA in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA among obstetrical patients and identify risk factors associated with MRSA colonization. METHODS: This nested case-control study used obstetrical patients with MRSA colonization identified through a universal screening program at The Ottawa Hospital (February 2008-January 2010)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234805/contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms-reply
#12
LETTER
Daniel J Morgan, Richard P Wenzel, Gonzalo Bearman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234802/contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#13
LETTER
Lance R Peterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228133/regional-epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-adult-intensive-care-unit-patients-following-state-mandated-active-surveillance
#14
Michael Y Lin, Mary K Hayden, Rosie D Lyles, Karen Lolans, Louis F Fogg, Alexander J Kallen, Stephen G Weber, Robert A Weinstein, William E Trick
Background: In 2007, Illinois became the first state in the United States to mandate active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The Illinois law applies to intensive care unit (ICU) patients; contact precautions are required for patients found to be MRSA-colonized. However, the effectiveness of a legislated "search and isolate" approach to reduce MRSA burden among critically ill patients is uncertain. We evaluated whether the prevalence of MRSA colonization declined in the 5 years after the start of mandatory active surveillance...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222035/carriage-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-french-hospitals-the-portablse-study
#15
B Pilmis, V Cattoir, D Lecointe, A Limelette, I Grall, A Mizrahi, G Marcade, I Poilane, T Guillard, N Bourgeois Nicolaos, J-R Zahar, A Le Monnier
BACKGROUND: Currently, contact precautions are recommended for patients colonized or infected with extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). Recent studies have challenged this strategy. This study aimed to assess the rate of ESBL-PE faecal carriage among hospitalized patients according to type of hospital ward, and to identify risk factors associated with carriage. METHODS: We conducted a point prevalence study in five different types of hospital wards (medical, surgical, intensive care unit (ICU), after care and rehabilitation and geriatric) in 8 French hospitals...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217187/epidemiologic-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-a-teaching-hospital-a-3-year-experience
#16
Mirian Nicéa Zarpellon, Giselle Fukita Viana, Cecília Saori Mitsugui, Bruno Buranello Costa, Nathalie Kira Tamura, Elisabeth Eyko Aoki, Cesar Helbel, Sheila Alexandra Belini Nishiyama, Silvia Maria Dos Santos Saalfeld, Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim
BACKGROUND: The objective of this prospective study was to verify the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary surveillance program that was implemented in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil, to prevent and control the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. METHODS: The program implemented involved establishment of prevention guidelines, hand-hygiene promotion, isolation of patients colonized or infected by such organisms, enforced contact precautions, and terminal cleaning and disinfection of isolation rooms...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215330/quantifying-hospital-acquired-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-patients-in-dutch-hospitals
#17
Marjolein F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Suzan P van Mens, Manon R Haverkate, Martin C J Bootsma, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Marc J M Bonten
BACKGROUND Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are emerging worldwide. Contact precautions are recommended for known ESBL-E carriers to control the spread of ESBL-E within hospitals. OBJECTIVE This study quantified the acquisition of ESBL-E rectal carriage among patients in Dutch hospitals, given the application of contact precautions. METHODS Data were used from 2 cluster-randomized studies on isolation strategies for ESBL-E: (1) the SoM study, performed in 14 Dutch hospitals from 2011 through 2014 and (2) the R-GNOSIS study, for which data were limited to those collected in a Dutch hospital in 2014...
December 7, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190327/control-of-healthcare-and-community-associated-mrsa-recent-progress-and-persisting-challenges
#18
Andrew Henderson, Graeme R Nimmo
Background: Healthcare adapted meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread to hospitals around the world over 50 years. More recently, other strains of MRSA have emerged with the ability to spread in the community and infect otherwise healthy individuals. Morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA remains high and its control in both the healthcare and community setting has proven challenging. Sources of data: Pubmed (Medline). Areas of agreement: The use of targeted screening and decolonization, hand hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship is supported by the most robust studies, though many studies have implemented bundles for effective healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA control...
November 28, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173225/preventing-respiratory-viral-transmission-in-long-term-care-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-healthcare-personnel
#19
Caroline A O'Neil, Lindsay Kim, Mila M Prill, Nimalie D Stone, Shikha Garg, H Keipp Talbot, Hilary M Babcock
OBJECTIVE To examine knowledge and attitudes about influenza vaccination and infection prevention practices among healthcare personnel (HCP) in a long-term-care (LTC) setting. DESIGN Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey. SETTING An LTC facility in St Louis, Missouri. PARTICIPANTS All HCP working at the LTC facility were eligible to participate, regardless of department or position. Of 170 full- and part-time HCP working at the facility, 73 completed the survey, a 42.9% response rate. RESULTS Most HCP agreed that respiratory viral infections were serious and that hand hygiene and face mask use were protective...
December 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172401/management-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-epidemic-in-an-intensive-care-unit-using-multifaceted-intervention-strategy
#20
Jeongmin Hong, Ok Jeom Jang, Mi Hui Bak, Eun Hwa Baek, Ki-Ho Park, Sun In Hong, Oh-Hyun Cho, In-Gyu Bae
Background/Aims: We evaluated the effects of a multifaceted intervention for controlling a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) epidemic in an intensive care unit (ICU) with no restrictions on carbapenem use. Methods: This study was conducted in a medical ICU between April 2012 and June 2016. The baseline infection control programs included surveillance cultures, contact precautions, and environmental cleaning. However, increases in the detection of CRAB isolates beginning in May 2013 led to the implementation of a new protocol, consisting of universal glove and gown use with daily chlorhexidine bathing for all patients in combination with baseline programs...
November 27, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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