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Contact precautions

Barbara J Wilson, Laura J Zitella, Colleen H Erb, Jackie Foster, Mary Peterson, Sylvia K Wood
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related infections lead to increases in mortality, antibiotic use, and hospital stays. Other adverse outcomes include dose delays and reductions, which can result in suboptimal treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Effective implementation of risk assessment and evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of infection are essential to improve care and reduce costs related to infections in patients with cancer receiving immunosuppressive therapy...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
William Darrow, Chintan Bhatt, Cassandra Rene, Lakisha Thomas
In January 2016, the first case of mosquito-borne Zika infection in the mainland United States was confirmed in Miami, Florida. The first locally acquired case was reported 6 months later. Local public health and school officials began warning students of the outbreak on their return to the classroom in August 2016. In November-December 2016, we conducted a survey of students attending a large public university in Miami to determine how well informed they were about Zika. A multistage sampling design was used to contact teaching assistants and ask them for help in recruiting their students...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Susan Jain, Kate Clezy, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Routine hand hygiene effectively removes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) from the ungloved hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) who are caring for patients under contact precautions, when exposure to bodily fluids is not expected. METHODS: HCWs' ungloved hands were cultured after hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) or soap-and-water wash after routine clinical care of patients known to be colonized or infected with MRSA or VRE...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
V Puro, F M Fusco, C Castilletti, F Carletti, F Colavita, C Agrati, A Di Caro, M R Capobianchi, G Ippolito
Orthopoxviruses spill over from animal reservoirs to accidental hosts, sometimes causing human infections. We describe the surveillance and infection control measures undertaken during an outbreak due to an Orthopoxvirus occurred in January 2015 in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in the province of Rieti, Latio, Italy, which caused a human asymptomatic infection. According to the epidemiological investigation, the human transmission occurred after an unprotected exposure. The contacts among wild, captive and domestic animals and humans, together with decreased immunity against Orthopoxviruses in the community, may put animal handlers at risk of infection, especially after the cessation of smallpox vaccination...
March 7, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Aravind K Bommiasamy, Christopher Connelly, Alexi Moren, Chris Dodgion, Kelsey Bestall, Anthony Cline, Robert G Martindale, Martin A Schreiber, Laszlo N Kiraly
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common cause of healthcare associated infections contributing to morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of the implementation of a CDI bundle along with probiotic utilization. METHODS: A retrospective review of trauma admissions from 2008 to 2014 was performed. The CDI bundle was implemented in stages from 2009 through 2014 with probiotics initiated in 2010. The bundle included changes in cleaning practices, education, screening, and contact precautions...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Abbas Monzavi, Reza Fekrazad, Zahra Chinipardaz, Sima Shahabi, Roohollah Behruzi, Nasim Chiniforush
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate and compare temperature change during implant decontamination with different laser types (carbon dioxide [Co2]/diode/neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet [Nd:YAG]/erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet [Er:YAG]/antimicrobial photodynamic therapy [aPDT]). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty implants were inserted into a bone block cut from a sheep's mandible. A 3 × 8 mm vertical lesion was made at the buccal of each implant. The bone block was placed into a 37°C water bath to simulate the in vivo oral condition...
February 27, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Sandra Fournier, Laure Desenfant, Catherine Monteil, Michèle Nion-Huang, Christian Richard, Vincent Jarlier, The Ap-Hp Outbreaks Control Group
An infection control programme was implemented in a 21,000-bed multihospital institution for controlling the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE), classified as 'emergent extensively drug-resistant bacteria' (eXDR) in France. We evaluated factors associated with outbreaks occurrence (n = 103), which followed 901 eXDR introductions (index case followed or not by secondary cases) from 2010 to 2015. In univariate analysis, knowing that patients had been hospitalised abroad, bacterial species (GRE vs CPE, as well as the CPE Klebsiella pneumoniae compared with the other Enterobacteriaceae species) and type of measures implemented within the first 2 days of hospitalisation were associated with outbreaks occurrence, but not the type of wards where carriers were hospitalised, nor the eXDR colonisation or infection status...
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Joo-Hee Hwang, Jeong Su Park, Eunyoung Lee, Ji Yun Bae, Kyoung-Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Ji Hwan Bang, Eu Suk Kim, Sang Won Park, Nam Joong Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Hong Bin Kim
A 10-month active surveillance study was conducted to assess carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization among patients transferred to hospital from long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Four (1.4%) carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (none CPE), 59 (21%) VRE carriers, and 20 (7.1%) persons colonized with toxigenic C. difficile were identified from 282 rectal specimens. There was no outbreak of VRE infection during the study period...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
F N J Frakking, W S Bril, J C Sinnige, J E van 't Klooster, B A W de Jong, E J van Hannen, M Tersmette
BACKGROUND: A large outbreak of three epidemic vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) clones affected our hospital for almost two years. AIM: To describe the strategy to successfully control this outbreak and eradicate VRE from our hospital. METHODS: Infection control interventions started after detection of VRE in three patients. After ongoing transmission despite isolation precautions, cleaning and contact tracing, hospital-wide surveillance was started...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
V Pérez-Blanco, L Redondo-Bravo, G Ruíz-Carrascoso, J R Paño-Pardo, R Gómez-Gil, A Robustillo-Rodela, J García-Rodríguez, J Mingorance, R Herruzo
The main objective of our study was to describe the epidemiological and microbiological features of an oligoclonal hospital-wide outbreak caused by OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae (OXA-48-PE). OXA-48 is a carbapenemase belonging to Ambler class D beta-lactamases, identified frequently in the Mediterranean and Southern European countries, and associated with several Enterobacteriaceae species. An outbreak of OXA-48-PE with a complex epidemic pattern was detected in January 2011. Initial control measures included contact precautions and the reinforcement of infection control practices, but despite all efforts made, the epidemiological situation hardly changed and new measures were implemented during 2013...
February 20, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Derek T Bernstein, Lee S Haruno, Shiva Daram, John R Dawson, Wei Zhang, Scott B Rosenfeld
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative organism in pediatric septic arthritis, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) being responsible for a significant portion of these infections. Early identification and initiation of proper treatment may improve outcomes by minimizing potential morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify variables obtained on initial patient presentation associated with MRSA septic arthritis. Sixteen factors were retrospectively evaluated in 109 consecutive pediatric patients diagnosed with culture-confirmed septic arthritis...
February 16, 2018: Orthopedics
Christina Weßels, Birgit Strommenger, Ingo Klare, Jennifer Bender, Sabine Messler, Frauke Mattner, Michael Krakau, Guido Werner, Franziska Layer
Objectives: To investigate an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (LRSE) in an interdisciplinary ICU, linezolid consumption and infection control measures taken. Methods: Routine surveillance of nosocomial infections revealed colonization and infection with LRSE affecting 14 patients during a 15 month period. LRSE isolates were analysed with respect to their clonal relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of cfr and/or mutations in the 23S rRNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Michael A Rubin, Matthew H Samore, Anthony D Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
John Gammon, Julian Hunt
The notion of 'isolation' in infectious diseases refers to the possibility of people known or suspected to be infected from the wider population, and has historically been used to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Isolation practices in healthcare settings evolved over the 20th century resulting in a focus on the disruption of known routes of potential transmission. There was renewed attention to infection prevention and control (IPC) in the UK at the turn of the 20th century after high-profile reports acknowledged the importance of IPC as a key indicator of high-quality clinical care, and the impact of healthcare-acquired infections...
February 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Anna K Barker, Benjamin Krasity, Jackson Musuuza, Nasia Safdar
OBJECTIVE To identify facilitators and barriers to implementation of a Clostridium difficile screening intervention among bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the intervention on the rate of hospital-onset C. difficile infection (HO-CDI). DESIGN Before-and-after trial SETTING A 505-bed tertiary-care medical center PARTICIPANTS All 5,357 patients admitted to the BMT and general medicine wards from January 2014 to February 2017 were included in the study. Interview participants included 3 physicians, 4 nurses, and 4 administrators...
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sachiko Nakamura, Koji Wada, Naoki Yanagisawa, Derek R Smith
BACKGROUND: In 2020, Japan will host the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020 (Tokyo 2020) which will involve a large population influx from various countries to Tokyo, the most populated city in Japan. We summarize the potential health risks for visitors to Tokyo 2020, related to communicable disease risks and other health threats, based on recent national and local surveillance reports. METHODS: We reviewed up-to-date surveillance reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Tokyo Metropolitan Infectious Disease Surveillance Center...
February 2, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Erik R Dubberke, Carlos Mejia-Chew
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare associated infection, and C. difficile infection (CDI) is associated with significant costs, morbidity, and mortality. One obstacle to preventing CDI is lack of high quality data on interventions to prevent CDI. This has led some to focus on areas, such as method of hand hygiene, unlikely to impact CDI incidence as much as others, such as contact precautions. In addition, existing strategies, although effective, do have limitations. Another challenge is the ability to rapidly, and accurately, diagnose CDI...
January 22, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
John Osei Sekyere
From 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a multidrug-resistant ascomycete yeast pathogen with the capacity for easy transmission between patients and hospitals, as well as persistence on environmental surfaces. Its association with high mortalities, breakthrough and persistent candidaemia, inconsistencies in susceptibility testing results, misidentification by available commercial identification systems and treatment failure, complicates its management and detection. Within the last nine years, C. auris has been increasingly reported from far-Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, South and North America with substantial fatalities and misidentification...
January 18, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Deborah L McBride
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently released updated guidelines on infection control and prevention in pediatric outpatient settings. Key recommendations include mandatory influenza vaccination for all healthcare workers offered free to all staff, expanded guidance on infection control practices for children with cystic fibrosis, guidance on additional prevention procedures during community outbreaks of infectious diseases and recommendations on improving communication between healthcare facilities when referring potentially contagious patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Kerri A Thom, Daniel Escobar, Mallory A Boutin, Min Zhan, Anthony D Harris, J Kristie Johnson
BACKGROUND: The objective of this article is to assess health care worker (HCW) and patient care factors associated with bacterial contamination of scrubs. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of critical care HCWs. Participants were given 4 sets of new scrubs; each set was sampled 8 times during the 8-month study period on random days in the last 4 hours of the shift. Total colony counts and presence of prespecified pathogenic bacteria were assessed. Generalized estimating equation was used to identify factors associated with contamination...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
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