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Cervix cancer prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325688/current-and-emerging-molecular-tests-for-human-papillomavirus-related-neoplasia-in-the-genomic-era
#1
REVIEW
Sixto M Leal, Margaret L Gulley
Laboratory tests have a key role in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven carcinomas and in guiding therapeutic interventions. An understanding of the virology, immunology, and carcinogenesis of HPV is essential for choosing appropriate diagnostic test modalities and developing new and even more effective cancer prevention strategies. HPV infects basal epithelial cells on multiple surfaces and induces carcinoma primarily in the cervix and the oropharynx. HPV types are stratified as high risk or low risk based on their carcinogenic potential, driven largely by viral interference with cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response to promote continuous cell division while thwarting apoptosis, which enables mutation accumulation...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277144/molecular-tests-potentially-improving-hpv-screening-and-genotyping-for-cervical-cancer-prevention
#2
Ana Gradíssimo, Robert D Burk
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers can be averted by type-specific vaccination (primary prevention) and/or through detection and ablation of precancerous cervical lesions (secondary prevention). This review presents current challenges to cervical cancer screening programs, focusing on recent molecular advances in HPV testing and potential improvements on risk stratification. Areas covered: High-risk (HR)-HPV DNA detection has been progressively incorporated into cervix cancer prevention programs based on its increased sensitivity...
February 20, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265721/association-between-type-2-diabetes-and-risk-of-cancer-mortality-a-pooled-analysis-of-over-771-000-individuals-in-the-asia-cohort-consortium
#3
Yu Chen, Fen Wu, Eiko Saito, Yingsong Lin, Minkyo Song, Hung N Luu, Prakash C Gupta, Norie Sawada, Akiko Tamakoshi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Woon-Puay Koh, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yasutake Tomata, Kemmyo Sugiyama, Sue K Park, Keitaro Matsuo, Chisato Nagata, Yumi Sugawara, You-Lin Qiao, San-Lin You, Renwei Wang, Myung-Hee Shin, Wen-Harn Pan, Mangesh S Pednekar, Shoichiro Tsugane, Hui Cai, Jian-Min Yuan, Yu-Tang Gao, Ichiro Tsuji, Seiki Kanemura, Hidemi Ito, Keiko Wada, Yoon-Ok Ahn, Keun-Young Yoo, Habibul Ahsan, Kee Seng Chia, Paolo Boffetta, Wei Zheng, Manami Inoue, Daehee Kang, John D Potter
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of the study were to evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes and the risk of death from any cancer and specific cancers in East and South Asians. METHODS: Pooled analyses were conducted of 19 prospective population-based cohorts included in the Asia Cohort Consortium, comprising data from 658,611 East Asians and 112,686 South Asians. HRs were used to compare individuals with diabetes at baseline with those without diabetes for the risk of death from any cancer and from site-specific cancers, including cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, colon, rectum, liver, bile duct, pancreas, lung, breast, endometrium, cervix, ovary, prostate, bladder, kidney and thyroid, as well as lymphoma and leukaemia...
March 7, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223433/global-cancer-in-women-burden-and-trends
#4
Lindsey A Torre, Farhad Islami, Rebecca L Siegel, Elizabeth M Ward, Ahmedin Jemal
There are striking disparities in the global cancer burden in women, yet few publications highlight cancer occurrence in this population, particularly for cancers that are not sex-specific. This paper, the first in a series of two, summarizes the current burden, trends, risk factors, prevention, early detection, and survivorship of all cancers combined and seven sites (breast, cervix, uterine corpus, ovary, colorectum, lung, and liver) that account for about 60% of the cancer burden among women worldwide, using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223142/glucose-capped-silver-nanoparticles-induce-cell-cycle-arrest-in-hela-cells
#5
Elisa Panzarini, Stefania Mariano, Cristian Vergallo, Elisabetta Carata, Gian Maria Fimia, Francesco Mura, Marco Rossi, Viviana Vergaro, Giuseppe Ciccarella, Marco Corazzari, Luciana Dini
This study aims to determine the interaction (uptake and biological effects on cell viability and cell cycle progression) of glucose capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-G) on human epithelioid cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cells, in relation to amount, 2×10(3) or 2×10(4) NPs/cell, and exposure time, up to 48h. The spherical and well dispersed AgNPs (30±5nm) were obtained by using glucose as reducing agent in a green synthesis method that ensures to stabilize AgNPs avoiding cytotoxic soluble silver ions Ag(+) release...
February 20, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111859/cancer-control-a-global-perspective
#6
I Olver
Disparities in cancer control exist in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many countries do not have cancer registries to record incidence, mortality and prevalence and are reliant on Globocan estimates of their cancer burden. Poorer cancer control within and between countries occurs in those living remotely from urban centres, those in a low socioeconomic group and some ethnic groups who have lifestyle and belief systems which impact on cancer control. High-income countries generally have population screening programmes for cervix, breast and bowel cancer...
January 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109160/antibiotics-for-infection-prevention-after-excision-of-the-cervical-transformation-zone
#7
REVIEW
Chumnan Kietpeerakool, Bandit Chumworathayi, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Butsakorn Ussahgij, Pisake Lumbiganon
BACKGROUND: Excision of the transformation zone of the cervix is the most commonly used approach to treat cervical precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)) to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer. As the excision of the transformation zone leaves a raw area on the cervix, there is a risk of infection following the procedure. The incidence of infection after cold knife conization (CKC) is 36%, whereas the incidence for large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ, also known as loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP)) is much lower (0...
January 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053902/human-papilloma-virus-in-oral-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Soung Min Kim
Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer...
December 2016: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966538/nqo1-inhibits-proteasome-mediated-degradation-of-hif-1%C3%AE
#9
Eun-Taex Oh, Jung-Whan Kim, Joon Mee Kim, Soo Jung Kim, Jae-Seon Lee, Soon-Sun Hong, Justin Goodwin, Robin J Ruthenborg, Myung Gu Jung, Hae-June Lee, Chul-Ho Lee, Eun Sung Park, Chulhee Kim, Heon Joo Park
Overexpression of NQO1 is associated with poor prognosis in human cancers including breast, colon, cervix, lung and pancreas. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-tumorigenic capacities of NQO1 have not been fully elucidated. Here we show a previously undescribed function for NQO1 in stabilizing HIF-1α, a master transcription factor of oxygen homeostasis that has been implicated in the survival, proliferation and malignant progression of cancers. We demonstrate that NQO1 directly binds to the oxygen-dependent domain of HIF-1α and inhibits the proteasome-mediated degradation of HIF-1α by preventing PHDs from interacting with HIF-1α...
December 14, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933401/improvement-of-abnormal-vaginal-flora-in-ugandan-women-by-self-testing-and-short-use-of-intravaginal-antimicrobials
#10
G Donders, G Bellen, F Donders, J Pinget, I Vandevelde, T Michiels, J Byamughisa
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897023/-current-knowledge-about-hpv-infection
#11
A Mladěnka, A Kubečková, J Sláma
OBJECTIVE: Overview of current data on HPV infection. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital in Ostrava, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General University Hospital in Prague. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes anogenital disorders...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879493/socioeconomic-status-and-site-specific-cancer-incidence-a-bayesian-approach-in-a-french-cancer-registries-network-study
#12
Joséphine Bryere, Olivier Dejardin, Ludivine Launay, Marc Colonna, Pascale Grosclaude, Guy Launoy
The aim of this study was to identify and compare cancer sites whose incidence is influenced by social deprivation. The study population comprised 189 144 cases of cancer diagnosed between 2006 and 2009, recorded in member registries of the French Network of Cancer Registries. Social environment was assessed at an aggregate level using the European Deprivation Index. The association between incidence and socioeconomic status was assessed by a geographical Bayesian Poisson model enabling a reduction of the overall variability and smoothing of the relative risks by sharing information provided by multiple geographic units...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865220/-efficacy-of-the-vaccines-against-human-papillomavirus-in-women-older-than-24-years-in-the-cervix-cancer-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Jaime Pimenta Ribeiro, Isabel Borges
INTRODUCTION: Cervix cancer is the fourth most common female cancer and the second most frequent in women aged 15 to 44 years. The infection by the human papillomavirus is a necessary condition in almost all of cervix cancer cases; it is a sexually transmitted disease and all women sexually active are at risk of being infected. There are currently three vaccines against human papillomavirus, and despite of the efficacy being well proven in woman aged up to 25 years, it is not well established in older ages...
June 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864489/protecting-women-against-human-papillomavirus-benefits-barriers-and-evidence-based-strategies-to-increase-vaccine-uptake
#14
Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Bridget E Hochwalt
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection significantly impacts women, as it can cause cancers and precancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, oropharynx, and anus. However, many of these cancers can be prevented by HPV vaccination. Despite evidence of vaccine effectiveness and safety, vaccination rates remain low. Evidence-based strategies should be utilized to reduce barriers and increase vaccination rates.
November 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832048/vital-signs-disparities-in-tobacco-related-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-united-states-2004-2013
#15
S Jane Henley, Cheryll C Thomas, Saida R Sharapova, Behnoosh Momin, Greta M Massetti, Deborah M Winn, Brian S Armour, Lisa C Richardson
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use causes at least 12 types of cancer and is the leading preventable cause of cancer. METHODS: Data from the United States Cancer Statistics dataset for 2004-2013 were used to assess incidence and death rates and trends for cancers that can be caused by tobacco use (tobacco-related cancers: oral cavity and pharynx; esophagus; stomach; colon and rectum; liver; pancreas; larynx; lung, bronchus, and trachea; kidney and renal pelvis; urinary bladder; cervix; and acute myeloid leukemia) by sex, age, race, ethnicity, state, county-level poverty and educational attainment, and cancer site...
November 11, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822455/burden-of-cancers-attributable-to-infectious-agents-in-nigeria-2012-2014
#16
Michael Odutola, Elima E Jedy-Agba, Eileen O Dareng, Emmanuel Aja Oga, Festus Igbinoba, Theresa Otu, Emmanuel Ezeome, Ramatu Hassan, Clement A Adebamowo
INTRODUCTION: Infections by certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites have been identified as risk factors for some cancers. In Nigeria, like many other developing countries, infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. While there are data on the incidence of different cancers in Nigeria, there has been no study of cancers attributable to infections. This study was carried out to determine the burden of cancers attributable to infections using data from two population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in Nigeria...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806357/virtues-and-weaknesses-of-dna-methylation-as-a-test-for-cervical-cancer-prevention
#17
REVIEW
Attila T Lorincz
Epigenetics is the study of heritable and non-heritable genetic coding that is additive to information contained within classical DNA base pair sequences. Differential methylation has a fundamental role in the development and outcome of malignancies, chronic and degenerative diseases and aging. DNA methylation can be measured accurately and easily via various molecular methods and has become a key technology for research and healthcare delivery, with immediate roles in the elucidation of disease natural history, diagnostics and drug discovery...
2016: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804040/oncologic-and-obstetric-outcomes-and-complications-during-pregnancy-after-fertility-sparing-abdominal-trachelectomy-for-cervical-cancer-a-retrospective-review
#18
Kaoru Okugawa, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Kenzo Sonoda, Eisuke Kaneki, Yoshiaki Kawano, Nobuhiro Hidaka, Katsuko Egashira, Yasuyuki Fujita, Hideaki Yahata, Kiyoko Kato
BACKGROUND: Trachelectomy was developed as a fertility-sparing surgery for early-stage cervical cancer in patients of childbearing age. The purpose of this study is to evaluate oncologic and obstetric outcomes and complications after abdominal trachelectomy. METHODS: We began to perform abdominal trachelectomy in 2005. Our institutional review board approved this clinical study, and fully informed consent was obtained from each patient. The medical records of patients who underwent trachelectomy were retrospectively reviewed...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756270/projecting-productivity-losses-for-cancer-related-mortality-2011-2030
#19
Alison Pearce, Cathy Bradley, Paul Hanly, Ciaran O'Neill, Audrey Alforque Thomas, Michal Molcho, Linda Sharp
BACKGROUND: When individuals stop working due to cancer this represents a loss to society - the loss of productivity. The aim of this analysis was to estimate productivity losses associated with premature mortality from all adult cancers and from the 20 highest mortality adult cancers in Ireland in 2011, and project these losses until 2030. METHODS: An incidence-based method was used to estimate the cost of cancer deaths between 2011 and 2030 using the Human Capital Approach...
October 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745677/u-s-burden-of-cancer-by-race-and-ethnicity-according-to-disability-adjusted-life-years
#20
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Chun Chieh Lin, Jan Willem W Coebergh, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: In the U.S., people of different races/ethnicities have differences in cancer incidence, mortality, survival, stage at diagnosis, and receipt of treatment, resulting in variances in cancer burden. The burden of cancer in 2011 was assessed by race/ethnicity for 24 cancers using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). METHODS: In 2014-2015, DALYs and their two components were estimated (years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability) by race/ethnicity using population-based cancer registry data collected in 2013, vital statistics, and literature reviews...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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